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ILLUSTRATIONS 



OF THE 



New Zealand Flora. 



EdITKI) hv 

T. F. CHEESEMAN, F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Curator of the Auckland Mushum. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 

W. B. HEMSLEY, F.R.S., 

Late Assistant Director of the Royal (iAKnENs. Kew. 



THE PLATES DRAWN BY 

MISS MATILDA SMITH. 

Of the Royal Herbarium, Kew. 

L.IBKAKT 
new YO«K 

VOL. II. fJAKUHN 



Published under the Authority of the Government of New Zealand. 



Wellington, N.Z. 
John Mackay. Government Printer, Wellington. 



QK4(>0 
,C47r 

V. 2 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO THE PLATES OF VOLUME I. 



csi 
I 



HANUNCin.ACIO/K. 

1. Clematis indivisa. Willd. 

2. (Jlematis pavvilldm. A. ('inm. 

3. RanuiKulus Lyallii, Hook. J. 

4. Ranunculus nivicdla. Hook. 

5. RanuniuluR Enysii, T. Kirk. 

6. Ranunculus scvic()|)liyllus. Hook. j. 
1. Ranunculus iUHl;liiii(licuK. A. Gray. 

MAIiSOI.IACK/i;. 

8. Dvimvs Tvavcvsii, 7'. Kirk. 



( 'ktcifkr.k. 
9. Nasturtium latcsiliqua, C/iecsnii. 

10. Lepidiuni (ilevaceuni, Forst. 

11. Lepidiiini si.'^ynibrioides, Hook. J. 

12. Notdtlilaspi australe. Hook. j. 

V'lOLACE^O. 

13. Melicytus raniiiiorus, For.sl. 

14. Hymenanthern novse-zelandise, HeinM. 

I'itthsi'uracea:. 

15. Pittosporuni ellipticuni, T. Kirk. 

16. Pittospnvuui crassifdliuni, A. Cnnv. 

17. Pittosixii-uni Kirkii. Hook. f. 

Caryophyllacea;. 

18. Stellaiia Rougliii. Hook. /. 

19. Stellaria i;racilenta. Hook. f. 
(Colobanthu.s acicularis. Hook. J. 

' I Colobanthus canaiioulatus. T. Kirk. 



Mai.vace.«. 

21. PIa,i»iantliu.s cymiisus, T. Kirk. 

Tihacea;. 

22. Entelea avbovescen.s, R. Br. 

23. Aristotelia raceninsa. Hook, /. 

24. ElaM>cav])us dcntatus. Vnhl. 

(tKRANIACE/K. 

25. Geranium Travcr.sii. Hook. J. 

RlTACE^. 

26. Phel)aliuni nudum. Hook. 

27. Melicope ternata. For.-il. 



Rham.nace.e. 

28. Pciniadt'iiis EdficHeyi. Hook. J 

A.NACARDIACE/f;. 

29. Coiyn<K;ar])US licvi<iata, Foml. 

C'oriariacea:. 

30. Ooriaria ruscifolia, Linv. 



31 . (JoralloBpartiuin crassicaule, Armslr. 
31a. Chordospai'tiuni Stevpnsoni, Cheeseni. 

32. Carmichffilia Wiilianisii, T. Kirk. 

33. Carniichaelia grandifiova. Hook. f. 

34. Carniichselia (idoiata. Col. 

35. Carmiclia'lia <>rapilis. Art>istr. 

36. Notospaitiuni Cainiichaeliee. Hook. J. 



Rosavka:. 

37. RuiniK parvuN, Buch. 

38. Geuni unifloruni. Buck. 

39. Acsena novBe-zelandise, T. Kirk. 



SAXlFRAGACE.ai;. 

40. I.xerba bif.xioides. A. Cumi. 

41. C'arpf)detus serratus, Forst. 

42. Ackania rossefolia, A. Cunri. 

43. Weininaiuiia vacenio.sa. Livn.j. 



44 



45 



CrASSULACE:^. 

(Tillaea nioschata, D.C. 
[Tillsea Sieberiana. SchnlH. 



Drcseracea;. 
jDrosera Arctui'i, Hook. 
(Drosera pygmsea, D.C. 



HAI.ORAGACEiE. 

46. MyriopliylUini vobustum. Hook. j. 



Myrtace.*. 

47. Lei)tospfvnuini Sinclairii. T. Kirk. 

48. Metrosideros ditl'usa. Smith. 

49. Metrosideros Parkinsonii, Buch. 

50. Metrosideros albiflora. Solavd. 



OXACiKACK.r.. 

01. Kpilol)iun! pallidiflovuiii. Sokiiid. 
.j2. Epiloliium rotuiidifoliuni. For.st. 
53. Kpil()l)iuiii brevipcs. Hook. f. 
51. lipilohiiim luelanocaiiloii, Hook. 
55. Kpilol)iuui "labelluni. For.sl. 

50. Fuchsia proouinlM'iis. R. ('nun. 

FiCOIDK.K. 

57. TetiafiDiiia tvitrviia. Rimks <(■ Sol. 

rMBKi.Lii-KK.i-:. 

•5iS. Hydv()cotvle eloni»ata, A. Cmni. 

5i). Azorella Haastii. Bcnlh. d: Hook. J. 

()0. Azorella Roughii. Benlli. <l- Hook. J. 

(il. Aripliylla Huokcvi. T. Kirk. 

02. Aciphylla 'rownsimii, (_'heef<iii. 

03. Aciphylla Monmi. Hook. j. 

64. Co.xella Dieffenbachii. Cln'es<-m. 

65. Ligusticuni Haastii. /'. Mm-U. 
00. Ligusticuni cavnosulum, Hook. f. 
07. Ligu.^ticuin pililevuiii. Hook. f. 
0<S. Angelica (iingidiuni. Hook. f. 
Oil. Angelica vossefolia. Hook. 

Araliac'i;.!;. 

70. Stilbocavpa Lyallii, T Kirk. 

71. Panax lineave, Hook. 

72. Panax anonialuni. Hook. 

73. Meryta Sinclaiiii. Scrm. 

71. Pseudopanax discdlov, Harm.''. 

75. P.seudopanax chathaniicuni. T. Kirk. 

C'o[;^•Al'li.^■;. 
70. Coi'ukia buddleoides. A. Cinni. 
77. (Triselinia lucida. Foyl. 

Capri I'-oi.iACK.i:. 
IX. ,\l.H(Miii,suii:i niacvoplivlla. A. ('"itii. 

Ri'BiAci':.*:. 
7il. C'oprosnia lucida. For.\l. 
HO. Copi'osma serrulata, Hook. J. 
S\ . C'oprosnia aieolata, Chceseni. 

82. Coprosnia rhamnoides, A. Vmin. 

83. Copvosma fcetidissiina. Forst. 

84. Coprosma acerosa. A. Cunn. 



85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 

102. 

103. 

104. 

105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 

109. 

110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 



117. 



( U.MI'OMT.l':. 

Oleavia insigiii.';. Hook. ]. 
Oleavia semidentata. Deciic. 
Olearia chathaiuica. T. Kirk. 
Oleai'ia iiitida. Hook. J.' 
Olearia lacunosa. Hook. J . 
Olearia moschata. Hook. J. 
Olearia virgata. Hook. J . 
Pleiu-ophylhmi Hookeri. BhcIi. 
Celmisia lateralis, Bucli. 
Celinisia Haastii, Hook. J. 
Celmisia Traver.sii, Hook. J. 
Celmisia petiolata, Hook. J. 
Celmisia viscosa. Hook. J. 
Celmisia Hectoii, Hook. J. 
Celmisia glandulnsa. Hook. J. 
Haastia Sindairii, Hook. J. 
(xnaphalium subrigiduni. Col. 
(Raoulia Monroi, Hook. J. 
jRaoulia subsericea. Hook. f. 
Raoidia eximia, Hook. J. 
(Raoulia Hectori. Hook. J. 
[Raoulia Petriensis. T. Kirk. 
Heliclirysuni grandiceps. Hook. J. 
Cotida atrata, Hook. j. 
Cassinia ania'na, Cheesem. 
Cotula pyrethrifolia, Hook. J. 
(Abrotanella linearis, Bcrygr. 
(Abrotanella pusilla. Hook. J. 
Erechtites glabresceiis. T. Kirk. 
Senecio Lyallii. Hook. j. 
Senecio Hectori, Buck. 
Senecio cassinioides, Hook. j. 
Senecio Bidwillii, Hook. f. 
Senecio geniinatus. T. Kirk. 
Son.hus uraiidifcilius, T. Kirk. 

Styljdiack^;. 
Kovsti'ra tt'iiella, Hook. f. 



(JOODKNIACE.*;. 

118. Sca'vola gracilis. Hook. f. 

( AMPA.NUI.ACKyi:. 

119. Pratia physaloides, Hewnl. 

■ «^ (Pratia macrodoii. Hook. f. 

1 20. ' , . 

I Lobelia Roughii. Hook. J. 

121. Wahleiibergia sa.xicola. A. D.C. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO THE PLATES OF VOLUME IL 



Euif'ACK.K. 

122. (Jaultlieria perplexa. T. Kirk. 
12:1 (iiuiltliovia oppositifiilin. HixiL J. 

El'ACRIDACK.l;. 

121. (Jyatliodes acerosa, R. Br. 
12.j. Cyathodes Colensoi. H'kiI.. J. 

126. LexK'opooon fascirulatus. .(. Ni'li. 

127. Epaeris alpina. Hook. f. 
12s. Airheria rareiiiosa. Hook. J. 

12S). Draeophyllum latifoliuin. A. Ciinn. 

130. Draeophyllum Townsoiii. CIh'i'spih. 

131. Dvacopliylluiu rccmvimi. Hook. J. 

132. Draeoplivllniii suUulatuin. Honk. j. 

Sapotace.e. 

133. Sidero.xyl.in Cdstatiiiii. F. .M ,>i-tl . 

Oneace.e. 
131. (Hea lanccolata. Hook. J. 

Apocyxack.e. 
135. Parsonsia het(>v(ipli\lla. A. i'min. 

jjOliAXIAI'E.E. 

1.3<i. (Teiiii)Stc)ina Hmistrifnliiiin. .1. Cuvn. 

(lEXTIAXACEyE. 

137. Geiitiana jivacifolia. Chepseiii. 

138. CTeiitiana cliathaniica, Cheesem. " 

139. (jrentiaua Townsoni. Cheesem. 

140. Gentiana bellidifolia. Hook. J. 

141. (Tentiana Speiirevi. T. Kirk. 

BoRACl.NACE.K. 

142. Myosotis Foisteri, Lehin. 

143. Myosotis explaiiata, Cheesem. 

144. M3'osotis MonToi, Cheesem. 

145. Myosotis concinua, Cheesem. 
140. Mviisotidiuiii iiohilp. Hook. 

SfKurHl'I.AHIACK.E 

147. (Jaloeolaria Sinclaii-ii, Hook. f. 

148. Veronica divergeus. Cheesem. 

149. Veronica leiophvlla, Cheesem. 

150. Veronica ri<;idula. Cheesem. 

151. Veronica Matthewsii. Cheesem. 

152. Veronica ({ibbsii, T. Kirk. 

153. Veronica tetragona. Hook. 

154. Veronica cupressoides. Hook. f. 

155. Veronica epacridea. Hook. j. 

156. Veronica niacrantha. Hook. j. 

157. Veronica Bidwillii. Hook. j. 

158. Ourisia sessilifolia, Hook. J. 



IjEK'I'iiu'lakiace^';. 
I Utricularia novse-zclaiidise, Z/o(//.-._/. 
" I Utricularia delicatiila. Cheesem. 

Uesxerace.e. 

160. RlialMlotliaiiuius Solandri. A. Cuim. 

\'eki;e.\a('Ej«. 

161. Vite.x hicciis. 7'. Kifk. 

Labiat.e. 

162. Scutellaria udvae-zi'laiulia;. Hook. J. 

I^I.AXTAUIXACEiE. 

163. Plautafi(. Raoulii. Decne. 

('HEXOPOUIACE/i:. 

164. ('l)eiiiipndiuni triaudruni. Forsi. 

P(II.V(iUXA('EyE. 

165. Muelilciilieckia axillari.». Waif. 

Chlurasthace^. 

166. Ascarina lucida. Hook. j. 

MoXI.MiACE.E. 

167. Hedycarya arborca. Forst. 

Laukace.^s. 

168. Beilschuiiedia Tarairi. Bevth. A- Hook. J. 

169. Litsaea calicaris. Beiith. d- Hook. J. 

PRUTEACE.li. 

170. Persiiouia Toru. A. Cirim. 

171. Kniglitia excel.sa. li. Br. 

Thymeueace^. 

172. Pinielea loiigifolia, Banks d- Sol. 

173. Pinielea buxifolia, Hook. f. 

174. Pinielea arenaria. A. C'lnn. 

175. Pinielea Suteri. T. Kirk. 

LoRAXTHACEiE. 

176. Elytraiithc Adaiiusii. Engl. 

Santalace.*. 

177. FusanuK Cuniiinghaniii. Hook. J. 

Balaxophorace^. 

178. Dactylantluis Taylori. Hook. j. 

EUPHORBIAC'E.^. 

179. Honialantlius polyaiidnis, Cheesem. 



Urticack^. 

180. Paratrophis lipterophylla. Blame. 

181. Boehiiicria dealKata, C/iecscm. 

C^UI'ULIFKR/E. 

182. Fagus apiculata. Col. 

183. Fagus cliff.. i-tinidcs. Hoi,/.-. J. 

i 'oXII-'KK.li. 

LSI. A.ualhis Mus1 rails. Slewl. 
'['.\S.\CEJE. 

185. Podocarpus 'I'otara. D. Don. 

186. Podocarpus nivalis, Hooh-. 

187. Dacrvdium Bidwillii, Hook.f. 

188. Dacryiliuin iutenuedimn. T. Kirk. 

189. Daci'vdium laxifoliuiii. Hook. J. 

190. Phylliicladus rrich(iinan(iide,s, D. Don. 

BrRMANNIACE.K. 

191. Biij^iiisia Hillii. Cheesevi. 



191. 
192 

193 

194 

195 
196 

197 
198 
199 



Orchidaceje. 
Bullxiphylluni tuljerciilatuiti. Col. 
( Thelyiiiitra loiifiifolia, Forsl. 
( Thelymitra ])ulcliella, Hook. J. 
I Thelymitra iihitliira. Hook. J. 
(Prasophylluiii ('.(ileiisni. Hook. /. 
JPrasopliyllmii puniihiin. Hook. J. 
(Pterustylis trullifolia. Hook.f. 
Ptevostylis Banksil, R. Br. 
Pterostylis foliat;,. Hook. /. 
ILyperaiitlius atitai-c-ticiis. Hook. f. 
(Oaladi'iiia lii folia. Hook. f. 
(Cliilojrlonis ciiniuta. Hook. J. 
(TowiiSDiiia deflcxa. Clteencvi. 
(('oi-ysantlifs Mattli(>\vsii. Chrc.^rm. 
(('(ii-ysanflics nl.loiiua. Hunk. j. 



Lm.i.\ck.k. 

200. Kliipoi^ouuiii .scainleiis, Forgl. 

201. Luzuriaga margiiiata, Benth. & Hook. f. 

202. Bull)in.-lln Hookcvi. R,',:th. <{• Hook.f: 

•I r\('.\(i:.K. 
20:i Ho.stkovia macilis. Hook. j. 
^1 (Liuula ColiMisni, Honk. I . 

|ljii;^iila ('li<>i',si-niaiili. finr/ii'ii . 

Sl'.\l!(i.\.\IACK,i;. 

20.j. iSpai'uaniiini ant i|)(Kliiiii. (Iriich. 

Naiauack.i;. 

206. Potamogctoii (Jhe.eseiiianii. .{. fienn. 

207. Potamojjeton ocliveatus, Hooul. 



Restiace.i:. 

208. Lepyrodia Traversii. F. Mnell. 

t^PERACKJ.. 

209. SchoBiius Cavsei, Cheesem. 

210. Cladiuiu coinplaiiatinii, Berygr. 

211. Cladium Sinclairii, Hook. J. 

212. Gahnia procera. Fomt. 

213. Uncinia ceespitosa. Bool I. 

214. Carex traehyrarpa. Clu'csciti. 

215. Carex Raoulii, Bootl. 

216. Carex deourtata, Chn-seDi. 

217. Carex litoro.sa. Bailey. 

(Iramine.t.. 

218. liiiperata Iheesenianii. Hark. 

219. Ehrharta (.'oleiisoi. Hook. J. 

220. Hierucliloe Fraseri, Hook. J. 

221. Siiiiplicia laxa, 1\ Kirk. 

222. Agrt).stis Dyeri. Piirie. 

223. Deyeuxia Billardieri. Kmith. 

224. Deschampsia tenella, I'ctrie. 

225. Trisetum Youngii, Hook. /. 

226. Danthdiiia Raoiilii, lileud. 

227. Daiithoiiia australis, Buck. 

228. K'eleiia Kurt/.ii, Hack. 

229. Poa polyphylla, Had-. 

230. Poa dipsacea. Fetrie. 

231. Poa Cheesenianii. Hack. 

232. Poa Kirkii. Biicli. 

233. Festuca oviiia. Liiiii. lar. novai-zelauciia 

Hack. 

234. Agropynmi avi.statuni. Ch(r.'<eti(. 

Ki I. K ■>;.■<. 
OQ^ ! Hynieiiopliylhini ati-oviveiis, Col. 
(Hv)iieiiopliylliiiii Maliiigii. Aletl. 
( T)-icliomane.s Lyallii. Hook, d- Bak. 
' (Trichoinaiies Coleiisoi. Hook. J. 

237. Davallia Ta.smani. Clieciem. 

238. Lindsaya vividi.s. Col. 

239. Pteris w'ali.'iula. A. liirh. 

240. Loiuaria duva, Moore. 

241. Loiiiaria nigra, Col. 

242. Loniaria Fraseri, A. Cmni. 

243. Aspleiiium Hookeriainiin. Cnl. 

244. Aspidiiini rystostegia. Hook. 

245. Neplirodiuni hispidum. Hook. 

246. Polypodiuni dictyopteris, Mftt. 

247. Poly])(>diuni iiovsc-zelandia'. Baker. 

248. Lygodium articiil.atuni. .4. Rich. 

249. Tod.'a siipt-i-ha. Col. 



250. Lycop 



LVCOFOUIAC'K K. 

liuin ranuilcsiin'. T. Kirk. 



Plate J22. 




GAULTHERIA PERPLEXA, T.Ktrk. 



Platk 122.— GAULTHEKIA PEKPLEXA. 

Family KRICACE^.] [(Jknus UAULTHERIA, Kahn. 

Gaultheria perplexa, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. I,i.st. xxix (I8!(7), 538 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 406. 

(laultheria perplexa is an exceedingly puzzling plant. From a physiognomic 
point of view it is very different from any of the varieties of G. antipoda, but at 
the same time it is not easy to find any floral or carpological characters in which 
the two plants do not agree. Hence Sir J. I). Hooker, in the "Flora Novse 
Zelandiae," treated it as a variety of G. antipoda, his reference to it being simply 
" var. ciliata : foliis parvis coriaceis lanceolatis serratis, dentibus setigeris." On 
the whole, we must regard it as a somewhat critical species, only to be separated 
from G. antipoda by the long and flexuous much and closely interlaced branches, 
and by the small and narrow leaves, the teeth of wliich are bristle-pointed. 

So far as I am aware, G. perplexa was first collected by Mr. Colenso in 1847 
on the elevated plateau to the east of Ngauruhoe and Ruapehu. It has since been 
gathered in many localities both in the North and South Island, and must be 
regarded as of fairly common occurrence in mountain districts from Lake Taupo 
southwards to Stewart Island, where it attains its southern limit. According to 
Mr. Aston, it ascends to .5.000 ft. on the Kaimanawa Mountains ; while on the 
central volcanic plateau of the North Island it is usually seen between 2,000 ft. 
and 4,000 ft. In not a few localities in the South Island it descends to sea- 
level ; Mr. Townson, for instance, finding it not unconimon on sand-dunes between 
Westport and Charleston ; and Mr. Kirk near the entrance to the Bluff Harbour 
and on Stewart Island. 

G. perplexa has a wide range of habitats. Its occurrence on fixed sand- 
dunes has just been mentioned, and it has also been recorded from peaty 
heaths so moist as almost to deserve the name of bogs (Cockayne, " Report, 
on Stewart Island," 27). Inland, however, its usual habitat is in stony river- 
valleys, where it is generally mixed with Discaria, Coprosma, &c., a particularly 
favourite station being where an old shingle-fan almost overgrown with shrubby 
vegetation impinges upon the valley ; or, as at the base of Ruapehu, it may 
be seen in scattered patches amongst the covering of Danthonia Raoidii and 
Poa ccBspitosa so widely spread in subalpine districts. 

Plate 122. Gaultheria perplexa, drawn from specimens collected in the BuUer Valley, Nelson, 
at an altitude of 1,200 ft. Fig. 1, leaf and flower (x 4) ; 2, flower, with the corolla and part of the 
calyx removed (x 6) ; 3, longitudinal section of corolla, showing the stamens (x 5) ; 4 and 5, stamens 
(xlO); 6, transverse section of ovary (x8); 7, ripe fruit (x2); 8, seed (enlarged); 9, embryo 
(enlarged). 



Plate 123. 




GAULTHERIA OPPOSTTIFOLIA, ffook.f. 



Plate 123.— GA-ULTHERIA OPPOSITIFOLIA. 

Family ERICACE/R.] [Genus UAULTHERIA, Kahn. 

Gaultheria oppositifolia, Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 162, t. 43 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 407. 

I believe that this handsome phmt was first collected by Mr. J. C. Bidwill in 
the interior of the North Island in 1839. The exact locality I am not acquainted 
with ; but in all probability it was somewhere in the vicinity of Lake Taupo, where 
it is known to occur on cliffs and steep declivities. In the following year it was 
gathered by Dr. DiefEenbach, and in 1847 Mr. Colenso obtained specimens from 
a cliff overhanging a stream near Tarawera, between Napier and Taupo. He says 
(" Journeys to the Ruahine Range," 34), " Strange to say, I have never found 
another plant of this species, although from its size, large green leaves, and unique 
appearance it is not easily overlooked. In subsequent years in passing this way 
I often obtained good specimens from it." With our present knowledge of the 
distribution of the species this statement is somewhat unexpected. In 1853 .Sir 
J. D. Hooker described the species in the " Flora Novee Zelandise " under the name 
it still bears. 

G. oppositifolia is usually (but not invariably) found on the faces of cliffs 
overhanging water, or on steep rocky slopes. The most northern localities known 
to me are the banks of the Upper Thames River, between Okoroire and Matamata, 
and on cliffs fringing the Waikato River a few miles below Cambridge. From 
these two stations it extends along the Waikato to Lake Taupo, and by way of the 
Patetere Plateau to Rotorua, where it is abundant. Mr. T. Kirk gathered it at an 
elevation of 3,200 ft. on Mount Tarawera, but in that locality it was destroyed by 
the eruption of 1886. I have collected it on Mount Kakaramea (near Waiotapu) 
and on the Paeroa Range, and abundantly on the Karangahake Cliffs, on the western 
side of Lake Taupo. Mr. Field and others have observed it in the Wanganui 
district, which is the most western locality of which I have any certain knowledge, 
for although it is recorded in the "Handbook" from Mount Egmont no recent 
botanist has seen it thereon. Both Mr. Buchanan and myself searched for it in 
vain. Its extreme eastern locality is in the East Cape district, where many years 
ago Bishop Williams gathered it between Whangaparaoa and Hicks Bay. 

G. oppositifolia is readily distinguished from the other New Zealand species 
of the genus by the large opposite leaves, which are sessile and cordate at the 
base, and by the racemes usually forming broad terminal panicles. It is easy of 
cultivation, and if the branches are judiciously cut back after the flowering 
season it forms a compact shrub presenting a handsome appearance when the 
next season comes round. 

Plate 123. Gaultheria oppositifolia, drawn from specimens collected at Waiotajsii, between 
Rotorua and Taupo. Fig. 1, expanded flower and bud (x 4) ; 2, flower, with the corolla and stamens 
removed ( x 6) ; 3, corolla laid open ( x 6) ; 4 and 5, front and back view of anthers ( x 9) ; 6, trans- 
verse section of ovary (x 6) ; 7, fruit (x 6). 



PlAte 124: 




West.Newma-n imp. 



CYATHODES ACEROSA. R.Bp. 



Platk 124. -CYATHODES ACE ROSA. 

Family EPACRIDACE^.] [Genus CYATHODES, Labill. 

Cyathodes acerosa, /?. Br. Prodr. 539: Honk. /. Fl. Nor. Zrl. i. Ifi.'}- C/ieesew Man NZ 
Fl. U\. 

The subject of this plate was originally gathered by >Sir Joseph Banks and 
Dr. Solander at " Opuragi " (Mercury Bay) during Cook's first visit to New Zealand 
in the year 1769. A few months later it was also observed in Queen Charlotte Sound. 
Dr. Solander, in his manuscript " Primitiae Florae Nov* Zelandia^," which, to 
the great loss of botanical science, was never actually published, described it under 
the name of Stiphelia acerosa, and a beautiful plate of the plant was prepared under 
his superintendence. Solander's specific name was adopted by Gaertner in his work 
" De Fructibus," and also by Robert Brown in his well-known " Prodromus," the 
latter botanist transferring the plant to the genus Cyathodes. Since Cook's time 
it has been observed by all investigators of the botany of New Zealand, and is 
now known to be generally distributed throughout the whole length of the country, 
from the North Cape to Stewart Island. Although often abundant on coastal 
cliffs, it is plentiful inland, and ascends the mountains to a height of not much under 
3,000 ft. It is also found in Tasmania and on certain portions of the coast- 
line of Victoria, but apparently is not so plentiful as in New Zealand. 

Cyathodes acerosa usually forms a closely branched shrub from 6ft. to 12ft. in 
height. Occasionally it reaches a stature of 15 ft. or 16 ft., and some forms 
with a procumbent mode of growth do not rise much more than 2 ft. or 3 ft. 
from the ground. The branches are hard and woody, and are clothed with 
numerous rigid and spreading narrow-linear pungent-pointed leaves. The flowers, 
which are often abundantly produced, are very minute, and of a pale whitish-green 
colour. The berries, which persist for a long time, are about the size of a pea, and 
may be either white or red. It is an easy plant to cultivate, and succeeds in any 
ordinary garden-soil. 

The nearest ally of C. acerosa is doubtless the Chatham Islands C. rohusta, which 
differs mainly in the larger and broader leaves, which are not pungent-pointed, 
but end in a callous tip, and in the rather larger fruit. The Tasmanian C. abietina 
and C. divaricata are also related ; but the first is a much smaller plant with 
broader leaves, and the second has smaller leaves, and a corolla bearded within. 

In the arrangement of the Epacridacew given in " Die Naturlichen Pflanzen- 
familien " (teil iv, abt. i, p. 76) Dr. O. Drude has followed the late Baron Mueller 
in merging Cyathodes, Leucopogon, and numerous other genera with Styphelia ; 
and Dr. Cockayne in his publications has accordingly transferred the New Zealand 
species of Cyathodes and Leucopogon to that genus. To my mind, however, the 
remarks published by Mr. Bentham in the " Flora Australiensis " (vol. iv, p. 145) 
show very clearly that nothing is gained by such a course, while it necessarily leads 
to much confusion. It must be borne in mind, too, that both Mueller and Drude 
still keep up the genera as sections of Styphelia, which is practically the same 
arrangement mider another name. Nor does it seem that recent workers in the 
family maintain the proposed change. Dr. Diels, for instance, in his " Fragmenta 
Phytographiae Australiae OccidentaHs," retains the genera Cyathodes, Leucopogon, 
&c., very much as limited by Bentham. 

Plate 124. Cyathodes acerosa, drawn from specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. 
Fig. 1, branchlet with flower, showing the imbricated bracts on the peduncle (x 3) ; 2, flower (x 7) ; 
3, flower, with the corolla and a portion of the calyx removed (x 7) ; 4, corolla laid open (x 7) ; 
5 and 6, front and back view of anther ( x 10) ; 7, longitudinal section of ovary ( x 9) ; 8, transverse 
section of ovary ( x 8) ; 9, fruit ( x 3) ; 10, section of fruit ( x 3). 



PLa.te 125. 




■Wsst.NewjnB-n imp. 



CYATHODES GOLENSOI, Hook f. 



Plate 125.— CYATH01)P]S OOLENSOI. 

Family KPA('R1I)A('K/E.| [(Irnits CYATHODKS. Lamim- 

Cyathodes Colensoi, Ihmk. /. Il,t,i,ll,. S.'A. /'V. 177; CV/re.sr///. Mnv. N .Z. Fl. 112. 

Cyathodes Cnlemoi is one of the many discoveries that we owe to the unwearied 
diligence of Mr. Colenso. It was first gathered by him in February, 1847, at the 
eastern base of Tongariro. Speaking of it in his " Journeys to the Ruahine Range," 
p. 39, he says, " During the former part of this day T met with several botanical 
novelties— e.g., a very handsome full-flowered Cyathodes (C. Colemoi), a low bushy 
shrub of depressed growth, some plants bearing white and some red berries in 
profusion. This will become a garden flower." In following years he also collected 
it on the Ruahine Mountains and in other localities, and it was solely from his 
specimens that the species was described by Sir J. D. Hooker in the " Flora," where, 
however, it was treated as a Leucofogon. Since that time, however, the range of the 
plant has been more fully worked out. In addition to the localities given by 
Colenso, it has been recorded from the Kaimanawa and Tararua Mountains, in the 
North Island. In the South Island it is fairly plentiful on the mountains of Nelson 
and Canterbury, but mainly on the eastern side of the dividing-range. It was not 
gathered by Mr. Townson in the vicinity of Westport, nor do I find it quoted in the 
list of plants collected by Mr. Hamilton near Okarito. In Otago it appears to be 
local, but it has been gathered in isolated localities as far south as the Blue 
Mountains. Its altitudinal range is from 2,000 ft. to 5,000 ft. 

On the central volcanic plateau of the North Island, where I have had repeated 
opportunities of observing it, C. Colensoi forms broad depressed patches 2 ft. to 6 ft. 
in diameter, the branches rising to a height of from 3 in. to 3 ft. The leaves are 
linear-oblong, obtuse or shortly mucronate, and glaucous beneath, while the flowers 
are arranged in terminal racemes. The berries are considerably smaller than those 
of C. acerosa. Although generally found in localities where the grass Danthonia 
Raoulii is the predominant species, it is often associated with other shrubs, a,s 
Pentachondra, Coprosma depressa, GnuUheria antipoda, &c.. and with Celmisia 
spectahilis and other herbaceous plants. 

C. Colensoi does not seem to be very closely allied to any of the New Zealand 
species. Sir J. D. Hooker, in the '• Handbook," states that it is " intermediate 
between Cyathodes and Leucopogon in characters, but with the habit of the former 
genus, to which I have referred it, both on this account and because of its extremely 
close 'affinity with C. Tameinmeice, Cham., of the Sandwich Islands ; it is also 
most closely allied to Leucopogon suaveolens of the Borneo Alps, which may be a 
Cyathodes." I have had no opportunity of comparing the New Zealand plant with 
the two species mentioned by Hooker. 

Plate 125. Viialliodes Colensoi. drawn from specimeus collet-ted on Dun Mountain, NcLson, l>y 
Mr. F. (!. Gibbs. Fig. 1, portion of branchlet with two flower.s (x4); 2, flower, with the corolla 
removed (x .5) ; .3, corolla laid open (x .5) ; 4 and .5, front and back view of anther (x 7) ; 6, ovary 
{x5): 7, longitudinal section of ovary (x5); 8, ripe fruit (x.5): 9, transverse section of same 
(x .5) ; 10. longitudinal section of same (x .5) ; 11, embryo (x 10). 



Plate 126. 




West.Nevmnan imp. 



LEUCOPOGON FASCICULATUS, A.Rich. 



Platk 120.— LEUCOPOGON FASCICULATUS. 

Family EPArRIDACE^.] f^ENUs LEUCOPOCiON, R. Bk. 

Leucopogon fasciculatus, .1. Hirh. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 215; Cheese.,.. Ma.. A'.Z. Fl. 413. 

vi.it ??N':r7''r';'*' ^l^f '"^i'"*' °^ *^^' P^^*' ^^^«« b'^^k to the time of Cook's first 
V s,t to New Zealand ,n the year 1769, when it was collected by Banks and Solander 

' ftr"'^>?'^' "' \y'^^\ ''' '^''y '^^^''^ **• A full description of the plant 

S Zetlndii"-'';" f Pr',' """ P"P^^^^ ^°^ Solander's ''Primiti^ Flor^ 
Nov^ Zelandiaj a work which remains unpublished up to the present day 
Forster also ga hered it in Queen Charlotte Sound during Cook's second^age, ami 

In 1832 A. Richard, in the Flore de la Nouvelle Zelande." transferred it to 
ForsZ'f notes. ""' '"' ^"""^ '" """^ '""^^ ^'^^^"P*-^^ P^P^^^ f™™ 

the Thrp7S? hscjculatus has a wide range. In the North Island it is found from 
tnd^nTf. t " Tf ^^' ^''.^^ ^"P*^ southwards to Cook Strait, and is 

abundant from the sea-coast to a considerable height on the mountains of the interior 

^^o^nct'^DT: iT' fV'-^ 'V^' f'f'' ^'^'^^^l •* - Pl-^t.ful in the Nelson 
PenIZ f if' ' "'^"'"'^" ^'^T^'^ Marlborough and Canterbury to Banks 
Mr R ni^n r"" ''"" n« «P«""iens from any locality further south ; and although 
Mr Buchanan has recorded it in his florula of Otago (Trans. N.Z. Inst, vol i) it is 
not mentioned in either Petrie's or Kirk's lists. ' 

L. fasciculatus kjenemlly known to European settlers in the northern part of 
to r^.";rr' ^ •'' ^r "'"" °^ --gJ-ingi ; which, unfortunately, is also Applied 
to Cyathodes acerosa Coprosma propmqua, and C. linariifoUa. It usually forms a 
shrub or small tree 5 ft. to 15 ft. high, or even more, and attains its greates^hei'ht in 

^rowth'In k- ^r*^°^'^•^ ^'^"*? ^7'' '' •« ' f-1^-"^ constituent of the under 
pZll ,' fo^^^s together with Dracophyllum latifolium and Cyathodes acerosa, 
Fhehahum nudum, Mehcytus macrophyllus, Alseuosmta macrophylla, Astelia tnnervia, 
&c. It IS, However, most generally seen on the large expanses of rolling Leptos- 

north part o the North Island, and especially north of Auckland. In such situations 
WP. *^'''ri^ much shorter and more densely branched. On sand-dunes, on wind- 
rlStr' :?''/""? u ^«r/r''"^^"' localities, it is often procumbent or even 
prostrate and closely branched, but not rising to any great height above the ground. 

laud^X f«, ._,f7™fr' /«^"''''('''';*. drawn from specunens collected ,u the vcmitv of Auck- 
open (X 8) i n? f f,n T ,\P''?'^"'''"« r*"? "^ ^"^''' (^ 3) ; 2, flower (x 8) ; 3, corolla laid 
of ovaiv X inf S / ""f ""'Z "^ *"*^^"' ('^ ^^) ' 6' "^^''y (X 8) : '' lonlntudmal section 

ix 10^;^ ii^flSt (J3;"'ir:::dT;:'5;: ■' ^" ''-'' '-'' ' ^"'« ^^ ^«' ^ '^ ^^^ -- -^^^ ^ -"« 



PUte 127. 




West, Newman imp. 



EPACRTS ALPINA, Hook f. 



Platk 127.— h] pack is ALPINA. 

Family EPACRIDACE.^. | [C,Kmjs EPACRTS, Forst. 

Epacris alpina, Hook. j. Fl. Nor. Z,-l. i. KifJ; Cheesem. .Man. S.Z. Fl. lid. 

Epacris alpina was une of the plants discovered by Mr. J. ('. Bidwill on the 
central volcanic plateau of the North Island in the year 1839— most probably on the 
lower slopes of Ngauruhoe, which he was the first European to ascend. A few years 
later it was collected by Mr. Colenso in the same district. It is now known to be 
a most abundant plant on the slopes of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, and Ruapehu, and 
on the high country around them, ascending to quite 5,000 ft., and in many places 
forming no small proportion of the shrubby vegetation. It has also been observed 
on the Kaimanawa and Ruahine Mountains, and on the Kaweka Range, in Hawke's 
Bay. Curiously enough, it does not seem to have been noted on any portion of the 
Tararua Range, although I cannot doubt that it exists thereon. Its ncjrthern limit 
appears to be on the sununit of Mount Tauhara, at tlie north end of Lake Taupo, 
where I collected it many years ago. In the South Island I have observed it in 
great abundance on the eastern portion of Mount Owen, at an elevation of 4,000 ft. ; 
while Mr. Townson has collected it on Mount Rochfort, and Mr. CafHn near 
Denniston. In the '■ Handbook " it is recorded as growing with Pentachondra on 
the Southern Alps, on the authority of Sinclair and Haast, but I am ignorant of 
the exact locality. 

I have had many opportunities of observing E. alpina on the central plateau 
of the North Island. It usually forms a densely branched bush 1 ft. to 3 ft. in height, 
often decumbent at the base, but with the upper branches strictly erect and 
clothed with numerous broadly ovate thick and coriaceous leaves seldom more 
than J in. in length. The flowers are white, and are abundantly produced towards 
the tips of the branchlets. As a species it is allied to E. paiiciflora, but can always 
be distinguished by its smaller size, by its more spreading habit and more numerous 
branches, and by the smaller and more obtuse leaves. The chief shrubby plants 
associated with E. alpina on the volcanic plateau are Senecio Bidwillii, Oleariu 
nummularifolia, Cassinia VauviUiersii, Coprosma cuneata and C. depressa, Draco- 
phyllum reGurimm and D. subulatum, Veronica tetragona, Podocarpus nivalis, 
Dacrydium Bidwillii and D. laxifolium, and Phyllodadus alpinus. 

Plate 127. Epacris alpina, drawn from specimens collected near the base of Ngauruhoe ; altitude 
3,000 ft. Fig. 1, branchlet with leaves (x 5) ; 2, flower, with the imbricated bracts below the calyx 
(x5); 3, one of the bracts (x8); 4, a single sepal (x 8) ; 5, corolla laid open {x8); (5 and 7, 
front and back view of antlier ( x 8) ; 8, ovary ( x 8) ; 9, longitudinal section of ovary ( x 10) ; 
10, transverse section of same (x 10). 



Plate 128. 




M. Smith del. 
J.N.FitcXlitli. 



ARCHERIA RACEMOSA, ^00^./. 



West.Ne 



Platk 128. AliCHKIMA RACh:M()SA. 

Family KI'ACIUDACE/E.t [Genus ARCHERIA. Hook. f. 

Archeria racemosa, llnnl.-. /. //„,/,//,. .\ .'/.. Fl. ISO; Chwsn,,. Ma,,. K.Z. Fl. 117. 

The Great and Little Barrier iKlands, with the Cape Colville (or Thames) 
Peninsula, contain several plants which are either confined to the two districts or 
occur 111 small quantity outside them. The chief of these are Pseudnpanax discolor 
(see Plate 74 of this work). Olearia Allomii, Celmisia Admnsii, Senecio myrianthos 
Veromcn puhescens, and the subject of this plate. From a phyto-geographical point 
of view the Thames Peninsula is also remarkable from being the northern limit of 
certain well-known subalpine plants. A full list of these is given in Mr Adams's 
mteresting paper " On the Botany of Te Moehau Mountain," the highest elevation 
in the district (Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxi (1889), .32), but the following may be par- 
ticularized here : Celrmsia incana, Pentachondm pumila, Cyathodes empetrifolia 
Ounsia macrophylla, Podocarpm nivalis, Dacrydium BidwilUi, Phyllodadus alpinus 
Carpha alpma, and Oreoholus pumilio. With the exception of the Cyathodes and 
PhyUocJadus, the first of which occurs on Castle Rock, Coromandel, and the other 
on the summit of Te Aroha Mountain, not one of these plants is found nearer 
than the summit of Hikurangi, in the East Cape district, or on the central volcanic 
plateau of the North Island. 

Archeria racemosa was collected on the Great Barrier Island prior to 1850 by 
Captain D. Rough, the first Harbourmaster for the Port of Auckland. Imperfect 
specimens given by him to Dr. Sinclair were forwarded to Sir J. D. Hooker, and 
were described as a doubtful Epacris in the " Flora Novae Zelandite " ; but in the 
"Handbook" it was placed in the Tasmanian genus Archeria. In the year 1867 
Mr. T. Kirk visited the Great Barrier, when A. racemosa was again gathered. 
Mr. Kirk remarks, however, that it is a local plant, " only found between 800 ft. and 
2,000 ft. alt." In 1869 Mr. Kirk also observed it at the Thames goldfields, stating 
that " it is local, but abundant from 1,900 ft. to 2,800 ft." In 1881 I observed it in 
immense abundance on Whakairi, or Table Mountain, near the source of the 
Kauaeranga River, and on several of the higher mountains in the vicinity. Mr. J. 
Adams, who in the years 1882 to 1905 zealously explored the whole length of the' 
Thames Peninsula, ascertained that it is of common occurrence on the central 
watershed, but is rarely found on the flanking ranges to the east and west. In 1895 
Mr. Shakespear and myself noted it in great quantities on the summit of the 
Little Barrier Island, alt. 1,500 ft. to 2,400 ft. A few years later Bishop Williams 
unexpectedly discovered it at Te Araroa. near the East Cape, and Mr. Gerald 
Williams has since found it to be fairly plentiful near the base of Hikurangi 
Mountain. These two localities mark the southern limit of the plant. 

Archeria racemosa forms a branching shrub 6 ft. to 15 ft. high, with much of the 
habit and appearance of a broad-leaved Leucopogon. When in flower it presents 
an attractive appearance, in the first place from its broad coloured bracts, which 
completely conceal the flowers until they commence to expand, when they 
suddenly drop off ; and then from the abundance of the flowers themselves, which 
are bright pink in colour. At the present time it is not in cultivation. 

Plate 128. Archeria raceiiinsa. diawii from specimens cDllected (in the summit of the Little 
Barrier Island ; altitude 2,000 ft. Fiji. 1, uuder-surface of leaf (x 2) : 2. Ijract. two bracteoles, and a 
younu flower-bud (x .3) ; 3, flower (x6); 4, corolla laid open, showiiit; the ovary (x6); 6, longi- 
tudinal section of ovary (x 8) ; 6, transverse section of same (x 8). ' > ' o 




West.Kewman imp. 



DRACOPHYLLUM LATIFOLIUM, A.Cuniz. 



Plate 129.— DRACOPHYLLUM LATIFOLIUM. 

Family EPACRIDACE^.] [Genus DRACOPHYLLUM, Labill. 

Dracophyllum latifolium, .1. C'lnn). Pirriir. n. H2 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. Hit. 

The genus Dracophijllum is of considerable physiognomic importance in the 
New Zealand flora. Most of the species have a distinct aspect of their own ; and 
in particular the two largest {D. latifolium and D. Traversii), with their candelabrum- 
like mode of growth, and tufts of long grassy leaves at the tips of the otherwise 
naked branches, present an appearance so remarkably distinct that the attention 
of the most incurious person is at once arrested. 

Dracophyllum latifolium, the neinei of the Maoris, was originally gathered by 
the well-known botanist Allan Cunningham in dry woods by the Kawakawa River, 
Bay of Islands, in the year 1826. Most subsequent explorers have met with it, and 
it is now known to be present in all forests of any size from the North Cape to 
Taranaki and the East Cape. It is found in small quantity in Hawke's Bay, but 
I have seen no specimens from any portion of the Wellington Provincial District. 
In the South Island it stretches along the western portion of the Nelson Provincial 
District from Collingwood to Westport, and then southwards to Charleston, which 
appears to be its southern limit. 

D. latifolium is a shrub or small tree 8 ft. to 20 ft. high, with a trunk 4 in. to 
12 in. in diameter. Young plants form erect unbranched rods with a tuft of grassy 
leaves at the top ; but when mature the plant is usually branched, the branches 
curving outwards and then upwards, thus giving the plant a candelabrum-like 
appearance. The leaves are crowded at the ends of the branches, giving them a 
mop-headed look, and the flowers are very numerous in an erect terminal panicle 
sometimes 18 in. long. The plant is usually found in dry woods, and almost 
invariably forms a distinctive portion of the undergrowth in kauri forests. It is 
also commonly seen along the crests of steep wooded ridges. 

The wood is said to be durable, and suitable for veneering or inlaying, or for 
ornamental work generally. But the small size of the tree, and the difficulty in 
obtaining it in quantity, will always prevent much use being made of it. The 
unbranched stems, which are often naturally and prettily fluted, are often converted 
into walking-sticks, for which their strength and toughness appear to specially fit 
them. 

Plate 129. Draco phylli in i latifolium, drawn from specimens collected on the Little Barrier 
Island by Miss Shakespear. Fig. 1, portion of inflorescence (x 4) ; 2, flower, with the corolla removed 
(x 5) ; 3, corolla laid open (x .5) ; 4 and 5, front and hack view of anthers (x 7) ; 6, ovary, with 
the hyjjogynous scales at its base ( x 7) ; 7, longitudinal section of ovary, showing the decurved 
placentas proceedmg trom the inner angle of the cell (x 10) ; 8, fruit (x .5) : 9, seed (enlarged). 



Pl&te 130. 




West Newiriaai imp 



DRACOPHYLLUM TOWNSONI, Cheesem,. 



Platk 130.— DRACOPHYLLUM TOWNSONI. 

Family EPACRIDACE^.] [Genus DRACOPHYLLUM, Labill. 

Dracophyllum Townsoni, Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 420. 

The subject of this plate commemorates the name of Mr. W. Townson who 
tor several years assiduously explored the vegetation of the north-western portion 
ot the bouth Island, from the Karamea River southwards to Greymouth, and inland 
along the course of the Buller River to Mount Mantell, Mount Murchison, and 
Mount Owen. Much ot this large district had never been closely botanized, and 
Mr. lownson consequently secured a rich harvest of novelties. Among these mav 
be mentioned Ac;,phj/Ua Townsoni (Plate 62 of this work), Cdmisia duhia, Draco- 
phyUum pubescens, Gentiana Townsoni (Plate 139), Veronica diverqens (Plate 148) 
Veronica coarctata, and Townsonia deflexa (Plate 198). 

Dracophylbmi Townsoni was obtained on the foothills and terraces at the base 
ot Mount Buckland the northern termination of the chain of the Paparoa Mountains 
and which overlooks the well-known Buller Gorge. It is by no means abundant' 
but occurs sporadically from about 500 ft. to 2,500 ft. elevation So far it has 
not been founcl in any other locality, although it probably extends southwards into 
the Westland Provincial District, the flora of which is very imperfectly known 

According to its discoverer, D. Townsoni forms a small branching tree 10 ft 
to 20 ft. in height, with its branches conspicuously ringed with the scars of the fallen 
leaves Ihe leaves are very similar to those of D. latijolium, and are narrowed 
mto the same long and sleiider points; but are smaller, seldom exceeding 12 in 
in length, and narrower at the base. The inflorescence is markedly difterent' 
consisting of a small curved and drooping panicle 2 in. to Sin. long, placed on the 
branch just below the leaves. The flowers, which according to Mr. Townson are 
decidedly tcetid, are rather small, being about i in. long ; and the capsules are 
about I in. in diameter. ^ 

The nearest ally of our plant is undoubtedly D. Menziesii, which has the same 
lateral drooping panicle and a very similar habit of growth. But D. Menziesii is a 
much smaller plant, often reduced to a foot or two in height ; the leaves are shorter 
and broader, and more cartilaginous ; and the flowers are altogether different being 
almost twice the size, with a much larger corolla, the lobes of which are not more 
than a quarter the length of the tube, whereas in D. Townsoni the lobes are half 
the length of the tube or nearly so. I entertain no doubt as to the specific 
distinctness of the two plants. 

Plate 130. pmcophyllum Townsoni, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. Townson on Mount 
Buckland, near the mouth of the Buller R.ver. F.g. 1, portion of margin of leaf (x 5) 2, Ze 
(x5); 3, longitudmal section of corolla (x5); 1 anther (x5); 5, ovary, with the hypogynous 
scales ormmg a cup-shaped disc (x5); 6, the .same with the scales di.stiuct (x5); 7, section of 
ovary (x 8) ; 8, fruit (x 5) ; 9, seed (x 5). v •^; > '> seowon or 



PUte 131. 




MSmitK del. 



DRACOPHYLLUM RECURVUM, ^ooA./ 



Platk 131.— DRACOPHYLLUM RECURVUM. 

Family EPACRIDACE^.J [Genus DRACOPHYLLUM, Labill. 

Dracophyllum recurvum, Hnok. /. FJ. Anlarcl. i, 50; Haiidh. N.Z. Fl. 181 • (Uieesem Man 
N.Z. FL 122. 

Li this series of plates I have already figured several plants which constitute a 
prominent portion of the vegetation of the lower slopes of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, 
and Ruapehu; and of the elevated volcanic plateau upon which these mountains 
stand. The species now illustrated is another conspicuous member of what nmst 
be considered a very peculiar and noteworthy type of subalpine vegetation, differing 
in many respects from that of other mountain districts in the North Island. 

For the discovery of Dracophyllum recurvum. we are indebted to Mr. J. C. 
Bidwill, who gathered it during a visit to Tongariro and Ngauruhoe in the year 1839. 
A few years later it was collected by Mr. Colenso on the eastern side of the same 
mountains. He has also recorded it from the Ruahine Mountains, and from the 
summit of Mount Hikurangi, in the East Cape district. Since then it has been noticed 
by all travellers to the interior of the North Island, and is now known to be a most 
abundant plant on the lower slopes of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, and Ruapehu, also 
on the adjoining mountains of Kakaramea, Hauhungatahi, &c. It ascends the 
neighbouring Kaimanawa Mountains to quite 5,000 ft., but so far has not been 
found on any part of the Tararua Range. 

p. recurvum is a stout much branched procumbent or almost prostrate shrub, 
forming dense masses 2 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter, but not usually rising more than 
1 ft. to 2 ft. from the ground. The leaves are crowded at the tips of the branches, 
spreading and recurved, the base broad and sheathing, and then narrowed into a 
linear-subulate lamina about 1 in. in length. The flowers are arranged in short and 
stout bracteate terminal spikes about 1 in. long, the individual flowers being about 
Jin. The whole plant has a reddish-brown colour, which, at heights of about 
4,000 ft., it often imparts to wide stretches of subalpine scrub. 

Under the plate of Senecio Bidwillii (t. 114) I have mentioned the chief plants 
which, together with that species and D. recurvum, go to make up the greater part 
of the subalpine scrub of the central volcanic plateau of the North Island. Those 
students who wish to familiarize themselves with what is known of the oecology 
of this very curious association should refer to Dr. Cockayne's " Report of a 
Botanical Survey of the Tongariro National Park." 

Although D. recurvum. varies to some extent in the size of all its parts, it is 
otherwise a remarkably well-defuied species, easily separated from all others by its 
peculiar habit, linear-subulate patent and recurved leaves, and terminal bracteate 
spikes. I must confess my total inability to distinguish, even as varieties, the 
five " new species " described by Mr. Colenso in various volumes of the 
'' Transactions of the New Zealand Institute," and particularized as synonyms 
of D. recurvum in my Manual. 

Plate 131. Draco phyllion recurvum, drawn from specimens collected at the base of Mount 
Ruapehu, at an ultitude of 3,500 ft. Fig. 1, leaf (x 2) ; 2, flower (x 5) ; 3, corolla laid open (x 5) ; 
4, ovary (x 5) ; 5, scale from base of ovary (x 7) : 6, longitudinal section of ovary (x 5) ; 7, ripe 
capsule (x 5) ; 8, seed (x 8). 



Plate 132. 




DRACOPHYLLUM SUBULATUM, Hooh f. 



Plate 132.— DRACOPHYLLUM SUBULATUM. 

Family EPACRIDACE.'E. | [Genus DRACOPHYLLUM, Labill. 

Dracophyllum subulatum, Honk. j. Fl. Aiilturl. i. 50; Hoiidb. N.Z. Fl. 182; Vlieescm Man 
N.Z. Fl. 425. 

Dracophyllum subulatum. like the species figured in the previous plate, was 
one of the many interesting discoveries made by Mr. J. C. Bid will in 1839 during 
his adventurous journey to Rotorua, Taupo, and Tongariro. Mr. Colenso. who 
was the second botanical explorer to reach these districts, found the same plant over 
a much wider area. He first gathered it in January, 1842, near the Rangitaiki 
River, not far from the present Township of Galatea, while journeying from Lake 
Waikaremoana (which he was the first European to visit) to Rotorua. In 1847 
he again collected it on " barren pumice plains near Tarawera," between Napier and 
Taupo ; and, later on in the same journey, on the eastern flanks of Tongariro. 
Other early explorers also obtained it on both the Kaimanawa and Ruahine 
Mountains. 

The centre of distribution of the species is undoubtedly the open pumiceous 
country surrounding Lake Taupo, where it is extremely plentiful, often forming 
close-growing patches of half an acre in extent, recognizable from afar by the dark- 
brown colour. From thence it stretches to Tarawera and the Mohaka country, 
and northwards along the Rangitaiki Valley to far below Galatea — quite possibly 
to the Bay of Plenty. Westwards it extends to Rotorua, and down the valley of 
the Waikato almost as far as Cambridge, and the Thames Valley to Matamata, which 
appears to be its northern limit. 

D. subulatum is an erect fastigiately branched shrub 2 ft. to 6 ft. high, the 
branches being long and slender, and leafy at the tips only. The leaves are small 
and erect, under an inch in length, very narrow and pungent-pointed. The flowers 
are small, white, and arranged in 2-6-flowered lateral racemes. The species 
belongs to the same section of the genus as D. Urvilleanum and D. scoparium, but is 
readily distinguishable by its small size and erect slender habit, short strict narrow 
leaves, and small flowers. 

Plate 132. DracophyUnin suhulaliun, mature plant and seedling, drawn from specimens collected 
on the Taupo Plauis. Fig. 1, leaf (x 6) ; 2, portion of inflorescence (x 3) ; 3, corolla laid open (x 3) ; 
4 and 5, front and back view of anther (x 10) ; 6, scale from base of ovary (x 10) ; 7, longitudinal 
section of ovary (x 10) ; 8, branchlet, showing galls (natural size). 



PUte 133. 




SIDEROXYLON COSTATUM, RMueLi. 



Platk ]:3:i.- SIDEKOXYLON COSTATUM. 

Family SAPOTACE.E.] j^Gen^s SIDEROXYLON, Linn. 

Sideroxylon costatum, /'. Miwll. Frrsi Census Austral. PL 92 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Ft. 435. 

The tawaapou which is the name applied by the Maoris to the subject 
ot this plate, was ftrst collected by Richard Cunningham in the year 1833 on 
the coast opposite to the Cavallos Islands, between the Bay of Islands and 
Whangarei. In 1836 Mr. Colenso gathered it at the entrance to Whangarei 
Harbour, a, loca ity where it still exists ; and in 1841 he also observed it on 
the high south headlands of Whangaruru Bay." Since that time it has 
been recorded from numerous localities on the eastern side of the North 
Island, but always in small quantity, and never far from the coast It 
occurs on several oi the headlands in the North Cape district ; in one or two 
stations on the coast-line between Mongonui and Wliangaroa ; between Whangaroa 
and the Bay of Islands ; at Cape Brett, Whangaruru Harbour, and Whangarei 
Heads ; on the Poor Knights Islands, the Hen and Chickens, the Great and Little 
Barrier Islands, and Kawau Island. In the Hauraki Gulf a single small grove 
occurs on Motutapu Island, and several on Waiheke Island. It has been observed 
on Cape Colvi le, and on Cuvier Island, and probably also exists on the islands in 
the Bay oi Plenty, which have never yet been botanically explored. It attains 
Its southern limit at Tolaga Bay, in the East Cape district, where a single tree <^rows 
not iar troni a spring, which according to tradition was used by Cook's sailors when 
he visited the locality m 1769. On the western coast of the North Island onlv two 
localities are known-near Maunganui Bluff, between the Hokianga and Kaipara 
Harbours: and the strip of rocky coast just to the north of the Mamikau 
Harbour. 

S. costatum is a handsome closely branched tree 25 ft. to 4.5 ft high rarelv 
more, with a trunk 1 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter. The branchlets and petioles are more 
or less lactescent, and the leaves are marked with numerous closely placed parallel 
veins running straight from the midrib to the margin. The flowers are solitary 
or two together in the axils of the leaves, and are succeeded by large oblong or 
obovoid berries sometimes over an inch in length. Usually these have two or 
three bony seeds, but sometimes the seeds are reduced to one, and occasionally 
there are as many as four. According to Mr. Colenso, the seeds were formerly 
used by the Maoris as beads for necklaces— no doubt from their hard, smooth and 
polished surface. ' 

M .^n t""',' ^^^*' ^^^^™«d *^at our New Zealand plant is identical with the 
JNorfdk Island S costatum. But as far back as 1875 this was questioned by the 
late Bavon Mueller, who proposed the name of Achras novo-zdandicum for the 
New Zealand form At my request Mr. W. B. Hemsley has compared specimens 
from the two localities, and reported (" Kew Bulletin," 1908, 459)- " Comparin*^ 
the Norfolk Island specimens with those from New Zealand, I think Mueller wal 
right. The leaves of the Norfolk Island plant are, on the whole, larger thicker 
more tapering towards the base, and the petioles are longer. The flowers are 
usually in pairs in typical A. costnta, and solitary in the New Zealand specimens 
we have seen. ' If the correctness of this view is established, our plant will in 
future bear the name of S. novo-zelandicum, Hemsl. 

u A^^'^'cM \'^'^' ^''^^'''^y^^'l' <^<>si«t"'"- 'li'iwii from specimens coUected on the Little Barrier Island 
by Miss t,hakespear. Fig. 1 flower with a 5-lobed corolla (x 4) ; 2, centrally affixed hairs (x 12) ■ 
3, corolla laid open x 4) ; 4 anther (x 8) ; 5, ovary (x 5) ; 6, longitudinal section of ovary (x 5 '■ 
>, flower, with a 4-lobed corolla (x 4) ; 8, seed (x 2) ; 9, section of same, showing embivo (x 2) ' 



Plecte 134: 




Wssfc, Newman imp. 



OLEA LANCEOIjATA, /TooA'./". 



Plate 134.— OLE A LANCEOLATA. 

Family OLEACE^.] [Genus OLEA, Linn. 

Olea lanceolata, Hooh. /. Fl. Nor. Zrl. i, 176 ; Checsem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 438. 

The New Zealand olives differ in a marked manner from their relatives of the 
Northern Hemisphere in the flowers being invariably apetalous. The first species 
discovered, the Norfolk Island 0. apetala, was therefore selected by EndUcher as 
the type of a separate genus, to which he applied the name of GymnelcBa. But in 
the Indian 0. dioica, where the male flowers have a corolla, the females have none, 
thus clearly proving that the absence of a corolla is not sufficient by itself for 
generic distinction. Recent botanists have therefore refused to entertain the idea 
of subdividing the genus. 

Olea lanceolata is the most abundant species in New Zealand, and has the 
widest distribution. It was probably first discovered by Allan Cunningham, and 
confounded by him with one of the species of his genus Mida, now included by 
botanists under Fusamis Cunninghamii. This mistake is even occasionally made 
at the present day. Mr. Colenso and Dr. Sinclair are the two earliest botanists who 
are positively known to have collected the plant. It is now known to be an 
abundant constituent of the lowland forests of the North Island, from the North 
Cape to Cook Strait, and from sea-level to an altitude of 2,000 ft. or thereabouts. 
It is also found in a few localities in the Nelson Provincial District, where, however, 
it is decidedly rare. 

0. lanceolata is one of the trees to which the Maori name of maire is applied. 
It usually forms a closely branched round-headed tree 20 ft. to 50 ft. high, rarely 
more, with a trunk 1 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter. It is closely allied to 0. Cunninghamii, 
which is a taller and stouter plant, with larger broader leaves, and with stouter 
pubescent racemes. 0. montana is at once distinguished by the much narrower 
leaves and smaller racemes. Like all the New Zealand species of Olea, the leaves 
of young plants are markedly different from those of the adult, being much longer 
and narrower, and more acuminate. 

All the New Zealand species of Olea produce a very similar timber, of great 
hardness and durability. The heart-wood is dark brown, often prettily marked 
with streaks of darker brown or almost black ; the sap-wood is pale yellowish- 
brown. It is in every respect a timber of great value for any purpose requiring 
strength, hardness, durability, and evenness of grain ; and it is somewhat curious 
that, notwithstanding its evident advantages, such small use is made of it. For 
ships'-blocks, wooden bearings for machinery, the framework of railway-carriages 
or tram-cars, door-knobs, and other ornamental turned-work it appears to be 
specially fitted. Its value was well known to the Maoris in olden times, who 
frequently used it for their digging-spades (Ko, rapa-maire), for flax-beaters or 
fern-root pounders {paoi), and for wooden 7neres or fighting-clubs (mere-rakau). 

Mr. Elsdon Best, in his interesting paper on " Maori Forest Lore " (Trans. N.Z. 
Inst. vol. xl. (1908) 216), makes the following remarks in reference to the maire. 
" The maire-tree is the offspring of Te Pu-whakahara and Hine-pipi. The former 
was a son of Tane, and appears to be a star-name, or connected in some way with a 
star. An old saying applied to the hard-wooded maire is ' E kore e ngawhere, he 
maire tu wao, ma te toki e tua ' ; meaning, ' It will not break (or work) easily ; it 



is a forest-standing maire, the axe alone can fell it.' This saying is also applied 
to persons. The timber is a favourite fuel for use in meeting-houses, as it gives out 
but little smoke and a good light ; but if seeds are kept in a house in which maire 
is used for fuel, then such seeds will not germinate when planted. In former times, 
when forest-birds were numerous, the kereru (pigeon) and the koko (or tui) were 
wont to frequent in great numbers the maire-rau-nui trees to feed on the berries 
thereof, when great numbers would be snared, although they did not fatten on 
that diet." 

Plate 134. Olea Imweolata, drawn from specimens — male, female, and in fruits — collected in the 
Northeni Wairoa district. Fig. 1, male flowers (x 5) ; 2, male flower, with 3 stamens (x 5) ; 3 and 4, 
front and back view of anthers (x5); 5, female flowers (x6); 6, longitudinal section of ovary 
( X 6) ; 7, transverse section of ovary ( x 6) ; 8, fruit ( x 2|) ; 9, section of same ( x 2D ; 10, embryo 
(x6). 



Plate 135. 




West.Newir.an imp. 



PARSONSIA HETEROPHYLLA, ^.Cw/j/z-. 



Platk l:J5.— PAKSOXSIA HP:TKK()PHYLLA. 

Family APOCYNACE^.l [Genus PARSONSIA, R. Br. 

Parsonsia heterophylla, A. Cnnn. Precur. n. 402 : (Viee.ieiii. Man. .V.Z. Fl. 140. 

Judging from Solander's descriptions and drawings, both the species of Parsonsia 
known in New Zealand were observed in Cook's first voyage, either at " Opuragi " 
(Mercury Bay) or " Totaranui " (Queen Charlotte Sound). Solander, in his 
'' Primitite Floras Novae Zelandiae," applied the name of Periploca capsularis to 
both species, distinguishing the subject of this plate as var. latifolia, and the other, 
now known as Parsonsia capsularis, as var, anqustifolia. But Solander's names were 
never actually published, and hence when Forster, in his " Prodromus," applied the 
name of Periploca capsularis to the small-flowered species with exserted anthers, 
the larger-flowered plant with included anthers was left without a name. 
Consequently A. Cunningham, who gathered it in several localities, and who fully 
recognized its differences from Forster's plant, was quite justified in bestowing upon 
it the very appropriate name of Parsonsia heterophylla. 

P. heterophylla has a remarkably wide range, being found from the Three Kings 
Islands and the North Cape through the whole length of the North and South 
Islands to Stewart Island, and from sea-level to an altitude of nearly 3,000 ft. There 
are very few lowland or montane districts of moderate elevation in which it is not a 
fairly abundant plant. The allied species P. capsularis, although it has an almost 
equally extensive range, is far less plentiful, and is absent from several districts 
of considerable size. Both plants are of easy cultivation in any ordinary aarden- 
soil, and are now frequently seen in gardens. 

Both of our species of Parsonsia are remarkable for the heterophylly of their 
foliage, but it is more conspicuous in P. heterophylla than in P. capsularis. In the 
accompanying plate I have figured some of the chief leaf-variations seen in 
P. heterophylla, but it would require many plates to show the whole of those which 
can be observed. A plant cultivated for many years in my own garden started life 
as a seedling very similar to the one figured in the plate, and for some years the 
foliage showed little change. The leaves then became slightly broader, with more 
or less undulate or lobed margins. This tendency to irregularity in the margin of 
the leaf gradually increased, the margins being most irregularly lobed, those on the 
same branch showing great diversity of shape. Occasionally (compare with 
Hooker's remarks on Raoul's P. rosea, given in his " Florae Novae Zelandite," i, 180) 
one of the opposite leaves would be broad or narrow spathulate, while the other would 
be narrow linear or oblong. Gradually a considerable number of oblong leaves 
similar to those figured on the flowering specimen appeared, and the plant com- 
menced to flower. This was the signal for a rapid disappearance of the spathulate 
and irregularly lobed leaves, and in three or four years all the leaves on the plant 
were of the same type as those of the flowering specimen shown on the plate. 

Plate 135. Parsonsia helerophijlla, drawn from specimens obtaiued in the vicinity of Auckland, 
showing the difference between the foliage of the seedling, juvenile plant, and the adult. Ficr. 1,' 
flower (x 4) ; 2, section of same (x 5) ; 3, flower with the corolla removed, showing the calyx, •'la'nds! 
and ovaiy (x 5) ; 4 and 5, front and back view of anthers (x 10) ; 6. stigma (x 10) ; 7, lon'^'itudinai 
section of ovary (x 10) ; 8, seed (x 2) ; 9, section of same, showing embryo (x 7). 



Plate 136. 




GENIOSTOMA LIGUSTRIFOLIUM, AXunrv. 



Plate 13G.~GEN1()ST0MA LIGUSTRIFOLIUM. 

Family LOdANIACE.E. 1 [Genus GENIOSTOMA, Fokst. 

Geniostoma ligustrifolium, A. ('uini. I'recur. ii. 101 ; Cheeseiii. Man. S.Z. Fl. 444. 

Geniostotna ligustrifolium is such a widely spread plant in the North Island that 
it could hardly escape the notice of the first investigators of the botany of the 
country. Hence it is not at all surprising that Banks and Solander, in Cook's first 
voyage, gathered it in every locality that they visited, with the exception of Poverty 
Bay. And this exception is easily accounted for, not because the plant does not 
exist there, but from the attitude of the Maoris, which was so threatening as to 
prevent the explorers from entering any copse or thicket, much less forest, in which 
stations alone could Geniostotna be observed. A full description and excellent plate 
were prepared under the direction of Solander, and still remain among the 
unpublished manuscripts in the Natural History Department of the British 
Museum. 

After Cook's time all botanists visiting the North Island observed our plant. 
Its northern limit is the Three Kings Island and the North Cape, from which it 
extends southwards to Cook Strait. It is, however, purely a lowland plant, and I 
have not seen it at a greater elevation than about 2,000 ft. It also becomes com- 
paratively scarce to the south of Wanganui and Napier. In the South Island it 
has been recorded from Marlborough by Buchanan, and from Pepin Island, to the 
north of Nelson, by Mr. F. G. Gibbs. 

Geniostoma ligustrifolium is a perfectly smooth and glabrous much branched 
shrub 4 ft. to 12 ft. high, with brittle branches and soft pale-green leaves. Its 
leaves and young twigs have a peculiar heavy smell when bruised, which is still 
more conspicuous when the plant is in flower. It is readily eaten by cattle, which 
quickly break it down in all forests in which they are plentiful. It is well known 
to the Maoris by the name of hangehange, but I cannot ascertain that it was 
applied to any use by them, except that of preparing an extract which was 
considered to be a cure for certain skin-diseases in children. 

Plate 136. Geniostoma ligustrifolium , drawn from specimens collected fdi Raugitoto Island, near 
Auckland. Fig. 1, flower just expanding (x 4) ; 2, the same fully expanded (x 4) ; 3, section of 
flower with the corolla removed, showing calyx and ovary (x 6) ; 4, corolla laid open (x 4) : 5 and 
6, front and back view of anthers (x 10) : 7, transverse section of (jvary (x 8) ; 8, ripe fruit (x 2) : 
9, seed (x 5). 



Plate 137. 




M.Smit)! del. 
J.N.Fitch luK 



West,MeT«inan imp 



GENTIANA GRACILIFOLIA, Cheesem. 



Platk 1:}7. GENTIANA GRACILIFOLIA. 

Family (IENTIANACK.-I^:.] [Uenus (4ENT1ANA, Linn. 

Gentiana gracilifolia, Clinsru,. M,ni. X.Z. Fl. II II. 

The Now Zealand Gentians form a very beautiful and attractive group of plants. 
Those who have wandered over the alpine valleys and slopes of the southern portion 
of the Dominion, and have seen the dazzling display of flowers in such species as 
G. Gorymhifera, G, Townsoni, G. montana, G. patula, G. hellidifolia, and G. cerinu, 
will readily admit that among the montane herbaceous plants of the Dominion 
there are few genera which present such a peculiarly charming and graceful appear- 
ance. It is true that as a rule the flowers are white, as is the case with most New 
Zealand alpines, and never show the deep intense blue which lends such a fascination 
to many of the northern species ; yet even then our species have many special 
attractions of their own, and will always claim the admiration of any observer of 
nature. 

G. gracili/olia, although not an unattrac^tive plant, has not the large flowers of 
several of its allies. It was first observed by myself on the Mount Arthur Plateau, 
Nelson, in January, 1881, and again in 1887, but on both occasions my visit was 
too early in the season to permit me to obtain fully expanded flowers. In the 
autumn of 1905. however, Mr. F. G. Gibbs examined the locality at my request, and 
was successful in securing an ample supply of specimens, from which the accom- 
panying plate has been prepared. So far, I am not aware that it has been found in 
any other locality ; but it probably extends northwards along the Mount Arthur 
Range to the high mountainous country at the back of Collingwood. The altitude 
at which my specimens were gathered was a little under 4,000 ft. 

On the Mount Arthur Plateau G. gracilifolia occurs in peaty localities by the 
margins of small tarns, in situations so wet that water can be squeezed out of 
the peat in which the plant grows. It is associated with such species as Carex 
Gaudichaudiana and G. echinata, Oreobolus pumilio, Scirpus aucklandicus, Centro- 
lepis viridis, Bulhinella Hookeri, Herpolirion novcB-zelandiw, Cyathodes empetrifolia, 
Dacrydium Bidwillii and D. Jaxifolium, &c. Unlike most of the New Zealand 
species, it is much branched and densely leafy at the base, forming compact sward- 
like patches 4 in. to 6 in. in diameter. The leaves are dark green when fresh, but 
blackish-brown when dried, uniform in shape and size, and about |in. to fin. long. 
There are 2 to 4 pairs of cauline leaves, and 2 to 4 flowers to each stem; the corolla 
being pure white, and about \ in. to | in. diameter. 

As a species G. gracilifolia is perhaps more nearly allied to G. Townsoni than to 
any other, but can be readily distinguished by its much smaller size and by often 
forming a compact sward, by the smaller and narrower leaves, and by the much 
smaller and fewer flowers. 

Plate 137. GeuliuiKi i/inrilifolid. driiwii Iroiii specimens gathered by Mr. F. U Giblj.s on the 
Mount Arthur Plateau, NelsDU, at an altitude of nearly 4,000 ft. Fig. 1. leaf (x 2) ; 2, base of leaf, 
.showing scale-like appendages (x 6) ; 3, calyx sjjread open, witli ovary (x 2) ; 4, corolla laid open 
(x 2) ; .5 and 6, front and back view of anthers from a fully exjjanded flower (x 8) ; 7, anther from a 
bud(x8). 



Plate 138. 




M, Smith del. 
J.NPitehlilK. 



West,Kewinai\ imp 



GENTIANA CHATHAMICA, Cheesem. 



Pi.ATK l:J8.— GEXTIANA CHATHAM ICA. 

Family GENTIANACE^.] [Genus GENTIANA. Linn. 

Gentiana chathamica, C/ieeseiii. Man. .X.Z. Fl. 41'.'. 

Gentiana chathamica was discovered by Mr. H. H. Travers during his first visit 
to the Chatham Islands in 1863. The plants collected on that occasion were placed 
in the hands of Baron Mueller for determination, and were reported upon in his 
little book on the vegetation of the Chatham Islands, published in 1864. He referred 
Mr. Travers's specimens to Forster's G. saxosa ; but then he included in that species 
all the Gentians found in Australia and New Zealand, and. with one exception, all 
those known from the southern part of South America ! It is perhaps hardly necessary 
to say that these extreme views have found no supporters. The plant was also 
gathered by Mr. Travers in his second visit in 1871. and was placed by Mr. Buchanan 
in G. pleurogynoides. Mr. Kirk, in his " Revision of the New Zealand Gentians 
(Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895), 335), also referred it to G. pleurogynoides, but as a 
separate variety, to which he gave the name of var. umhellata. While preparing my 
" Manual of the New Zealand Flora " I received many excellent specimens of the 
Chatham Islands plant from Mr. Cox, proving beyond all question that it constituted 
a perfectly distinct species, and I therefore described it under the name of 
G. chatha)iiica. 

(J. chathamica is an annual species from 6 in. to 12 in. high. Usually the stems 
are simple and erect, but occasionallj^ there may be two or three weaker branches 
springing from the base and usually decumbent below. The radical leaves are often 
numerous and more or less rosulate, and vary in shape from oblong-spathulate to 
broadly oblong. They are much thinner than is usual in the New Zealand species. 
The flowers are white, or white streaked with pink, and are arranged in 3-12-flowered 
umbels terminating the stem and its branches. The peculiar habit, small broad and 
thin leaves, and small umbellate flowers with a deeply divided calyx and corolla 
are the best marks of the species. 

According to Mr. Cox, Gentiana chathamica is not uncommon on the Chatham 
Islands, usually in peaty swamps, but also in fairly dry situations. Baron Mueller 
says that it is found " on fern or grass land or peaty soil." Dr. Cockayne, in his 
interesting memoir on " The Plant Covering of Chatham Islands " (Trans. N.Z. Inst, 
xxxiv (1902), 242-325), mentions it as occurring in heath-like situations, in the 
Lepyrodia-Olearia bog. and on the dry ridges of the tableland. From the above it 
is evident that the plant has a somewhat wide range of habitats. 

Pirate 138. Gentiana chalhaiuica, drawn from .specimen.s collected hj Mr. F. A. D. Cox in the 
Chatham Islands. Fig. 1 , caly.x laid open and ovary ( x 3) ; 2, corolla laid open ( x 3) ; 3, anther 
taken from a bud (x 6) ; 4 and 5, front and back view of anther from fully expanded flower (x 6). 



Plate 133. 




GENTIANA TOWNS ONIL Cheesem. 



West, Newman imp 



Plate i:3i).— GENTIANA TOWNSONJ. 

Family GENTIANACEiE.] [Genus GENTIANA, Linn. 

Gentiana Townsoni, ('heest'iii. Man. N.Z. Fl. 450. 

Situated on the coast-line of north-west Nelson, and flanking the Papahua and 
Paparoa Mountains, are long stretches of somewhat dreary swampy plains locally 
known as " pakihis." Some of these descend almost to sea-level ; others reach a 
considerable height on the sides of the mountains. Much of their surface is so wet 
as to form veritable swamps, in which Typha. several species of Cladmm and Carex, 
Carpha, and other swamp-plants form the chief vegetation. In drier places they 
are usually covered with Leptospermum, mixed with such plants as Pteris aquUina, 
Gleichenia circinata, Epacris pauciflora, many orchids, Anagospeima dispermum, 
Actinotus, and others. It is in this locality that the subject of this plate is 
commonly found. 

G. Townsoni, which well commemorates its energetic discoverer, must be 
considered to be one of the most beautiful species of the genus in New Zealand. 
Speaking of it, Mr. Townson says, " It grows in the most open and exposed 
situations, and many plants may often be seen clustered together. As several stems 
generally arise from one root, each crowned with its umbel of large white flowers, a 
patch of these Gentians forms a veritable beauty-spot upon the uniformly dreary 
surface of these bog-lands." Its tall slender habit and numerous small ovate- 
lanceolate or trowel-shaped leaves give it a very different appearance from any of 
itiL. alliei-'. G. corymhifera is easily distinguished by its stout and almost naked 
stems, and much longer and proportionately narrower rosulate radical leaves ; 
while G. montana has larger obovate-spathulate radical leaves, and broadly ovate 
cauline leaves, cordate at the base. 

So far I have seen no specimens but Mr. Townson's, from which this plate has 
been prepared. But so little is known of the vegetation of Westland that I can 
entertain no doubt that it extends southwards along the western side of the South 
Island. Mr. N. E. Brown informs me that specimens collected by Lyall are in the 
Kew Herbarium ; probably these would be obtained in the Sounds of the south- 
west coast of Otago. 

Plate 139. Gentiana Tuwiisuni, drawn from specimens collected by Mi'. W. Townson in the 
vicinity of Westpoit. Fig. 1, calyx laid open, showing ovary (x3): 2, corolla laid open (x3); 
3 and 4, front and back view of anther taken from the bud ( x 6) ; 5, anther taken from a fully 
expanded flower (x 6). 



PUte 140. 




i WM^ 



West. Newman imp. 



GENTIANA BELLIDIFOLIA, Hook f. 



Pi.ATK 140.— GENTIAXA BKLIJDIKOLIA. 

Family (JKNTIANACE.fl | ^(.,^^, (jenTJANA, J.in^. 

Gentiana bellidifolia, Hook. /. iv Hook, h: Phxnl. t. G35 ; V.Jwesem. Man. N.Z. VI. 452. 

Under Plates 114 {Senecio BidwiJU,), 127 {Ejiaori>^ dpin,^, and 131 
{Dracofhyllum recurvum) I have figured some well-known subalpine plant dis 
covered by Mr. J C Bidwill in his adventurous expedition to theTentral vo can c' 
plateau of the North Island in 1839. The present plate represents another of h 
discoveries, and by no means the least interesting. Like the three others it was 
collected on or near the slopes of Ngauruhoe, which he was the first Euop an to 
ascend. Mr. Colenso in his first ascent of the Ruahine Mountains in 1845 w!s 
the next to gather the plant; and since then it has been observed by all vi itors 
to he higher mountains of both the North and the South Islands. Its northern 
limit is mi Mount Hikurangi, in the East Cape district, from whence it extends 

G. beimfolm was originally published under its present name by Sir J D 
wS 11 fl w 7T P^*^™"^" (*• 635). The plate represents a^small state 
with single-fiowered branclaes, but otherwise is an excellent representation of the 
species. In the "Flora Nova. Zelandi* " Hooker reduced all the New Zealand 

ForstlTr T' "^ '^/"^"^ ^^"""^ '""^y *^^ ^-kland Islands species to 

SnA Jr'!T ""1'^ (^-.^(^^osa, placing G. heUtdifoUa under the latter. 

12g :Z^^" Flora Austrahensis," went still further, merging both G. montana 
^na (r saxom and this c'ourse was also adopted by Baron Mueller. No doubt 
the fact that Hooker and Bentham were dealing sol/ly with dried specimens will 
toTee w[th T^h T h' r'^ fif^ botanist in New Zealand finds hLself unab 
to agree with That Hooker would have acted differently had he actually seen the 

y^eVZl U /t', T^'T T^ ^^ "^^™^ f™^ *^« f-«* that'^when he 
vu,ited the Auckland Islands, where he was able to observe and draw the species 
on the spot, he recognized the distinctness of G. oenna and G. concinna, whic5i are 
much nearer together, and much more closely allied to the true G. saxosa than most 
of the forms placed by him under that plant. It was not until 1895, when Mr Kirk 
?L^ li . ' Revision of the New Zealand Gentians " (Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895) 
330 that an attempt was made to separate some of the numerous species which 
until then had been huddled together. 

r;.«<.a«a 6e//^«/y;Ma which^I have had frequent opportunities of observing 
both in the North and South Islands, is a small perennial herb with numerou^J 

of"Sl';i'?''l '*'"f ^'Tu\^'''- ^'f^'^ ^'^^ i^^^^^^^^ at the base with rosettes 
of spathulate leaves of a dull brownish-green colour. The flowers are terminal 
solitary or m 2-6-flowered cymes, and large for the size of the plant, being 
somei,imes near y an inch m diameter. In colour they are generally white, 
but are frequently furnished with slender purple lines. As a species it is nearest 
to my G. 'patula, but that plant is ordinarily much taller, with longer leaves 
and t^e flowers are much more numerous. G.divisa differs in being excessively 
branched from the root, thus forming hemispherical masses 2 in. to 6 in. in diameter 

til t:X Xd!' "^'' ''^'"■■^- ''^^ ""^"""^ ^P^^^^'^ ^° -^ ^Pl--- '^^ be 
Plate 140. Geniiana hellidifoUa, drawu from specimens colleek'd bv Mr. 11 Hill on Mie Rn-.lii.u. 



Plate 141. 




M SmUK del. 
JNFitcKlilh 



GENTIANA SPENCERI, T. Kirk- 



Plate 141.--GENTIANA SPENCEIJI. 

Family GENTIANACBJ:.! [Genus GENTIANA, Linn. 

Gentiana Spenceri, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. InM. xxvii (1895), 335 ; Cheesein. Man. N./. 
Fl. 453. 

Gentiana Spenceri was named in recognition o\ the botanical services of the 
Rev. F. R. Spencer, who for many years has collected plants in both the North 
and South Islands, and particularly on the central volcanic plateau of the North 
Island. It was first gathered by him on Mount Rochfort, near Westport, in the 
year 1880, and was communicated to Mr. T. Kirk, who, however, did not publish it 
until the appearance of his " Revision of the New Zealand Gentians " in 1895. 
Since then Mr. Townson, who has so carefully explored the Westport district, has 
found it to be plentiful in many localities on the Paparoa and Papahua Mountains, 
from Mount Faraday northwards to Mount Stormy, near the mouth of the Karamea 
River. From thence it almost certainly stretches still further north in the 
direction of Collingwood, for it has been recently gathered by Mr. F. G. Gibbs in 
the Cobb Valley, near Mount Arthur. It thus appears to be mainly a plant of 
western Nelson, possibly extending southwards into Westland. According to 
Mr. Townson, its altitudinal range is from 1,500 ft. to 3,500 ft. 

G. Spenceri is a well-marked and perfectly distinct plant, not at all closely 
allied to the other New Zealand species. It can always be distinguished by the 
erect slender habit, numerous rosulate obovate-spathulate radical leaves, few cauline 
leaves, and particularly by the involucrate umbels and small flowers, the corolla 
of which is not much longer than the calyx. The flowers are sometimes white, 
but more often, according to Mr. Townson, white streaked with numerous purple 
veins. The same observer informs me that it is usually found among scrub, 
in this respect differing from G. Townsoni, G. montana, and G. hellidifolia, which 
are plentiful in the same district, but which nearly always occur in open or even 
decidedly exposed situations. 

No portion of the Dominion is richer in Gentians than north-west Nelson, 
including in the term the district stretching from Collingwood to Mount Arthur, 
Mount Owen, and thence to the southern termination of the Paparoa Mountains. 
Within these limits the following species occur : G. filipes, G. gracilijolia, 
G. corymbifera, G. Townsoni, G. montana, G. vernicosa, G. patula, G. hellidifolia, 
G. divisa, G. Spenceri, and G. saxosa. Of these eleven species no less than five have 
not been found elsewhere, as follows : G. filipes, G. qracilifoUa, G. Townsoni, 
G. vernicosa, and G. Spenceri. The north-west portion of the South Island mav 
therefore claim to be the centre of distribution of the genus in New Zealand. 

Plate 1-Jl. Gentiana Spenceri, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. W. Towiison on Moimt 
Rochfort, Nelsou, at an altitude of 3,.500 ft. Fig. 1, calyx and ovary (x 2) ; 2, corolla laid open 
(X 2) ; 3 and 4, front and back view of anthers (x 5). 



PUte U2. 







West, Newman imp 



MYOSOTIS FOSTERI, Zehm. 



Pi. ATI: M-i. AIVOSOTIS P'OKSTEKI. 

Family B( )RAGINACEiE.] [Genus MYOSOTIS. Linx. 

Myosotis Forsteri, Lehm. Asperij. 95; II,,,,!.-. j. Ilainlli. N.Z. Fi \'M : ('hee.se.)ii Ma.i, NZ 
Fl. Ki3. 

The genus Myosotis in probably better represented in New Zealand than in any 
other country, no less than twenty-six species being now known to inhabit it. Of 
these, about one-half belong to the typical portion of the genus, in which the stamens 
are inserted on the corolla-tube, tlie filaments being so short that the tips of the 
anthers barely exceed the corolla-scales, or are below their level. The remainder 
of the species fall into the section Exarrhena (often kept as a distinct genus), which 
has the stamens inserted between the corolla-scales, the anthers being produced 
beyond them, and sometimes overtopping the corolla-lobes. 

M. Forsteri, which is a typical Myosotis, was first gathered by Banks and 
Solander in Cook's first voyage. They appear to have met with it in most of 
the localities visited by them, for in Solander's manuscripts it is recorded from 
" Tigadu, Tolago, Opuragi, Motuaro, and Totaranui." Whether it was also gathered 
by Forster in Cook's second voyage is not so certain, although most probable. The 
species was described by Lehmann in 1818 under Forster's name, which would seem 
to imply that Forster had collected it ; but, on the other hand, the only species 
mentioned in Forster's " Prodromus " is M. spathulata, which differs greatly in the 
structure of the flower. Probably, as suggested by Alphonse de CandoUe (Prodr. 
X, 110), it was mixed with that species in Forster's collections, and was overlooked 
until Lehmann's time. This view is rendered more probable by the fact that 
A. Richard, in his " Flore de la Nouvelle Zelande," described undoubted specimens 
of M. Forsteri, collected by D'Urville a little to the north of Nelson, under the name 
of M. spathulata. Richard had full access to Forster's plants, and was no doubt 
misled by both the species being mixed together. As soon as the botanical investiga- 
tion of the Dominion was taken in hand by resident observers M. Forsteri was 
found to have a fairly general distribution from the Bay of Islands southwards to 
the west of Otago, although it appears to be local on the eastern side of the South 
Island. 

M. Forsteri is usually found by the sides of streams, either in hilly and 
wooded districts or in open swampy forests. As a species it is distinguished by its 
weak and diffuse habit, the stems being usually decumbent, but ascending or 
suberect above. The leaves are oblong or oblong-orbicular, and rounded at both 
ends. The flowers, which are white or white with a yellow eye, are arranged in long 
and slender many-flowered racemes, the lower flowers often being axillary. The 
nutlets are broadly ovoid, pale shining brown. Its nearest ally is M. australis : 
but that species is more erect and much more hispid ; the pedicels are more erect, 
the flowers are generally yellow ; and the nutlets are narrower and always black 
when fully ripe. 

Plate 142. Myosotis Forsteri, drawn from specimens collected by the Patea River, near Stratford. 
Taranaki. Fig. 1, small portion of leaf, showing the bristly hairs (x 3) ; 2, flower (x 6) ; ."3. calvx 
laid open (x 8) ; 4, corolla laid open (x 8) ; 5 and 6, front ;ind back view of anther (x 12) ; 7. ovarv 
and style (x 15) ; 8, ripe fruit (x 8) ; 9, nutlet (x 8). 



PLute 143. 




West, Newman imp- 



MYOSOTIS EXPLANATA, Cheesem. 



Pi>ATK U:J.— MVOSOTIS KXPLAXATA. 

Family BORAGINACE^.] [Genus MYOSOTIS. Linn. 

Myosotis explanata, Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 4GI. 

It is one of the peculiarities of the genus Myosotis that species which differ 
essentially in their floral characters may have foliage so very similar in size, shape 
and in the character of their indumentum as to make it a matter of extreme" 
difficulty to distinguish them when flowers are not available. The plant illustrated 
in this plate is a case in point, for it and four other species— .¥. capitata, M. alhidu 
M. concmna, and M. maerantha— which have entirelv distinct flowers, have leaves 
so very similar as to make it quite easy to confound "them in a flowerless condition 
In like manner, M. Forsteri and M. petiolata closely resemble one another in folja^e' 
but have very diverse flowers ; and M. Traversii and M. angustatn are in very mudi 
the same position. It is this peculiarity which has led to several reallv distinct 
species being confused together until quite recent years. 

ilf. explanata was originally discovered bv myself on the mountains overlooking 
Arthur s Pass, Canterbury, in January, 1880. Since then I have twice observed it 
in the same locality, and it has also been gathered on the adjacent Walker's Pass 
by Dr. Cockayne, these being all the localities I am acquainted with. Its altitudinal 
range, as noted by myself, is from 3,000 ft. to 4,500 ft. It is usually found in 
sheltered nooks and corners at the base of masses of rock or of rock pillars. 

M. explanata is most nearly allied to M. capitata, from which, however, it can 
be distinguished by the more membranous and less hairy leaves, by the larg'e pure- 
white flowers, which are almost double the size of the blue flowers of M. capitata, 
and in the larger calyx. The position of the stamens with regard to the scales on the 
throat of the corolla is very much the same in both species. M. alhida can be 
recognized by its larger size and coarser habit, and in the anthers being above the 
level of the corolla-scales, whereas they are below in M. explanata and M. capitata. 

Plate 143. Myosotis explamtu, drawn from specimens collected on Arthur's Pass, Cauterburv 
Alps at an altitude of 3,500 ft. Fig. 1, flower (x 2) ; 2. section of calyx, showing ovary and style 
(X p ; 6, corolla laid open (x 3) ; 4 and 5, front and back view of anthers (x 6) ;' 6 and 7. nutlet 



PUte 144. 




West, Newman imp- 



MYOSOTIS MONROI, Cheesem. 



Platk 144.— MYOSOTJS MONROI. 

Family BORAUINACE.E.I [Genus MYOSOTIS. Linn. 

Myosotis Monroi, Cheescm. Man. N.Z. Fl. 169. 

This attractive little plant was originally discovered by Sir David Monro about 
the year 1854 on Dun Mountain, Nelson. Specimens forwarded at that time t(j 
Kew were referred by Sir J. D. Hooker to the little-known M. saxosa, an obscure 
plant gathered by Colenso on the summit of Titiokura, Hawke's Bay, and which has 
not since been met with. Monro's plant, however, has proved to be comparatively 
abundant on the Dun Mountain Range, and has been gathered by most New Zealand 
botanists, and among them Travers, Hector, Buchanan, Kirk, and myself. Up to 
the present time, however, it has not been found in any other district, and is 
apparently confined to the Dun Mountain Range and its southern continuation 
as far as the Red Hills, in the Wairau Valley, a distance of about thirty-five miles. 
Its altitudinal range is from 3,U00 ft. to 4,500 ft. 

For many years I entertained suspicions that the Dun Mountain plant was 
different from that discovered on Titiokura by Colenso ; but, as all attempts to find 
the latter proved abortive, no positive conclusions could be arrived at. Knowing 
that Colenso's types were at Kew, I applied to Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Kew 
Herbarium, asking him to compare specimens of the two plants. As he reported 
that they were clearly and absolutely distinct, I described the Nelson plant as a 
separate species in the Manual, applying to it the name of its discoverer. 

M. Monroi belongs to the section Exarrhena, in which the anthers extend far 
above the corolla-tube. As a species it is well marked by its comparatively small 
size and slender habit ; by the rather narrow lanceolate-spathulate leaves, hispid 
above with short white hairs, but often almost glabrous beneath ; by the many- 
fiowered racemes of bright-yellow flowers ; by the linear acute calyx-lobes and 
funnel-shaped corolla ; and by the stamens equalling or even slightly exceeding 
the corolla-lobes. Judging from the description given by Hooker in the " Flora," 
M. saxosa differs in its shorter and stouter habit, in the broader leaves very densely 
hispid with long soft hairs, and in the few-flowered racemes of white flowers. 

Plate 144. Myosotis Monroi, drawn from specimens gathered by Mr. F. G. Gibbs on Dun Moun- 
tain, Nelson, at an altitude of nearly 4.000 ft. Fig. 1 . flower ( x 3) ; 2, section of calyx, showing 
ovary and style ( x 4) ; 3, corolla laid open ( x 4) ; 4, ripe fruit ( x 6). 



Pleute 145. 




West, Newman imp. 



MYOSOTIS CONCINNA, Cheesem. 



Plate 145.— MYOSOTIS CONCINNA. 

Family BORACrlNACE^.] [Genus MYOSOTLS, Linn. 

Myosotis concinna, Chresem. in Ti;n,s A'.Z. h,st. xvii (1885). 23.5; Cher.sem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 170. 

Myosotis concinna. which is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful species of 
the genus, was discovered by myself in January, 1882, on the northern slopes of 
Mount Owen, a broad and massive many-peaked mountain situated between the 
Buller Valley and the" headwaters of the Wangapeka River. I reached the locality 
by followmg up the Rolling River from its junction with the Wangapeka, and then 
gradually ascendmg, first through Fayus forest, and then through the densest of 
subalpme scrub, m which Senecio laxifolius was more abundant than in any other 
locality known to me, to the open elevated rocky country surrounding the higher 
peaks of the mountain. In this locality, which varies in altitude from' 3,500 ft. to 
5,000 ft., M. concinna was a very abundant and conspicuous species, its bright-yellow 
flowers showing in every nook and corner, and filling the surrounding air with their 
fragrance. Associated with it were many other interesting alpine plants, among 
which may be mentioned Ranunculus insignis and R. geranitfolius, Ligusticum 
ptkferum, Act-phylla Lyalhi var. crenulata, Brachycnme Sinclatrii, Cebnisia incana 
Craspedia umflora var. lanata (very plentiful). Colohanthus canaliculatus, and 
roranthera alpina. 

In 1902 Mr. W. Townson examined the southern slopes of Mount Owen or the 
opposite side to that visited by me. He also found M. concinna exceedin^lv 
plentiful, remarking that it and Epilohium vernicosum formed the most strikfn'o- 
feature in the vegetation of the mountain. So far as I am aware, the typical form 
of the species has been found nowhere but on Mount Owen ; but in 1886 I o-athered 
a plant on Mount Arthur which agrees in habit, foliage, and shape of corolla but 
differs in the flowers being white with a yellow eye, and not pure yellow as is the 
case with the type. 

M concinna is a remarkably distinct species, especially in its floral characters 
Its radical leaves are numerous and tufted, lanceolate-spathulate in shape and 
densely clothed with fine silky appressed hairs. Springing from among the leaves 
are numerous ascending or erect flowering-stem.^; 6 in. to 15 in. high, each furnished 
with many-flowered simple or forked racemes of bright-yellow sweet-scented flowers 
i he corolla can be described as funnel-shaped with a short tube and large deeply 
divided hmb. The stamens have slender elongated filaments, so that the anthers 
are exserted beyond the corolla-lobes. 

The beauty and fragrance of the flowers suggest its cultivation in gardens 
but so far no attempt has been made to introduce it, probably on account of the 
somewhat difficult nature of its habitats. M. macrantha is an even still more 
beautiful plant, with large, deliciously fragrant brownish-orange flowers, with a 
long tube and small limb. I would also commend to the notice of horticulturists 
the Auckland Islands 31. capttata. with its azure-blue flowers ; the white-flowered 
M. alb'ida and M. explanata ; and also M. petiolata, which has white flowers with 
a yellow eye. 

Plate 145. Myosotis coHcmmi, drawn from specimens collected on Mount Owen Velson at an 
altitude of 4^00 ft. Fig. 1, flower {x3); 2, section of calyx, showing ovary and stvle ' ( x 3) • 
S, corolla laid open (x 3) ; 4 and 5, front and back view of anthers (x 6) • 6, fruit (x 41 • 7 sinHe 
nutlet ( X 4). \ / < > \ > , i, siugie 



Pla.te 146. 




MYOSOTIDIUM MOBILE, Hook. 



Plate 146.— MYOSOTIDIUM NOBILE. 

Family BORAGINACEiE.] [Genus MYOSOTIDIUM, Hook. 

Myosotidium nobile, Uonl: Bot. Mmj. t. 5137 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 472. 

Myosotidium nobile, or the " Chatham Islands lily," as it is often absurdly called, 
is from a scientific point of view the most interesting plant found on the Chatham 
Islands. Its peculiar habit and appearance, so widely different from that of other 
members of the Boraginacew ; its beauty as a garden -plant ; and, above all, the 
remarkable fact that such a distinct genus should be confined to the tiny group of 
the Chatham Islands, where it is far removed from any near allies, and where no key 
exists as to its pedigree and past development ; are facts which necessarily involve 
many questions of importance. We are led to inquire how its presence and that of 
other endemic plants can be best explained ; what changes in the past geography 
of the islands seem to be indicated, and at what geological period ; and what 
bearing such considerations have on the previous history of the New Zealand flora 
as a whole. 

Myosotidium first became known through specimens cultivated in England, and 
was originally described by Sir J. D. Hooker under the name of Cynoglossum nobile 
"Gardener's Chronicle," 1858, p. 240). It soon became apparent, however, that it 
constituted a separate genus, and in 1859 it was described and figured as such in the 
" Botanical Magazine " (t. 5137). The first botanist to collect Myosotidium in its native 
habitat was Mr. H. H. Travers, who visited the Chathams in 1863 for the purpose 
of examining the vegetation, which up to that time was only known through a few 
plants collected by DiefEenbach in 1840. Baron Mueller's little book on the 
" Vegetation of Chatham Islands," which was based on Mr. Travers's collections, 
contains an excellent detailed description of the plant. Since that time it has been 
observed by most visitors to the group, and has also become well known in 
cultivation in the Dominion. 

All old residents of the Chatham Islands agree in stating that Myosotidium 
was originally an abundant coastal plant, usually growing in sandy soil just above 
high- water mark. The late Mr. A. Shand, so well known from his researches into 
the language and traditional history of the Moriori race, assured me that in several 
localities it once formed an unbroken line for miles together on the seashore ; and 
the veteran botanist of the islands, Mr. F. A. D. Cox, makes a similar statement. 
Mr. H. H. Travers, speaking of the coast-line near Waitangi, says, " On the beach 
the Myosotidium nobile grew with rank luxuriance where not invaded by the pigs, 
which fed upon the roots" (Trans. N.Z. Inst, i (1869), 176). At the present time, 
however, it has become rare in the wild state, and only exists in a few scattered 
localities, which are gradually becoming fewer in number. Its decrease is due 
partly to sheep, which feed on the leaves, and partly, as mentioned above, to the 
attacks of pigs, which root up the stout fleshy rhizomes. 

Myosotidium is a stout succulent herb 1 ft. to 3 ft. high, with a thick and fleshy 
rhizome sometimes as much as 2 in. in diameter. The broad dark-green leaves are 
remarkably thick and succulent, and vary from 6 in. to 15 in. in diameter. They 
are strongly ribbed beneath and channelled above, and the stout petiole is also 
grooved in front. The flowering-stem is often more than 2 ft. in height, and bears 
a dense corymbose cyme 6 in. to 9 in. across. The flowers are about J in. 
in diameter, bright blue towards the centre, but fading to white towards the 
margin. The fruit is thick and spongy, pyramidal and four-winged, and from J in, 
to I in. indiameter. 



It requires a little care to cultivate Myosotidium successfully. It can be reared 
from seeds without the slightest difficulty, but to grow it to maturity and flower 
it regularly a special border is requisite. This should be made of sand and peaty 
loam, and the drainage should be absolutely free. A certain amount of shade is 
necessary, and abundance of moisture should be provided. If the above steps are 
taken the plant can usually be established, and may be flowered for many years in 
succession. A white-flowered variety is perhaps even more ornamental than the 
type. 

Plate 146. Myosotidium nobile, drawn from specimens cultrivated in the gaiden of the late 
Mr. H. J. Matthews, Dunedin. Fig. 1, flower just previous to exjjansion (x 2) ; 2, calyx, the corolla 
being removed (x 3) ; 3, section of corolla (x 3) ; I, anther (x 6) ; 5, nutlet (x 1|) ; 6, seed (x 2) ; 
7, embryo (x 2). 



Plate 147. 




Wast, Newman imp. 



CALCEOLARIA SINCLAIRH, Hook. 



Platk 147.-CAL('E()LAKMA SINCLAIRII. 

Family SCROPHULARIACE^.] [Genus CALCEOLARIA, Linn. 

Calceolaria Sinciairii, Hook. If. Plant, t. .JIJI ; Cheescm. Man. N.Z. Fl. 483. 

Calceolaria Sinciairii, as its name denotes, is one of the discoveries of 
Dr. Andrew Sinclair, who between the years 1841 and 1861 paid special attention 
to the botany of New Zealand, and formed large collections. Most of these were 
transmitted to Kew, and constituted no small part of the material upon which 
Sir J. U. Hooker founded his " Flora Nova? Zelandise " and the later-issued 
*' Handbook." The first-mentioned publication was in fact dedicated to Mr. Colenso, 
Dr. Sinclair, and Dr. Lyall, as a " work which owes so much to their indefatigable 
exertions." 

According to the " Icones Plantarum," in which our plant was first figured and 
described. Dr. Sinclair collected it in 1842 at "Waihake, in the Northern Island of 
New Zealand " ; but in the "Flora '" the locality is simply given as the East Cape. By 
" Waihake " is probably meant Waikaka. near the mouth of the Waiapu River, a 
district which in those days possessed a large Maori population and a considerable 
trade. About the same time, or a little later, it was also gathered by Mr. Colenso, 
both in Hawke's Bay and in the East Cape district. It is now known to extend 
southwards from Hicks Bay and the East Cape to Hawke's Bay and the eastern 
base of the Ruahine Mountains. 

Calceolaria Sinciairii is a laxly branched herbaceous or almost suffruticose 
erect plant 6 in. to 18 in. high, more or less glandular-pubescent in all its parts. It 
has opposite leaves on long slender petioles, the blade being coarsely doubly serrate, 
and varying from 1 in. to 3 in. in length. The inflorescence is composed of terminal 
many-flowered panicles far exceeding the leaves, and the flowers are small, white or 
yellow spotted with purple, and from ;|:in. to | in. diameter. The corolla is divided 
into two unequal concave lips, the upper lip being distinctly but slightly smaller, 
and shallowly 2-lobed ; the under entire or very obscurely 3-lobe(l. 

I have retained the circumscription of Calceolaria adopted in Hooker and 
Bentham's '" Cenera Plantarum." and in fi^ngler and Prantl's " Pflanzenfamilien " : 
but Kranzlin, in his monograph prepared for the " Pflanzenreich," has revived the 
genus Jovellana, which includes both the New Zealand species. It only differs in 
the two lips of the corolla being nearly equal, whereas in Calceolaria proper the 
upper lip is much smaller than the other. 

The distribution of Calceolaria is of great interest to the botanical geographer, 
inasmuch as the genus is found only in South America and New Zealand. But. 
as is well known, this fact is precisely paralleled by that of Fuchsia. These two 
genera form by far the most striking proof of a special relationship between the 
flora of South America and New Zealand. 

Platk 147. Calceolaria tiinclairii, drawn from spfcimi'iis ooUected bv ilr. W. Townsoii ou the 
coast-line a little to the north of Gisborne. Fig. 1, flower, with the corolla removed (x .5) ; 2, calyx 
and style (x .5) ; 3, corolla (x 2i) ; 4, base of corolla, with stamens (x 8); .5, transverse .section of 
ovary (x 6) ; 6. ripe capsule (x 6) ; 7, seeds (x 10). 



Pla,te 148. 




West.Newman imp 



VERONICA DIVERGENS, Cheesem. 



Plate 148.— VERONJCA DIVERGENS. 

Family SCROPHULARIACE^.] (^Genus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica divergens, Cheesem. Ma7i. N.Z. Fl. 502. 

Veromca divergens. as a species, is based upon specimens collected by Mr W 
Townson on rocks near the sea at Brighton, the mouth of Fox's River, situated 
about twenty-five niiles south of Westport. So far as I am aware, it has not been 
found in any other locality; but then very little is known of the vegetation of the 
coast-line between Westport and Greyniouth, or of Westland generally, and in 
an probability the^ plant will be found in similar situations elsewhere in those 
districts. With reference to the Brighton locality, Mr. Townson informs me that 
he only met with it for a mile or two to the south of Fox's River, where, however 
in Z^^ r^!^K ^''^^"^'^'^<^' forming bushes attaining an extreme height of 8 ft or 
10 ft. The flowers were borne in great profusion, so that it was a very striking 
object It appeared to be purely littoral, and was not noticed far from the actua! 

COrlS u~ I IMG. 

The dis1,ingui.shing characters of V. divergens appear to be the small oblona 
or e iptic-oblong fiat spreading leaves, long dense racemes, very short and broad 
corolla-tube oblong-ovate obtuse or subacute sepals, and broadly oblong subacute 
capsules. It has some relationship with V. macrourn var. duhia but that is a 
smaller much more diffuse plant, with rather larger and proportionately broader 
leaves, which are edged with a white pubescent line. The flowers much resemble 
those of V. graciUima, but the leaves are altogether unhke. being shorter broader 
and not so acute. Its cross-relationships make it difficult to place; but, on the 
whole, 1 think that it is best kept in the vicinity of V. macroura. 

Plate U8. Veromca diverqms, drawn from .specimens collected by Mr. W. Townson at Brighton 
tTtw ''^ ^ r T'f f ^ f V^^fV-^t. Fig. 1, flower (x 4) ; 2. a side view of the same, showing 
front and back view of anthers (X 8); 6, ripe capside ( x 5) ; 7, seed (enlarged)." 



Plate 149. 




Wesfc.Ne-wmaoi imp. 



VERONICA LEIOPHYLLA, Oheesenc. 



Platk 149.— veronica l.EIOPHYLLA. 

Family SCROPHULARIACEiE.l [Uenus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica leiophylla, Chee.sein. Mmi. N.Z. Fl. 509. 

V. parviflora var. phillyreaefolia, Himk. j. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 192. 

This fine plant, and, to my mind, perfectly distinct species, was originally 
discovered by Mr. J. C. Bidwill in some locality in the Nelson Provincial District. 
In the " Flora Novie Zelandiae " Sir J. D. Hooker placed it as " Veronica 
parviflora var. ^ philh/rea'folia" distinguishing it from the typical form of 
V. parviflora by the following characters : " Foliis anguste linear! -elliptico- 
oblongis subacutis, racemis folio longioribus densifloris, sepalis parvis obtusis, 
corollis niajusculis " — a diagnosis which must be regarded as remarkably apt and 
expressive. No mention whatever is made of it in the " Handbook," and there 
is nothing to show whether it is included in V. parviflora or placed with some 
other species. 

After the publication of tlie "Handbook" it became known to most New 
Zealand b(jtanists, and was variously referred to V. parviflora, V. ligustrifolia, and 
V. Traversii. Believing that it cannot be correctly placed under any of these, 
an opinion in which I have the support of Mr. N. E. Brown, of Kew. I ultimately 
described it in the Manual under the name of V. leiophylla. As to its distribution, 
it appears to be far more plentiful in Nelson, Marlborough, and North Canterbury 
than anywhere else, although it occurs in eastern Canterbury and Otago as far south 
as Lake Te Anau. It is most abundant in river-valleys, and is especially plentiful 
in the Wairau and Awatere Valleys, the upper part of the Buller Valley, &c. Its 
altitudinal range is from sea-level to 3,000 ft. 

As a species I regard V. leiophylla as absolutely marked ofl from V. parviflora 
by the flat linear-oblong subacute or obtuse leaves, and much larger flowers and 
capsules. In addition, F. parviflora has smaller and narrower acute leaves, keeled 
beneath, and the racemes are not much longer than the leaves, whereas they 
conspicuously exceed the leaves in F. leiophylla. V. Traversii, if I am correct 
in my identification of that very problematical plant, certainly is a near ally, but 
is distinct in its shorter and broader usually acute leaves, smaller flowers with a 
shorter tube to the corolla, and smaller capsules. 

From a horticultural point of view V. leiophylla has much to recommend it. 
It is easy of cultivation, does not require special shelter, and will succeed in any 
ordinary soil. Its habit is neat and compact, and it usually blooms with great 
regularity and profusion. 

Plate 149. Veronica kiopkylla. dniwn from specimens collected in the central portioQa of tlie 
Nelson Provincial District. Fig. 1, flower (x 4) ; 2, calyx (x 4) ; .3, section of calyx, showing ovary 
m situ (x 5) ; 4, corolla laid open (x 4) ; 5 and 6, front and back view of anthers (x 6) ; 7, trans- 
verse section of ovary {x 6) ; 8, capsule (x 4) ; 9, seed (enlarged) ; 10, embryo (enlarged). 



Plate 150. 




West.Newmau imp. 



VERONICA RIGIDULA, Cheesem. 



Plate 150.- VERONICA RIGIDULA. 

Family SCROPHULARIACEiE.l [Genus VERONICA, Linx. 

Veronica rigidula, Cheesejii. Man. N.Z. Fl. 514. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. H. Macmah(jii. so well known from his successful botanical 
(explorations in the Marlborough Provincial District, for drawing my attention to 
this curious little plant. His first specimens were obtained from rocks by the side 
of streams in the Pehjrus and Rai Valleys, but he subsequently collected it on Mount 
Duppa, and at Maungatapu. All these localities are on the eastern side of the Dun 
Mountain Range, and in the watershed of the Pelorus River, and are practically 
within ten miles of one another. I do not know of any other stations for th(^ plant, 
unless some flowerless specimens collected by myself in the Wairau Gorge Tiiany 
years ago prove to be referable to it. 

V. riqidula is a small much-branched shrub, often flowering when not nmch more 
than 6 in. high; and, according to Mr. Macmahor, seldom if ever exceeding 24 in. 
The branches are stout, black, peculiarly scarred, and are leafy at the tips only. 
The leaves are close-set, suberect, elliptic-oblong or obovate -oblong, keeled, dark 
green above, glaucous beneath, about \ in. to | in. long. The racemes are lateral 
near the tips of the branches, and are trifurcate, very rarely simple ; the pedicels 
are wanting, or the lower flowers alone are stalked. The calyx-segments are small 
and obtuse, while the corolla-tube is nearly double the length of the calyx. The 
capsule is ovoid-oblong, subacute, barely twice the length of the calyx. 

On the whole, I regard V. rigidula as a distinct little species. It has a super- 
ficial resemblance to V. Colensoi (as that species is limited in my Manual), but can 
be at once distinguished by the smaller and more close -set petiolate keeled leaves, 
shorter and stouter racemes, smaller flowers, and particularly by the obtuse calyx- 
segments and longer corolla-tube with a shorter limb. In V. Colensoi the calyx- 
segments are acute, and the corolla -tube is shorter than the calyx. V. rupicola differs 
altogether in habit, in the larger long-petioled linear-obovate flat leaves, in the much 
longer racemes, large bracts, shorter corolla-tube, and larger capsule. 

Plate 150. Veruiiiai ritjidnla, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. J. H. Macmahon bv the 
Pelorus River, Marlborough. Fig. 1, portion of inflorescence (x 3) ; 2, calyx and style, with a 
bract at the base of the calyx (x 6) ; .3, calyx laid open (x 6) ; 4, corolla laid open (x 6); 5, ripe 
capsule ( X 4). 




Wasb,Wowma.n imp 



VERONICA MATTHEWSII, Cheesem. 



Platk 151.— veronica MATTHKWSII. 

Family SCROPHULARIACE^.l [Oenus VERONICA. Linn. 

Veronica Matthewsii, Clieesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. .517. 

ThiK handsome plant worthily commemorates the name of the late Mr. H. J. 
Matthews, for many years the head of the Forestry Department, and to whose active 
and zealous aid all New Zealand botanists are much indebted. During the early 
part of the preparation of this work he was indefatigable in forwarding material 
and notes, which in several cases were of very great service. His premature 
death leaves a serious gap in the limited number of workers who are interested in 
New Zealand botany from both its scientific and practical aspects ; and on that 
account and for other reasons is much to be regretted. 

The specimens figured in this plate are from plants cultivated in Mr. Matthews'!-' 
garden at Mornington, near Dunedin. These were originally obtained from the 
Humboldt Mountains, to the west of Lake Wakatipu, an unusually rich locality for 
alpine plants, and one still very imperfectly explored. I have also seen a few wild 
specimens from the same locality, together with others collected by Sir Julius 
von Haast and Mr. Armstrong in the Canterbury Alps, and by Mr. J. D. Enys in 
Milford Sound. It is not uncommon in cultivation in the South Island, and until 
quite lately has been treated as a variety of V. Traversii. 

V. Matthewsii has a very distinctive habit and appearance. It has stout terete 
branches often purplish-red when young, which bear numerous close-set thick and 
coriaceous flat leaves f in. to 1| in. long. These are oblong or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 
sessile and rounded at the base. The racemes are near the tips of the branches or 
rarely lateral, large, 2 in. to 4 in. long including the peduncle, densely mnny-flowered. 
The flowers are large. \ in. to \ in. diameter, white or purplish. The calyx-segments 
are obtuse, barely reaching half-way up the rather slender corolla-tube. The 
capsule is about \ in. long, obtuse or subacute, about twice as long as the calyx. 

As mentioned above, V. Matthewsii has hitherto been confused with V. Traversii. 
It is, however, a much more robust plant with a different habit of growth ; the leaves 
are thicker and more coriaceous, and much more obtuse ; and the racemes are larger 
and stouter, with much larger flowers. Judging from the description and the plate 
given in the Botanical Magazine, it is probably nearer to V. Balfouriana, a species 
apparently only known in cultivation in England. But it difi^ers from that in the 
larger leaves, obtuse calyx-segments, and much longer corolla -tube, which in 
F. Balfouriana is barely longer than the calyx. 

V. Matthewsii does well in cultivation, like many other of the indigenous species, 
and is deserving of greater attention than has yet been paid to it. 

Plate I.jI. Veronica Mattlieivsii. drawn from specimens cultivated in the garden of the late 
Mr. H. J. Matthews. Mornington. Dunedin. Fig. 1, flower with bract (x 5) ; 2, back view of flower 
(x5); 3, calyx laid open, showing ovary and style (x6); ^. corolla laid open (x 4) ; 5 and 6, 
front and back view of anther (x 6) ; 7, ripe capsule (x 5). 



PlAte U 




VERONICA GIBBSII. T.Kirk. 



Platk 152.— veronica GIBBSII. 

Family SCROPHULARIACEiE. j [Genus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica Gibbsii, T. Kirk in Tran.^. .V.Z. In.st. xxviii (1896). 524 : Cher.few. Man. A'.Z. 
Fl. 524. 

Veronica Gibbsii is named in honour of Mr. F. G. Gibb«, M.A., of Nelson, who 
for many years has been a diligent and painstaking investigator of the flora of the 
Nelson Provincial District, and who has made several important discoveries, as 
Ligusticum diversifolium, Celmisia Gibbsii. Raoulia Gibbsii, Gentiana vernicosa, 
&c. He has also collected much fresh information bearing upon the distribution 
of the species constituting the Nelson flora. 

V. Gibbsii was originally discovered on Mount Rintoul and Ben Nevis, two 
of the chief peaks of the Dun Mountain Range, and situated from twenty to thirty 
miles from Nelson in a southerly direction. Probably it exists on other peaks on 
the same range, but I have no proof to that effect. It may here be remarked that 
the Dun Mountain Range has in some respects a distinct and curious vegetation, 
possibly associated with its peculiar geological structure. In addition to Veronica 
Gibbsii, at least three other plants are apparently confined to it — Raoulia Gibbsii, 
Myosotis Monroi, and Pimelea Suteri. 

V. Gibbsii is a sparingly branched shrub from 9 in. to 18 in. high, usually found 
in rocky places. The leaves are close-set, spreading, ovate or ovate-oblong in 
shape, coriaceous, usually glaucous, but often tinged with purplish-red, glabrous 
except the margins, which are fringed with long soft white hairs. The flowers are 
white, and are arranged in spikes near the tips of the branches. The calyx- 
segments are ovate-lanceolate, acute, and the margins are villous. The capsule 
is narrow-ovoid, acute, compressed, about twice as long as the calyx. 

V. Gibbsii is a distinct species, which cannot be confused with any other. Its 
nearest ally is probably V. carnosula, from which, however, it is easily distinguished 
by the less concave and more acute leaves, and especially by their conspicuously 
villous margins. Its bracts, too, are more acuminate, and the calyx-segments 
are narrower and more acute. The villous margins of the leaves constitute 
a very remarkable character, and one which cannot be matched among the rest 
of the eighty-five species of the genus found in New Zealand. 

Plate 152. Veronica Gibbsii, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. F. G. Gibbs on Ben Nevis, 
Nelson, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, flower, showing bract at the base (x5); 2, section of 
calyx, showing ovary and style { x 5) ; 3. corolla ( x 5) ; 1. the same laid open ( x 5) ; 5. group of 
ripe capsules (x 5). 



Plate 153. 




West.Newman imp. 



VERONICA TETRAGONA, Hook. 



Plate 15.3.— VERONICA TETRAGONA. 

Family SCROPHULABIACE^.] [Genus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica tetragona, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 580 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 530. 

A botanist obtaining his first knowledge of the genus Veronica in the 
Northern Hemisphere would find it composed almost entirely of herbaceous plants 
seldom more than a couple of feet in height, and usually much less, the 
great majority of the species having a decidedly weedy aspect ; but on visiting 
New Zealand his conception of the genus would be entirely altered. He would 
see some species attaining the height of trees, one in particular reaching an altitude 
of 30 ft., with a trunk sometimes nearly 2 ft. in diameter ; and he would find a 
considerable number forming large and compactly branched shrubs. And at the 
other end of the scale he would make the acquaintance of two or three species so 
reduced in size as to form small moss-like tufts on the mountains, sometimes barely 
an inch in diameter. But in particular would he be surprised to notice a 
remarkable section of the genus, absolutely unknown in the Northern Hemisphere, 
in which the leaves are so greatly reduced in size as to become scale-like, and, 
being closely imbricated and appressed to the branch, give it a curious appearance 
resembling a strand of plaited cord. From this peculiarity the section has received 
the name of the " Whipcord Veronicas. ^^ This section contains no less than 
twelve species, of which V. tetragona, the subject of this plate, is one of the most 
remarkable. 

Veronica tetragona was first discovered by Mr. J. C. Bidwill during the well- 
known ascent of Ngauruhoe made by him in the year 1839. His specimens were 
apparently forwarded to Kew through Mr. Colenso, for in the original description 
given in the " Icones Plantarum " (t. 580) it states that it was collected " near 
the perpetual snow on the summit of Tongariro, a high and volcanic mountain in 
the middle of the Island, gathered, with many other novelties existing there, by 
a gentleman who visited the Church of England Missionary Station about three 
days' journey from the mountains, and who gave them to Mr. Colenso." In the 
" Flora Novae Zelandise " the locality is simply given as " Tongariro ; Bidwill." 
Flowerless specimens sent by Dieifenbach as having been gathered in Queen 
Charlotte Sound were, however, the first to reach England, although Dieifenbach 
could not have collected them at an earlier date than Bidwill. In the absence of 
flowers and fruit their identity with Veronica was not suspected ; and the scale- 
like leaves presented such a close resemblance to those of some Podocarpi that Sir 
W. J. Hooker had a plate prepared for the " Icones " under the name of Podocarpus 
Dieffenbachii. Bidwill's specimens arrived just in time to prevent the publication 
of the name, but not of the plate (t. 547). In reference to it Sir W. J. Hookei 
remarks, " At the time the accompanying figure was drawn and engraved we are 
not ashamed to acknowledge that it was taken by us for a Podocarpus. Little did 
we think it was a Veronica, as it has since proved to be, by a comparison with an 
indifferent flowering specimen, indeed, but undoubtedly the same species given 
at tab. 580 of the present volume." 

Since the times of Bidwill and other early visitors it has been ascertained that 
V. tetragona is an abundant plant on the central volcanic plateau of the North 
Island. It can be observed all round the base of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, and 
Ruapehu, becoming plentiful at about 3,000 ft. elevation, and ascending to fully 
5,000 ft. It has also been gathered on the adjoining Kaimanawa Mountains, and 
on the isolated Mount Hikurangi, in the East Cape district. In the Tararua Range 



2 

it appears to be replaced by the very closely allied F. Astoni, a plant which many 
botanists will prefer to consider a variety only. In the " Handbook " several 
localities were recorded from the South Island, but no specimens have been 
obtained therefrom in late years. 

V. tetragona is a small branching shrub, usually forming a round-topped bush 
1 ft. to 3 ft. in height. The branches are stout and erect, and are densely clothed 
with short and thick closely appressed scale-like leaves, which being opposite and 
decussate give the branch a tetragonous appearance. The flowers are white or 
nearly so, and are sessile amongst the uppermost leaves, forming small terminal 
heads. In young plants the leaves are much longer and narrower, linear-subulate 
with a broad base, and are not nearly so closely appressed. I have not seen the 
leaves of seedlings, and cannot say whether they show any approach to those of 
V. lycopodioides, in which they are frequently lobed or pinnatifid. 

It may here be remarked that all the species of the section to which 
V. tetragona belongs, so far as they have been investigated, have in their juvenile 
state leaves differing very greatly from those of the adult, and always much 
exceeding them in size. They are not appressed, but spread outwards, and 
they usually jjossess a more or less well-defined petiole and lamina. They thus 
approach the ordinary leaf-form of the genus, from which the leaves of the mature 
plant have so greatly departed. These juvenile leaves may under favourable 
circumstance appear on adult plants, or they may be caused to appear by 
cultivating the plant in a moist chamber. As they must be regarded as more 
primitive than the mature leaves, they probably give us some insight into 
the phylogeny of the whipcord Veronicas, and show that in all probability 
they have been derived from ancestors which possessed foliage much better 
developed than their present representatives. For further particulars the 
student should refer to papers by Kirk and Cockayne in the " Transactions of 
the New Zealand Institute," and to several of Dr. Goebel's works. 

In several of the whipcord Veronicas the juvenile form of the foliage 
persists for several years. Thus near the base of Ruapehu, and on the 
saddle between it and Ngauruhoe, I noticed quite a considerable number of 
fairly large plants of V. tetragona still retaining their juvenile foliage, and 
showing no trace of the mature stage. These plants were mixed with others 
covered with the short appressed and scale -like leaves of the adult, some of 
these latter being much smaller than those retaining the juvenile leaves. 
A branch from one of the plants still clothed with juvenile leaves is figured 
in the lower corner of this plate. 

Plate 153. Veronica tetragona, drawn from specimens collected at the base of Mount Ruapehu, 
at an altitude of 3,000 ft. Fig. 1, portion of branchlet, allowing arrangement of the leaves (x 4) ; 
2, inner face of leaf (x -4) ; 3, bract (x 4) ; 4 and 5, different views of a flower (x 4) ; 6, section 
of calyx, showing ovary and style (x 4) ; 7, corolla laid open (x 6) ; 8 and 9, front and back view 
of anther ; 10, capsule ( x 3). 




West.Newman imj. 



VERONICA CUPRESSOIDES, Hooh f. 



Platk 154. -YEROXICA CUPRESS()IDP]S. 

Family SCROPHULARIACE^.l [Genus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica cupressoides, Hook. /. Haridh. N.Z. Fl. 212; Gheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 533. 

Veronica cupressoides is another member of the group of whipcord Veronicas 
alluded to under the previous plate, and probably the most remarkable. It was 
first discovered by Dr. Sinclair in 1859 or 1860 at the Wairau Gorge, Nelson; and 
at Tarndale, between the Wairau Valley and the Clarence. Many years afterwards 
I gathered the species in probably the" actual localities in which it was found by 
Sinclair. It was next collected by Mr. VV. T. L. Travers in the Wairau Valley, and 
by Sir Julius v(m Haast in the Ashburton district, Canterbury; while in 1863 it 
was found by Sir James Hector and Mr. Buchanan in the Lake district of Otago. 
Its range, so far as is known at the present time, is from the Wairau Gorge 
southwards to Lake Te Anau. Apparently it is unknown on the western side of 
the Southern Alps, although in some localities, such as Lake Tennyscm, Harper's 
Pass, &c.. it comes very near to the actual watershed. Thirty or forty vears 
ago it was much more plentiful than now, for, being generally an inhabitant of 
river valleys or terraces, it has suffered greatly from the almost universal practice 
of burning off the vegetation in such localities. Its altitudinal range I take to be 
from 2,000 ft. to 4,.500 ft. 

V. cupressoides, in the localities in which I myself have seen it, forms a closely 
branched round -topped shrub 2 ft. to 6 ft. or even 8 ft. high. The branches spread 
considerably ; the branchlets are very numerous, slender, green, clothed with small 
decussate scale-like leaves resembling those of a cypress. Unlike all the other whip- 
cord Veronicas, the leaves are in remote pairs, separated from one another by <(uite 
a considerable interval. The flowers are pale bluish-purple or nearly white, and 
are sessile close to the tips of the branchlets. forming small heads. The capsule is 
small, narrow-obovoid. 

The whipcord Veronicas are remarkable for the extent to which thev resemble 
plants of very different families. V. cupressoides possibly offers as striking an 
instance as any, for the manner in which the branchlets mimit^ as it were, those 
of a cypress never fails to impress the most casual observer. We have already 
seen that V. tetragona, when first discovered, was actually figured in mistake for 
a Podocarpus. V. lycopodioides has much of the aspect of several Li/copods with 
appressed scale-like leaves. Finally, V. salicornioides was named on account of 
the likeness of its branchlets to those of a species of Salicornia. 

V. cupressoides does well in cultivation, especially in the middle and southern 
portion of the Dominion, where it succeeds in almost any open loamy soil if provided 
with a little shade. In a cool and damp situation it frequently produces reversion 
shoots with juvenile leaves. 

Plate 154. Veronicit cuprensoides. diawii fnun specimens collected by the Broken River. Canter- 
bury Alps, at an altitude of 3,000 ft. A, seedling ; B, reversion shoot with juvenile leaves, taken from 
the base of an old plant ; C. branch from a mature plant. Fig. 1 . branchlet, with leaves 
from A (X 3) : 2. branchlet, with leaves from mature plant (x 6) ; 3, tip of branch, with two flowers 
(x 6) ; 4. bract (x (i) ; 5. calyx (x 6) ; 6, the same laid open, showing the ovary and style (x 6) ; 
7, corolla laid open (x 8) ; 8 and 9, front and back view of anther (x 10) ; 10, ripe capsule (x 5) • 
11, embryo (enlarged). 



Pla,te J55. 




■Weat.Newnian imp. 



VERONICA EPACRIDEA, J¥"oo^.y! 



l^LATK 155.- VERONICA EPACRIDEA. 

Family SCROPHULARIACEiE.] [Genus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica epacridea, Ilnok. j. Handb. iV.Z. Fl. 213 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 535. 

The subject of the present plate has a very different aspect from the two species 
previously figured. Its habit is altogether unlike, for it forms a much-branched 
prostrate or decumbent shrub seldom more than a few inches in height. Its branch- 
lets, instead of being very numerous, slender, erect, and clothed with minute scale- 
like leaves, as is the case in F. tetraqona and V. cwpressoides, are comparatively few 
in number, decumbent at the base, and then curved upwards, and densely clothed 
with spreading and recurved rigid and coriaceous leaves. These in their size, shape, 
and mode of arrangement recall those of some Australian species of Epacris ; which 
no doubt is the reason for Hooker's specific name : and the flowers, instead of 
being placed in little heads obviously lateral to the branch although near its tip, 
are compacted into a single large ovoid cluster terminating the branch. 

Like the previous species, V. epacridea was originally discovered by Dr. Sinclair, 
his first specimens being obtained at Tarndale, a few miles from the Wairau Gorge, 
Nelson. It was next collected in the Waiau Valley by Mr. W. T. L. Travers, and 
in numerous localities in the Canterbury Alps by Sir Julius von Haast. Its range, so 
far as is known at the present time, stretches from Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, in 
north-west Nelson, where I gathered it as far back as 1881, southwards along the 
higher peaks of the Dun Mountain Range and the Wairau Mountains to the Spenser 
Mountains and Lake Tennyson, and from thence along the Southern Alps to the 
south of Lake Wanaka. It is a high alpine plant, seldom descending much below 
4,000 ft., and frequently ascending to 6,500 ft. or even higher. 

V. evacridea is often found on shingle-slopes, on which it probably attains its 
greatest size and luxuriance ; but it is also found on rock-faces, or even on bare 
rocky ground. As a species it nearest relative is undoubtedly V. Haastii, some forms 
of which approach it very closely. But as a rule it is easily separated from that plant 
by the smaller size, sharply recurved leaves, which are much more coriaceous, and 
by the ciliate bracts and calyx-segments. F. HaastU is also a much greener and 
more fleshy and succulent plant. It can hardly be said that any other species even 
remotely approaches it. 

Plate 155. Veronica epacridea, drawn from specimens collected on Mount Peel. Nelson, at an 
altitude of 5,500 ft. Fig. 1. leaves (x 2) ; 2, flower (x4); 3, calyx and bract (x 4) : i. corolla 
laid open (x 5) ; 6 and 6, front and l)ack view of anthers (x8): 7. ovarv and stvle (x5); 
8, capsule (x 5) ; 9, seeds (enlarged). 



PLa^te 156. 




West, Newman imp. 



VERONICA MACRANTHA, Hook-F. 



Platk 156.— veronica MACRANTHA. 

Family SCROPHULARIACE^.] [Genus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica macrantha, Hook. j. Hiimlh. A'.Z. ^7. 21o ; CheeKeni. Man. N.Z. Fl. 5.j7. 

Veronica macrantha is not a large-growing species, and its habit of growth is 
bv no means as attractive as that of many others ; but nevertheless, when seen 
in full flower, there are few species of the genus that present a more charming 
appearance. In the Mount Cook district, where it is most abundant, the sight 
of a rocky slope covered with multitudes of its pure-white flowers is a spectacle 
not easily paralleled and not likely to be readily forgotten. 

Mr. W. T. L. Travers and Sir Julius von Haast were the first to observe 
V. macrantha. Where Mr. Travers gathered it I do not know, but Haast's locality 
is given as grassy hillsides in the Southern Alps, sources of the Waitaki. &c. Since 
its first discovery it has been proved to have a fairly extensive range in 
alp'ne districts in the South Island, but it is often local, and seldom extends 
far from the central chain of tlie Scmthern Alps. The most northern k)cality known 
to me is Mount Arthur and Mount Peel, where I have found it not uncommon. 
I have also gathered it on the Wairau Mountains, the Upper Clarence River. 
Lake Tennyson, and Arthur's Pass. From thence it seems to stretch southwards 
along the central chain to the Mount Cook district, the mountains at the head 
of Lake Hawea and l^ake Wanaka, and as far south as the head of Lake Te 
Anau and the Clinton Vallev. Its altitudinal range appears to be from 2, .500 ft. 
to 5,500 ft. 

F. macrantha is seldom more than 2 ft. in height, and is often much less ; the 
branches are few in number, erect or spreading, and are bare of leaves except 
towards the top. The leaves are usually obovate, from -| in. to 1 in. in length, and 
are obtuselv serrate. The racemes are axillary, 3-8- flowered ; and the flowers, 
which are larger than in any other New Zealand species, are | in. in diameter, and 
pure white. Usually the plant is found on steep and more or less rocky slopes, 
mixed witli subalpine scrub of no great height — species of Olearia, Senecio, Coprosma, 
Acifhylla, Ligusticum, &c. In some of the valleys in the Mount Cook district it 
forms a considerable proportion of the vegetation. 

As a species V. macrantha is allied to the magnificent V. Benthami of 
the Auckland and Campbell Islands, the only species found in the New Zealand 
area which has conspicuous blue flowers. But V. Benthami is more copiously 
branched, the leaves are larger, narrower, and are margined with white dowii, the 
racemes are longer and bear more numerous flowers, and the flowers are usually 
5-merous, whereas they are always 4-merous in F. macrantha. The difference in 
the colour of the flowers in the two species is also noteworthy. 

Plate l.od Veronica niacruitllui. dvawn fioui sjjcciinriis c<illected in tlu' Hooker Valley, Mount 
Cook district, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, part of leaf (x b) ; 2. calyx, with bract at it.s base 
(X 2) ; 3, section of calyx, showing ovary and style (x 3) ; 4, corolla laid open (x2); 5, trans- 
verse section of ovary (x .5) ; fi, ripe capsule, with the calyx removed (x 3). 



PUte 157. 




VERONICA B IDWILLII, ^ooA:. / 



Pi.ATi: 157.— VERONICA KIDWILI.U. 

Family SCROPHULARIACE^.] [Genus VERONICA, Linn. 

Veronica Bidwillii, Hook. Ic. Plaiil. t. 81 1 ; Clicvsvui. Man. X.Z. Fl. .jt.'l 

The nine species of Veronica previously figured in tlie " Illustrations " all 
belong to the section Hehe, which is confined to the .Southern Hemisphere, and which 
practically includes all those species which have a shrubby or treelike habit. It 
is distinguished from the rest of the genus, with the exception of the group separated 
by Hooker under the name of Pygmcpa, by the capsule being turgid, or compressed 
parallel to the septum, so that the longest diameter of the capsule is along 
the septum. All the species constituting the remainder of the genus are herbaceous, 
or very slightly woody at the base, and the capsule is compressed at right angles 
to the septum, so that the septum is across its narrowest diameter. This division 
includes the subject of this plate. 

Veronica Bidwillii as its name implies, was originally discovered by Mr. J. C 
Bidwill in the Wairau Valley, Nelson. Shortly afterwards it was gatliered by 
Sir D. Monro, Mr. W. T. L. Travers. and other early explorers, and has since been 
seen in many parts of the South Island, from Collingwood southwards to Central 
Otago, ascending to quite 4,000 ft. I am not aware, however, of any locality on the 
western side of the dividing range. It is usually found on the broad stretches of 
stony ground which occupy most of the river-valleys of the Southern Alps, and 
which are often covered by water in floods. At such times they constitute part 
of the bed of the river to which their origin is due. In such localities F. Bidwillii 
is usually an abundant plant, forming carpets which cover considerable areas, the 
much-branched stems creeping close to the ground, and frequently entirely 
concealing it, while from the middle of the carpets rise numerous peduncles 6 in. 
to 9 in. high, strict and erect, and each bearing several rather large pale-pink flowers 
with darker Hues. 

V. Bidwillii is a remarkably distinct species, and can always be distinguished 
by its habit of forming dense carpets, by its minute uniform leaves, which var\' 
from 1 in. to /,, in. in length, and have one or two teeth on each side, by its 
long erect peduncles, and rather large flowers. Probably V. Lyallii is its nearest 
ally, but the habit is very different, being much more diffuse and erect, the leaves 
are larger, and the pedimcles are shorter. It does well in cultivation, flowering 
quite freely. 

Plate 157. Veroiiim Bidwillii, drawn from specimens collected in the Hooker Vallev, Mount 
Cook district, at an altitude of 2,500 ft. Fig. 1, portion of branch, with leaves (x 3) : 2, a pair of 
flowers (x3): 3, calyx and ovary (x 3) ; 4, corolla laid open (xt); 5, capsule, a portion of the 
per.si.stent calyx removed ( x 3). 



Plate 158. 




\. Smitli del. 
.N.Fitoli lilh. 



OURISIA SE SSILIFOLI A, iyooAr./ 



Plate 158.— OURISIA SESSILIFOLIA. 

Family SCROPHULARIACEiE.] [Genus OURISIA, Comm. 

Ourisia sessilifolia, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 218 ; Cheesetn. Man. N.Z. Fl. o50. 

Ourisia, which is a genus of between twenty or thirty species, is of particular 
interest to those engaged in the study of the origin of the New Zealand flora, the 
home of the genus being in the Andes of South America, where it ranges from 
New Grenada to the Strait of Magellan. But notwithstanding the distance 
separating the two countries it has established itself in New Zealand, where at 
least eight species are known : and a solitary species also occurs in Tasmania. 
As we cannot suppose that the genus has originated independently in the three 
countries, it becomes a nice question how to account for its presence in localities 
separated by such immense distances of ocean. 

Sir Julius von Haast, who was the first to collect so many of the species 
composing the alpine flora of Canterbury, discovered 0. sessilifolia on Mount 
Brewster, to the north of Lake Wanaka, in January, 1863. Subsequent botanists 
have observed it in many localities in the alpine centre of the South Island, from 
the Kaikoura Mountains on the east and the Paparoa Range on the west, south- 
wards to the south-west of Otago. It also reappears on the summit of Mount 
Anglem, Stewart Island. It is a high alpine, and is rarely seen below 4,000 ft. 

In the Mount Cook district 0. sessilifolia is an abundant plant on most of the 
mountains, forming large patches on the sides of moist sheltered hollows, where it 
must be covered by a considerable depth of snow in the winter and spring months. 
In such situations it is associated with other alpine plants, such as Celmisia Hectori, 
Ranunculus sericophijllus, Caltha novce-zelnndiw, Rostkovia gracilis. Carex pyrenaica, 
&c. It is most abundant at an altitude of about 5,000 ft., but ascends to quite 
6,500 ft., and possibly higher. Its habit is peculiar, the lower portion of the stem 
being creeping and rooting, the leaves being practically bifarious and closely 
appressed to the surface of the ground. The stout peduncle is often 6 in. in height, 
and bears numerous large white flowers, which shade into dark violet towards the 
base. When in full flower it is thus a most charming and attractive plant. 

Almost all the species of Ourisia found in New Zealand are well worth cultiva- 
tion in gardens, even if a little additional trouble is required to grow them to 
advantage. The two larger species, 0. macrocarpa and 0. macrophylla. are among 
the finest herbaceous plants known in New Zealand, and their cultivation does 
not seem to present any extraordinary difficulties. The late Mr. H. J. Matthews 
grew both of them to perfection in his garden at Mornington. near Dunedin, 
together with most of the smaller species, including 0. sessilifolia. 

Plate 1,58. Ourisia sessilifolia, drawn from specimens collected in the Mount Cook district, at 
an altitude of 5,500 ft. Fig. 1, bract (x 2) ; 2, calyx (x 3) ; .3, hairs from the calyx (x 8) ; 4, corolla 
laid open (x 3) ; 5 and 6, back and front view of anthers (x 6) ; 7, ovary, with style and stigma (x 4) ; 
8, transverse section of ovary (x 5). 



FUte 159. 




West, Newman imp. 



M Smibh del. 
JN.FibcKlith. 



A UTRICULARIA NOVAE -ZEALANDIAE, Hook f. 1 8. 
B. UTRICULARIA DELICATULA, Cheesem. 9-19. 



Plate 159.-UTRIOULAR1 A NOV.E-ZELANDl^ and 
UTRICULAKIA DELICATULA. 

Family LBNTIBULARIACEJ:.] [Genus UTRICULARIA, Linn. 

Utricularia novae-zelandiae, Hook. j. Fl. Nor. Zd. i, 200 ; Cheesein. Man. N.Z. Fl. .jCO. 
Utricularia delicatula, Cheesein. Mini. N.Z. Fl. 5<jl. 

The genus Utricularia has been comparatively neglected in New Zealand, and 
the distribution of the species is consequently imperfectly known. U. novcB- 
zelandice, one of the two species figured in this plate, was first collected by 
Mr. Colenso in 1845 on '" wet rocks at Palliser Bay," and was published bv 
Sir J. D. Hooker in the " Flora Novie Zelandise." It does not seem to have 
been observed again until 1867. when Mr. T. Kirk and Captain Hutton gathered 
it on the Great Barrier Island. Since then it has been observed by myself at Lake 
Ohia, in Mongonui County ; by Mr. W. T. Ball and myself at Taupaki, on the 
Kaipara Railway ; near Waiuku, by Mr. Carse ; at Waihi, by Mr. Petrie ; near 
Lake Taupo. by Mr. A. Hamilton : and in the Ngaire Swamp (Taranaki), by 
myself. It has also been recorded by Mr. J. B. Armstrong from the Canterbury 
Plains in swamps near the sea, but I have seen no specimens, and consequently 
cannot be positive that the species has been correctly identified. 

U. delicatula was discovered by myself in 1880, in the extensive swamps near 
Ohaupo, in the Middle Waikato district, but at that time I confounded it with 
U. Colensoi. It was not until 1896. when I gathered it in abundance at Mangatete, 
near Kaitaia, that its distinctness from that species was satisfactorily established. 
More recently Mr. H. Carse has observed it in two or three other localities near 
Kaitaia, and in swamps between Waiuku and the Manukau Harbour. 

Of the six species of the genus at present known in New Zealand, two 
{U. protrusa and U. Mairii) fall into the section Natantes, all the species of which 
have floating stems and submerged multifid leaves. The remainder belong to the 
section Limosm, composed of plants growing in bogs, and which bear few radical 
leaves, which may disappear altogether at the flowering period, and erect leafless 
scapes or peduncles with one or few or many flowers. 

Utricularia novce-zelandias can be distinguished from all its allies by the pale- 
purple flowers with a yellow eye : by the upper lip of the corolla being truncate 
or very slightly retuse at the tip. never 2-lobed ; by the lower lip being very broad 
and entire, and furnished with three broad raised ridges, each of which is longi- 
tudinally grooved ; and by the short thick obtuse spur. U. delicatula is smaller 
in all its parts, and the flowers are white with a faint yellow eye. The upper lip 
of the corolla is conspicuously 2-lobed at the tip ; the lower is quite entire, and has 
no trace of the raised longitudinal ridges so obvious in U. novm-zelandice : and the 
spur is longer and narrower, and minutely 2-horned at the tip. It agrees with 
U. Colensoi, so far as that species is known, in the shape of the upper lip, but differs 
altogether in the lower lip, which in U. Colensoi is described as " broadly cuneate, 
3-lobed, middle lobe retuse, disc with three gibbous prominences," all being cha- 
racters non-existent in U. delicatula. The remaining species of the section LinioscB 
found in New Zealand {U. monanthos) can be separated at a glance from both 
U. delicatula and U. novw-zelandiw by the larger violet-purple flowers, broadlv cuneate 
upper lip, very broad semicircular lower lip, and short obtuse spur. 

Plate 159a. Utricularia novw-zelandiix, drawu from specimens collected in Sphagnum bogs 
near Waihi, Ohinemuri County. Fig. 1, bladder borne on the roots (x 7) ; 2 and 3, different views 
of flower (X 4) ; 4, flower, with the corolla removed (x 6) ; 5 and 6, stamens (x 10) ; 7, ovary, with 
style and stigma (x 10) ; 8, ripe fruit (x .3). 

Plate 1.59b. Utricularia delicatula, drawn from specimens collected in Spliagnum swamps near 
Kaitaia, Alongonui County. Fig. 'J, creeping stem with leaves and bladders (x 2) ; 10 and 11, different 
views of a bladder (x 8) ; 12, flower (x 4) ; 13, flower, with the corolla removed (x .5) ; 14, upper 
lip of corolla, with stamens and pistil (x 6) ; 15 and 16, stamens (x 10) ; 17, ovary, style, and 
stigma (X 10) : 18, npe capsule (x 3) ; 19, section of same, showing seeds (x 4). 



Plate 160. 







West.Newmin imp 



RHABDOTHAMNUS SOLANDRI, A.Cunn. 



Plate 160.— RHABDOTHAMNUS SOLANDRI. 

Family GESNERACEiE.] [Genus RHABDOTHAMNUS, A. Cunn. 

Rhabdothamnus Solandri, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 385 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 562. 

The family GesneracecB reaches its southern limit in New Zealand, where it 
is represented by the subject of this plate, a monotypic genus allied to the Lord 
Howe Island Negria and the New Caledonian Coronanthera. All three are not 
very far removetl from the huge Malayan and Pacific genus Cyrtandra, of which 
almost every island in Polynesia possesses its peculiar species. 

Rhabdothamnus Solandri was originally discovered by Banks and Solander in 
Mercury Bay (or Opuragi, as Solander called it) during Cook's first visit to New 
Zealand. It was fully described and figured in Solander's manuscript " Primitiee 
Florae Novse Zelandise " under the name (which was never actually published) of 
Columnea scabrosa. It does not seem to have been noticed again until Allan 
Cunningham's first visit in 1826, when he gathered it in the Bay of Islands and 
Whangaroa districts. Subsequent research has proved that it is an abundant plant 
all through the northern portion of the North Island, from the North Cape south- 
wards, but that it becomes rare and local to the south of Taranaki, although it 
has been recorded from various localities almost as far south as Cook Strait. Its 
altitudinal range is from sea-level to about 2,000 ft. 

R. Solandri is a much-branched shrub seldom more than 4 ft. or 5 ft. high, 
everywhere rough to the touch from a covering of minute short and stiff conical 
hairs. It is usually found on the shaded sides of wooded ravines, where the forest 
is comparatively open and the soil dry and often shingly. It is also frequently 
seen on wooded declivities by the seashore. It has slender spreading often inter- 
twined branches, and dull-green broadly ovate or orbicular coarsely toothed leaves. 
The flowers are decidedly handsome, f in. to 1 in. in length, orange with red stripes, 
and are produced in succession during the major portion of the year. 

The pollination of RhabdofJiamnus has been described in detail by Mr. Petrie 
in a paper printed in the " Transactions of the New Zealand Institute " (vol. xxxv, 
p. .321). He points out that the flowers are proterandrous, the stigma being quite 
immature when the anthers are discharging their pollen, thus making the 
fertilization of the flower by its own pollen practically impossible. Further, 
there is a curious change in the position of the anthers after they have wholly or 
partly shed their pollen. When dehiscence commences they are so situated that 
a bird thrusting its head into the flower cannot avoid being plentifully dusted with 
pollen. At a later period the anthers move until they are in contact with the lower 
lip of the corolla, the now mature stigma occupying almost the same position that 
the anthers previously held. It follows from the above that fertilization is probably 
effected by birds carrying the pollen from recently expanded flowers and depositing 
it on the stigmas of much older flowers. 

Plate 160. Rhabdothamnus Solandri, drawn from specimens collected on the Waitakerei Eanges, 
near Auckland. Fig. 1, portion of leaf, showing its covering of short conical hairs (x 5) ; 2, hairs 
still further enlarged ; 3, calyx, with ovary and style (x 2) ; 4, corolla laid open (x 2) ; 5, anthers 
(x 6) ; 6, ovary (x 4) ; 7, transverse section of ovary (x 4) ; 8, fruit (x 3). 



Plaite 167. 




VITEX LUCENS. T. Kirk. 



Platk 161.— VI TEX LIJCENS. 

(THE PURIRI.) 

Family VERBENACEiE.l [Genus VITEX, Linn. 

Vitex lucens, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxix (1897), 525 ; Vheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 565. 
V. littoralis, A. Cunn. Precur. n. 390 (not of Decaisne) ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 203. 

It was to be expected that such an important and conspicuous tree as the 
puriri should attract the notice of the earliest European visitors to the Dominion, 
and hence it is not at all surprising to learn that Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander 
collected it at Tolaga Bay as far back as 1769 during Cook's first visit to New 
Zealand. The plant was excellently described by Solander in his manuscript 
" Primitiae Florae Novae Zelandiae " under the name of Ephielis pentaphylla, and 
a drawing of considerable artistic merit was also prepared. It is a matter of 
common knowledge that Solander's descriptions and drawings, prepared 140 years 
ago, still remain incdited and unpublished in the botanical department of the British 
Museum so far as the New Zealand species are concerned. Sir J. D. Hooker, in 
the introduction to the " Flora Novae Zelandiae," published in 1853, well remarks 
that their non-publication was " a national loss, and to science a grievous one, 
since had it been otherwise the botany of New Zealand would have been better 
known fifty years ago than it is now." 

After Cook's time V. lucens does not seem to have been noticed by any 
botanist until Allan Cunningham's visit in 1826, when he observed it on the " rocky 
shores of the Bay of Islands, growing frequently within the range of salt water." 
Cunningham correctly referred it to the genus Vitex, publishing it in his 
" Precursor " under the name of V. littoralis. Unfortunately, he overlooked the 
fact that four years previously the same name had been used by Decaisne for a 
Malayan species. The first beginnings of European settlement brought to light 
the economic value of the plant, and soon led to the knowledge that it had a wide 
distribution in the northern portion of the North Island. It is now known to be 
an abundant plant from the North Cape to the Waikato and Upper Thames, and 
from thence in small numbers southwards to Mahia Peninsula on the east coast 
and Cape Egmont on the west. Its altitudinal range is from sea-level to 2,500 ft. 
In 1895 the publication of the fourth volume of the " Index Kewensis " drew 
attention to the fact that Cunningham's name was preoccupied, and Mr. Kirk 
consequently proposed that of V. hicens. It may be regretted, however, that he 
did not use that of pentaphylla, proposed in Solander's manuscripts 142 years ago. 

The puriri is a large handsome tree of somewhat irregular growth, attaining 
a height of from 40 ft. to 60 ft., or even more, with a massive trunk 3 ft. to 5 ft. in 
diameter. It has a broad spreading crown of branches, and when forming small 
groves, which it often does in rich warm soils, presents a very attractive and 
ornamental appearance. The demand for its timber, however, has caused many 
of these clumps to disappear under the attacks of the bushman's axe. The leaves 
are on long stout petioles, and are digitately divided into 3 to 5 dark-green and 
glossy leaflets 2 in. to 5 in. long. The flowers are abundantly produced, and are 
arranged in axillary panicles. They are of a dull-red colour, and about 1 in. in 
length. The calyx is cup-shaped, truncate or very obscurely toothed ; and the 
corolla is 2-lipped, with an arched upper lip, and a deflexed 3-lobed lower fne. 
The drupe is bright red, globose, about f in. diameter, and has a 4-celled stony 
endocarp ; but it is rare for more than one or two of the cells to produce perfect 
seed. 



The puriri produces the must valuable hardwood (jf any New Zealand tree. 
It is of a dark-brown colour, very hard, dense and heavy, and of great strength, 
but is, unfortunately, difficult to work on account of the irregular " grain " of the 
timber. Its durability is unquestioned, and it is consequently largely employed 
for railway-sleepers, gate and fencing posts, house-blocks, the framework of bridges, 
and for any other purpose demanding strength, solidity, and the power of resisting 
decay. Of late years it has been employed for furniture and cabinet-work, and 
if carefully picked is quite equal to the best Italian or American walnut. For 
this purpose, however, a serious defect exists in its liability, while living, to the 
attacks of the larva of the " puriri-moth " {Hepialus virescens), which bores galleries 
through it in all directions, the holes being large enough to admit the finger. They 
are often sufficiently numerous to make it difficult to obtain baulks of any size free 
from them, but they do not affect the durability of the timber. 

Vitex lucens is a tree of fairly rapid growth on good soils, and on account of 
its ornamental appearance and umbrageous habit is now being largely planted in 
gardens and plantations in the northern part of the North Island, and should be 
still more extensively employed. It is too liable to injury from frost to succeed in 
the South Island, save in certain exceptional localities. 

It is perhaps worth mention that the curious little pits or " domatia " first 
described by me on the under-surface of the leaves in Coprosma (Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
xix (1887), p. 221) also exist on the under-surface of the leaves of Vitex lucens, 
and in the same situation — ^that is, in the axil formed by the union of the primary 
veins with the midrib. As in Coprosma, they are often inhabited by a minute 
yellowish acarid. 

Plate 161. Vitex lucens, drawn from specimens gathered in t.iie vicinity of Auckland. Fig. 1, 
portion of under-surface of leaf, showing the little pits or "domatia" situated in the axils of the veins 
(x 3) ; 2, calyx laid open (x 1-|-) ; 3, corolla laid open (natural size) ; i and 5, front and back view of 
anthers (x 3) ; 6, transverse section of ovary (x 4) ; 7, longitudinal section of same (x 4) ; 8, section of 
fruit (xli). 



Plaute 162. 




West, Newman imp. 



SCUTELLARIA NOVAE - ZELANDIAE , Hook.f. 



Plate 1G2.— SCUTELLARIA NOV^-ZELANDIJ^. 

Family LABIATE.] ^Genus SCUTELLARIA, Linn. 

Scutellaria novs-zelandiae, Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. u, 335 ; Handh. N.Z. Fl. 226 : Cheesem 
Man. N.Z. Fl. 568. 

Scutellaria is one of the most distinct of the genera of Labiatce, easily recognized 
by the posticous hp of the calyx bearing on its back a hollow scale orpouch, both 
hp and scale being deciduous in fruit, the anticous lip alone being persistent. In 
addition to this strongly marked character, the flowers are not arranged in verticils, 
but are opposite ; and the ovary is seated on a distinct stalk. The single New 
Zealand species is endemic, but is closely allied to the Australian S. hwnilis. 

S. novai-zelandicB was originally discovered by Mr. J. C. Bidwill at Foxhill, 
m the Nelson Provincial District, about the year 1845. It was subsequentlv collected 
in the same locahty by Sir D. Monro and other botanists, and was also found in 
various stations near Nelson by Mr. W. T. L. Travers, Mr. J. Buchanan, Mr. T. Kirk, 
Mr. F. G. Gibbs, and myself. At a later date Mr. J. H. Macmahou observed it in 
the Pelorus and Tinline Valleys, on the Marlborough side of the Dun Mountain Range. 
As these are the only localities of which there is any certain knowledge, it appears 
that the plant is confined to a district of less than twenty-five miles radius from the 
Town of Nelson. It descends almost to sea-level in the Maitai Valley, and I have not 
seen it at a higher altitude than about 500 ft. It should perhaps be mentioned 
that in 1877 Mr. J. B. Armstrong recorded it from Banks Peninsula, and that a 
few years earlier Mr. Purdie reported its existence on FlagstafE Hill, near Dunedin. 
But no subsequent observer has seen it in these localities, and I suspect that the 
records are due to some error of identification. 

S. novcB-zdandice is a slender sparingly branched herb creeping and rooting at 
the base, but erect or ascending above. It varies much in size : I have seen speci- 
mens nearly 18 in. high, although the average stature is much less. The leaves 
are in distant pairs on slender petioles, the blade being J in. to ^ in. long, ovate to 
broadly oblong or orbicular, and with three to five shallow lobes or crenatures. The 
flowers are about ^in. long, white, solitary in the axils of the upper leaves, and the 
corolla is pubescent on the outside. I am not aware that it has ever been tried 
in cultivation. 

Plate 162. Scutellaria novcB-zekindicB, drawn from specimens collected at Foxiiill, Nelson. 
Fig. 1 , flower ( x 4) ; 2, section of calyx, passing through the pouch on the posticous lip ( x 6) ; 3, corolla 
laid open (x 4) ; 4, 1-celled anther (x 12) ; 5, 2-celled anther (x 12) ; 6, fruit (x 3) ; 7, nutlets, with 
their gynophore ( x 5). 



Plate 163 




PLANTAGO RAOULII. Decne. 



Plate 16:^.^PLANTAG0 RAOULII. 

Family PLANTAaiNACE^.] [Genus PLANTAGO, Linn. 

Plantago Raoulii, Deoie. in D.C. Prndr. xiii. i. 703 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 570. 

Tlie genus Plantago is well represented in New Zealand, no less than seven 
species being known, of which all but one are endemic. P. Raoulii, which I have 
selected for illustration in this work, was first gathered by Banks and Solander in 
Queen Charlotte Sound, near Picton, in .January, 1770. A good description is given 
in Solander's manuscripts under the name of P. erecta, and a very accurate drawing 
is included among the unpublished Banksian plates. The next botanist to collect 
the species was Richard Cunningham, who in 1834 obtained it in the Bay of Islands 
district. His specimens v^f^rt^, referred by his brother Allan to the Australian 
P. varia, and appeared under that name in the " Precursor." The mistake is not to 
be wondered at, the two species being very closely allied. In 1840 the French 
botanist Raoul gathered it at Akaroa, and his specimens passing under the hands 
of Decaisne, then the unchallenged authority on the genus, the species was 
published under the name of P. Raoulii. 

P. Raoulii has a very extensive distribution within the Dominion, ranging 
from the North Cape to Stewart Island. It is most abundant on moist ground near 
the sea, but is also found inland, and ascends to well over 3,000 ft. Its nearest 
ally is probably the Australian P. varia. 

Plate 163. Plantago Raoulii, drawn from specimens collected near Hawera, Taranaki. Figs. 1 
and 2, flowers ( x 6) : 3 and 4, front and back view of anthers (x 10) ; o, ovary and style (x 6) : 
6, transverse section of ovary (x 7) : 7. longitudinal section of ovary (x 7) ; 8, placenta ( x 8) ; 9, ripe 
capsule ( X 4) ; 10, placenta ( x 6) ; 11 . upper seed ( x 8) ; 12, one of the lower seeds ( x 8). 



Plate 164. 




CHENOPODIUM TRIANDRUM, Forsb. 



Plate 164.— CHENOPODIUM TKIANDHUM. 

Family CHENOPODIACE^.] [Genus CHENOPODIUM, Linn. 

Cheno podium triandrum, For.sl. Prodr. n. 129 ; Gheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 580. 

Seven species of Chenopodium are recorded as inhabitants of New Zealand, 
but it is highly doubtful whether all of them are indigenous. C urbicum and 
C. amhrosioides are known in many countries as weeds of way-sides and cultivations, 
and as they are never found out of such situations in New Zealand it seems most 
reasonable to look upon them as introductions received by way of Australia and 
the Bay of Islands in tlie early days of the Dominion. C. carinatum, which is a native 
of Australia and New Caledonia, was originally found in New Zealand by Allan 
Cunningham " on the sandy shores of the Bay of Islands," and can still be noticed 
in similar habitats in the North Auckland Peninsula. But it is more commonly 
seen as a weed in rich warm cultivated soils, and probably should be placed in the 
same category as the two preceding. The nativity of the four remaining species — 
C. triandrum, C. glaucum, C. detestans, and G. pnsillum. — cannot be questioned. 

C. triandrum was origmally discovered by Banks and Solander in Mercury 
Bay during Cook's first voyage, and was figured in the series of plates of New 
Zealand plants prepared more than 140 years ago under the direction of 
Dr. Solander, but never actually published. It was also gathered by the 
Forsters in Queen Charlotte Sound during Cook's second voyage, and was 
described by George Forster in his " Prodromus " under the name it still bears. 
In 1827 it was collected by D'Urville in Astrolabe Harbour, Nelson, and since 
then has been observed in many localities on the coast-line of both the North and 
the South Islands, from the Bay of Islands to Foveaux Strait. 

C. triandrum is a prostrate or trailing plant, usually found on the faces of 
maritime cliffs or in sandy nooks at their bases. Occasionally it may be observed 
inland — for many years a large patch existed near the summit of Mount Wellington, 
on the Auckland Istlimus, but has become extinct of late years. It has been 
recorded by Mr. Petrie from various saline localities in Central Otago, at consider- 
able distances from the sea, where it occurs in company with other well-known 
coastal plants. It very closely resembles Rhagodia nutans, but the bright-red fleshy 
fruit of this latter plant is unmistakable and at once separates the two species ; 
and, in addition. Rhagodia has much more woody stems and branches, the leaves 
are thicker and usually smaller, and generally more or less cordate at the base, and 
the flowers are not nearly so numerous. 

Plate 164. Chenopodium tria)idrum. drawn from specimens collected on the Little Barrier Island. 
Fig. 1, flower with two stamens (x 10) ; 2, flower with one stamen ( x 10) ; 3 and 4, front and back 
view of anther (x 12) ; 5, ovary and styles (x 15) ; 6, ripe fruit (x 8) ; 7, section of same, showing 
seed ( X 8) ; 8, seed ( x 8) ; 9, embryo ( x 8). 



Plate 16 S. 




West, Newman imp. 



MUEHLENBECKIA AXILLARIS, Hook.f. 



Plate 165.— MUEHLENBECKIA AXILLARIS. 

Family POLYGONACE Jl. | [Genus MUEHLENBECKIA, Metssn. 

Muehle^beckia^axillaris, Walp. Ann. i, 552 ; Hook. /. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 230 ; Cheesem. Man. 
Polygonum axillare, Hook. f. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. vi (1817), 278. 
Muehlenheckia axillaris was originally discovered by Mr. Colenso in the 
Wairarapa district in 1846, and in the following year was described bv Sir J D 
Hooker in the London Journal of Botany under the name of Polyqnnum axiUare. 
It was soon found to have a wide distribution in the mountain districts of both 
Islands, from the East Cape and Taupo southwards to Foveaux Strait, but so far 
has not been recorded from Stewart Island. It descends to sea-level or nearlv so 
in several parts of the Dominion, but is most abundant between 1 000 ft "and 
3,000 ft. elevation. It is one of the plants nearly always seen in the open river- 
valleys of the interior of the South Island, or at the base of the shingle-slopes which 
so commonly cover broad stretches of the steep mountain-sides. But its habitats 
are really of a varied character. For instance, on the central volcanic plateau of 
the North Island it occurs plentifully in the shingly or grassy vallevs which radiate 
from longariro or Ruapehu, on the lower slopes of the mountains, in profusion 
on the sandy waste to the east of Ruapehu known as the Onetapu Desert, and in 
not a few localities on the pumice soils of the open Taupo plains. 

Muehlenheckia axillaris varies greatly in size and to some extent in mode of 
growth. The primary stems creep just under the surface of the ground, or amona 
loose stones, putting up numerous branches which usually form a dense matted 
carpet seldom rising much above the ground. The patches may vary from 2 in. 
or 3 in. to 12 in. or 18 in. in diameter, or even' more, and, although generallv 
dense, are sometimes lax and open. The leaves vary in size from -^^^ in. to i in. 
in length, but in shape are tolerably constant. The flowers are'solitarv and 
axillary, or 2 to 3 together. Like all the New Zealand species, the fruit is 
usually enclosed in the enlarged white and succulent perianth, but it is quite 
common to find specimens in which the perianth is practically dry and unaltered 
in fruit. 

The nearest ally of M. axillaris is undoubtedly M. complexa : but it can easily 
be distinguished from all the forms of that variable plant by the much smaller size, 
much more depressed habit, smaller and more uniform leaves, and by the flowers 
being either solitary or few together. ^ 

Plate 165. Muehlenheckia axillaris, drawn from specimens collected m the Hooker Vallev 
Mount Cook district, at an elevation of 2,500 ft. Fig. 1, branchlet bearing an e.-^pauded male flower 
and a young bud (x 5) ; 2, male perianth laid open ( x 8) ; 3, branclilet, with femile flowers ( x ;j) • 
i, section of female perianth ( x 8) ; 5, nut enclosed in the enlarged and succulent perianth ( x 3) • 
6, lougituduial section of nut (x 5) ; 7, transverse section of nut (x 5) ; 8, embryo (x 8). 



Fl&te 166. 



y^ 




West, Newmai> imp. 



AS CARINA LUG IDA, Hook.f. 



Platk 166.— ASCARINA LUCIDA. 

Family CHT.ORANTHACE^.] [Genus ASCARINA, Forst. 

Ascarina lucida, Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 228 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 598. 

Although there are numerous evidences of Polynesian affinity in the New 
Zealand flora, there are only six genera which are absolutely confined to the two 
areas — MeJicytus, Corynocarpus, Meryta, Schefflera. Ascarina, and Earina. From 
the point of view of plant distribution Ascarina is perhaps the most interesting 
of these, for it belongs to a fainily (Chloranthacecp) which is not found in any 
part of Australia, and which, together with Coriariacece, constitute the only families 
of the New Zealand flora that do not occur in that country. 

Six species of Ascarina are now known, all of them being very closely allied. 
The type of the genus is A. folystachya, Forst.. whicli is apparently confined to 
Tahiti. A. lanceolata, originally described from tlie Kermadec Islands, has since 
been recorded by Seemann from the Fiji Islands, by Powell and others from Samoa, 
and by myself from Rarotonga. Three species at least occur in New Caledonia— 
A. rubricaulis, A. alticola, and A. Solmsiana. Finally, there is A. lucida. the 
subject of this plate, which only differs from A. lanceolata in the shorter, 
broader, and more obtuse leaves, and in the smaller anthers. 

For the first discovery of Ascarina lucida we have to go back as far as January, 
1770, when it was collected by Banks and Solander in Queen Charlotte Sound during 
Cook's first voyage. It was not seen again until 1846. when Mr. Colenso gathered 
it in swampy forests in the Wairarapa Valley. It has since been observed in a 
considerable number of localities between Hokianga in the north, and Stewart 
Island in the south, but is rarely seen in any quantity except on the western side 
of the South Island, where it appears to be abundant, especially in the Westport 
district, and in some of the Sounds on the south-west of Otago. The Stewart 
Island locality rests on the authority of Mr. T. Kirk, who appears to have examined 
specimens collected by Mr. C. Traill (see Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxix (1897). 539). It 
descends to sea-level at Cape Foulwind, near Westport ; and I saw a solitary plant 
near the summit of the Little Barrier Island, at an altitude of about 2,200 ft. 

Very little is known of the properties of Ascarina. Both A. lucida and 
A. lanceolata are highly aromatic ; and in Samoa, according to Mr. Powell, the 
leaves of the latter were used for perfuming oils. It is quite possible that the 
Maoris may have used the leaves of A. lucida for imparting a pleasant scent to 
fat, just as they were in the habit of using the leaves of Panax Edgerleyi and 
other fragrant plants. 

Plate 16G. Ascarina lucida, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. Townson at. Cape Foulwind. 
near Westport. Fig. 1. margin of leaf (x3); 2. bracts ( x 8) ; 3, male inflorescence (x.5); i, anther 
( X 8) ; o. rudimentHrv pistil (x 5) : 6, female inflorescence (x .5) ; 7. two female flowers, one with the 
pistil removed { x 8) ; 8. longitudinal section of ovary ( x 8) ; 9, transverse section of ovary { x 8) ; 
10. ovule (X 10). 



PUte /67 




West. Newman imp. 



HEDYCARYA ARBOREA, Forst. 



Plate 167.— HEDYCARYA ARBOREA. 

Family MONIMIACE^.] ^Genus HEDYCARYA, Forst. 

Hedycarya arborea, Fom. Char. Gen. 128, t,. 64; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 599. 

The g^nm Hedycarya, with the exception of the Australian H. angustifoUa 
IS entirely confined to western Polynesia and New Zealand. Fifteen species are' 
known of which no less than nine are restricted to New Caledonia. Two are found 
'Vy'^/'^^ Islands and one each in the Solomon Islands, Samoa. Australia, and 
New Zealand. The Australian and New Zealand species should therefo;e be 
regarded as so itary outliers of a genus whose main home is in New Caledonia and 
the adjacent islands. 

We owe the first discovery of Hedycarya in New Zealand to Banks and Solander 
who in October, 1769, gathered it at " Tigadu," now called Anaura Bay. Late; 
on they also observed it at Tolaga Bay, Mercury Bay, and Queen Charlotte Sound 
It was also col ected by the two Forsters during Cook's second voyage, and was 
formally published by them m their " Characteres Genera Plantarum '' under the 
name oi Hedycarya arborea. Since then it has been observed by almost all botanists 
and explorers and is known to be an abundant plant from the Three Kings Islands 
and the North Cape to the south of Otago. ranging from sea-level to over 2 000 ft 

Hedycarya arborea is a small compactly branched tree 1,5 ft. to 35 ft i'n heieht 
with a trunk 9 in. to 18 in. in diameter, or more. Although well known to the 
settler and woodsman it has no generally accepted local name, although I have 
heard it called pigeonwood " and "New Zealand holly," the last-mentioned very 
unsmteble appellation being probably due to the bright-red colour of the ripe drupes 
ihe Maoris call it indifferently kaiwhiria or porokaiwhiria. The wood is pale and 
soft, and probably useless ; and I am not aware that the plant has been applied 
to any economic purpose. Forster's name of Hedycarya is usually supposed to 
have been given on account of the pleasant taste of the seeds, but I have never 
heard of their being eaten. The tree is of rapid growth, and is probably suitable 
tor the mixed shrubbery, but so far has been little planted. 

Plate 167. Hedycarya arborea, drawn from .specimens collected in the vicinity of \uckland 
Fig.l male flower (X 3); 2 and 3, stamens ( x 6) ; 4. female flower ( x 3) ; 5, ovary ( x 8) 6 loni: 
tudmal section o same (x 8) ; 7, ovule (x 10) ; 8, longitudinal section oi fr'uit (x^2 ; 9 tran Ze 
section of same ( x 2) ; 10, embryo ( x 4). \ ) < •'< i-KiuBverse 



flate J 68. 




BEILSCHMIEDIA TARAIRI 



Benth£,Hook.. f. 



West.Newman imp. 



Pi.ATK 168.— HEIL8CHMI?:i)IA TARAIRI. 

(THE TARAIRE.) 
Family [.AURACE^.I [Uenus BEILSCHMIEDIA, Nees. 

Beilschmiedia Tarairi, BeMlh. & Hook. j. ex T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 43 ■ Cheexem Man A' Z 

Fl. tj02. 
Laurus Tarairi, .1. Cunn. Precw. ii. 351. 

Few New Zealand trees are more familiar to tlie settler of the northern portion 
of the North Island than the subject of this plate, known to both Maori and 
European by its native name of taraire. The great abundance of th(! tree in 
many districts north of Auckland is doubtless the chief reason for this ; but its 
remarkably distinct appearance, due to the slender, straight trunk, few short 
branches, and fine bold foliage, cannot fail to impress the observer, even in 
localities where it is comparatively rare. 

In the " Flora Novse Zelandise " Sir J. D. Hooker quotes Banks and Solander 
as the first collectors of the taraire. This I believe to be incorrect. It is not figured 
in the Banksian plates, there is no description that matches it in Solander's 
manuscripts, and there are no specimens in the set of Banksian plates presented 
to the Dominion by the Trustees of the British Museum. Its first discoverer, so 
far as I can ascertain, was the enthusiastic Allan Cunningham, who collected it 
in 1826 " in dry woods on the banks of rivers. Bay of Islands, Whangaroa, &c." 
In 1838 he described it in his " Precursor " under the name of Lauriis Tarairi, an 
appellation which it retained until the publication of the " Flora Novse Zelandite " 
in 1853, when Sir J. D. Hooker founded the genus Nesodaphne for its reception 
and that of its near ally the tawa. In 1880, however, Nesodaphne was merged 
by Hooker and Bentham in the " Genera Plantarum " with the Asiatic and African 
genus Beilschmiedia, a view which has also been adopted by Pax in Engler's 
" Pflanzenfamilien." 

Beilschmiedia Tarairi has a limited range, being confined to the northern portion 
of the North Island, from the North Cape to Hicks Bay on the east coast, and to 
Raglan on the west. South of the Auckland Isthmus it is by no means common, 
and is often absent from wide districts ; but from the Kaipara northwards to the 
Bay of Islands and Hokianga it is abundant, often constituting a large proportion 
of the forest. It prefers dry rich soils, and is most plentiful at moderate elevations. 
I have not myself seen it at a greater height than 1,700 ft., but I believe that it 
ascends to nearly 2,000 ft. on the plateau between the Northern Wairoa River and 
Hokianga. 

The wood of the taraire is pale in colour, close-grained, and easily worked, 
but is deficient in strength and elasticity. It has the reputation of not being durable 
when exposed to the weather, but I am inclined to think that it is more lasting than 
is usually supposed. In any case, the timber should be serviceable for inside work, 
for the manufacture of white-wood furniture, tubs, buckets, &c., and it seems 
extraordinary that so little is done towards utilizing it in that direction. The large 
plum-like berries were formerly used by the Maoris as food, the kernels being 
steamed for a couple of days in an oven. The pulpy portion of the berries, though 
edible, is not at all palatable, and was seldom eaten except by children. 

Plate 168. Beilschmiedia Tarairi, drawn from specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. 
Fig. 1, flower-bud (x5); 2, flower (x5); 3, perianth laid open ( x 8) ; i. perianth-segment and 
stamen ( x 9) ; 5 and 6, front and back view of stamen ( x 9) : 7. ovary ( x 8) ; 8, section of ovary 
( X 8) ; 9, seed (natural size). 



PUte 169. 




LITSAEA CALICARIS, Benth&Hook f. 



Plate 169.— LITS^^A CALICARIS. 

(THE MANGEAO.) 
Family LAURACE/E.] [Genus LITS.EA, Lam. 

Litsaea calicaris, Benlh. & Hook. j. ex T. Kirk. Fore.st Fl t. 10; Chc.enem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 603. 
Laurus calicaris, Snl. ex A. Cunn. Precur. n. 353. 

Litstca calicaris, the mangeao or taugeao of tlie Maoris and of most country 
residents, was discovered in 1769 by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander at the Bay 
of Islands, in a locality called by tliem Motuaro, but which is doubtless the same 
as the island at present known by the name of Motuaroliia. An excellent description 
of the plant was prepared by Solander for his " Primiti* Florae Novae Zelandiae " 
under the name of Laurus calicaris, and a plate was also drawn under his superin- 
tendence for the illustrations intended to accompany the work ; but, as is well known, 
neither Solander's descriptions nor his plates have ever been published. The two 
Cunnuighams also observed the plant in the Bay of Islands district, and when Allan 
Cunningham prepared his " Precursor " for publication he adopted Solander's 
name. This it retained until Sir J. D. Hooker issued liis " Flora Novae Zelandiae," 
when he transferred the species to the genus Tetranfhera. In the third volume 
of the " Genera Plantarum," published in 1880. Hooker and Bentham made a 
further change by merging Tetranthera with Litscva. Since then our plant has borne 
the name of Litscea calicaris. 

Litscea is pre-eminently an Indian and Malayan genus, extending northwards 
to China and Japan, and southwards to New Guinea, Australia, the Pacific islands, 
and New Zealand, where it attains its southern limit. Although not absent from 
America or Africa, it is very feebly represented therein. The number of well- 
establislied species is probably not far short of 175. 

The mangeao, as it is usually called, is a rather closely branched leafy tree 
from 30 ft. to 40 ft. or 45 ft. in height, with a trunk \\ ft. to 2\ ft. in diameter. 
When it has ample room for growth the branches often spread considerably, forming 
a really liandsome tree, but ordinarily it has a somewhat narrow head of branches. 
The wood is strong, tough, and elastic, and is generally recognized as suitable for 
all classes of coopers' or wheelwrights' work, or for ships' blocks, oars, shafts, 
panelling, &c. ; but as large quantities can seldom be obtained in any one locality 
its use has not increased of late years. 

The geographical range of the mangaeo is very similar to that of the taraire, 
figured on the previous plate. It extends from the Three Kings Islands and the 
North Cape to Rotorua and the East Cape on the eastern side of the Island, and 
to Kawhia on the west. It is not, however, so abundant within its range as the 
taraire, seldom forming any considerable proportion of the forest. I have not noticed 
it at a higher elevation than 2,000 ft. 

Plate 169. Lit.icBa calicaris, male and female, drawn from specimens gathered in the vicinity 
of Auckland. Fig. 1, male inflorescence, showing the four involucral leaves which surround the base 
of the umbel, and a single flower, three others having been removed ( x 4) ; 2, section of flower, showing 
stamens ( x 6) ; 3, perianth-.segment with stamen, showing the anther opening by four valves ( x 8) ; 
4, back view of anther ( x 8) ; 5, female flower, showing the perianth, staminodia, and pistil ( x 4) ; 
6, side view of flower (x5); 7, perianth-segment, with rudimentary stamen (x8); 8, pair of rudi- 
mentary stamens (x 8) ; 9, ovary, with style and stigma (x 8) ; 10, section of ovary ( x 8) ; 11, longi- 
tudinal section of seed (x 1^) ; 12, section of embryo (much enlarged). 



PUte 170. 




PERSOONIA TORU, A.Cu.Tin. 



Plate 170.— PERSOONIA TORU. 

Family PROTEACE^.] [Genus PERSOONIA, Smith. 

Persoonia Toru, .4. Cunn. in Bot. Mag. aub. t. 3513 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 605. 
Persoonia Toro, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 219. 

Persoonia Toru, tlie subject of this plate, was first collected by Allan Cunning- 
ham in 1826 near the shores of the Bay of Islands, a,nd he subsequently observed 
it at Wliangaroa and Hokianga, all tliree being districts in which it is still abundant. 
Cunningham described it in a note to t. 3513 of the Botanical Magazine, selecting as 
the specific name that which he then believed was applied to the plant by the Maoris. 
In his " Precursor," however, he changed the name to Tora ; and Sir J. D. Hooker, 
in the " Flora Novae Zelandise," again altered it to Toro. Mr. Colenso, whose 
intimate knowledge of the Maori language entitles liis opinions on such matters to 
great respect, states that Toru is the correct appellation, and as it certainly has 
priority I adopted it in tlie Manual. At the same time, there is good reason to 
believe that in many districts toro was the name generally used by the Maoris. 

Like the two preceding plants figured in this work, Persoonia Toru is a nortliern 
species, reacliing its southern limit in the East Cape district. So far as I am aware, 
its nortliern boundary is at Mongonui and near Kaitaia. for in the three visits that 
I have made to the North Cape Peninsula I have failed to detect it in any station 
further to the north. From Mongonui southwards it is a not uncommon constituent 
of most forest districts, particularly on the outskirts of kauri forests, or in that 
peculiar association of small trees, or small individuals of large trees, that can often 
be observed in forest areas north of Auckland, and wliich is mainly composed of 
Weinmannia syloicola, Leptospermum ericoides, Fusanus Cunninghamii, Phyllocladus 
trichomanoides, Olearia Cunnitighamii, Coprosma lucida, Leucopogon fasciculatus, 
and others, and which gradually merges into the forest proper. This association 
often shelters multitudes of young kauris, and if left alone would form an admirable 
nursery for a kauri forest. South of Auckland the toru gradually becomes less 
plentiful, although it occurs in several localities in the Bay of Plenty, the Patetere 
Plateau, Rotorua, near Waiotapu, &c. The most southern locality that I am 
acquainted with is between Whangaparaoa and Hicks Bay, in the East Cape 
district, where it was observed by Bishop Williams several years ago. 

The usual height of the toru when adult is from 2.5 ft. to 35 ft., but occasionally 
it reaches 40 ft. or even more. The trunk seldom exceeds 18 in. in diameter. When 
growing in the forest among other trees it is sparingly branched, and it is in such 
situations that it attains its greatest height. In the open it is closely and compactly 
branched, forming a very handsome and attractive large shrub or small tree. The 
wood is dark red with a pretty figure, and is occasionally employed in inlaying or 
veneering. As an ornamental shrub or tree it is well worth a place in any garden 
in the northern portion of the Dominion. 

It is worthy of remark that the genus Persoonia, which now includes over 
seventy well - established species, is altogether confined to Australia, with the 
exception of the New Zealand plant. 

Plate 170. Persoonia Torn, drawn from specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. Fig. 1, 
portion of inflorescence, showing two flowers and a bud (x 3) ; 2, perianth-segment and stamen (x 7) ; 
3, anther ( x 8) ; 4, pistil (x7); 5, longitudinal section of ovary, showing a single ovule (x7); 
6. a similar section, showing two ovules (x7); 7, section of fruit (x2); 8, seed (x4); 9, embryo 
(x5). 



Plate !?]. 




KNIGHTIA EXCELSA, R.Br. 



Plate 171.— KNIGHTIA EXCELSA. 

(THE REWAREWA.) 

Family PROTEACE^.] [Genus KNIGHTIA, R. Br. 

Knightia excelsa, R. Br. in Trans. lAmi. Hoc. x (1810), 194, t. 2 ; Clieesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 606. 

Very few New Zealand trees have a more distinctive appearance than the 
subject of this plate, commonly known by its Maori name of rewarewa. Its tall 
and fastigiate mode of growth, somewhat resembling that of the Lombardy poplar, 
its stiff and rigid erect branches, the coriaceous and almost woody leaves, and 
the conspicuous racemes of bright red-brown flowers, usually produced on the 
branches below the leaves, are well-marked characters not easily overlooked by 
the most incurious observer. 

Like so many of the conspicuous lowland plants of New Zealand, we owe the 
first discovery of Knightia to Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. So lander, who in October, 
1769, collected it at Tolaga Bay during Cook's first voyage. An excellent 
description and very characteristic plate were prepared from the specimens 
collected on this occasion, forming part of Solander's projected " Primitise 
Florae Novse Zelandise," a work which, to the great loss of botanical science, 
has remained unpubHshed for 140 years. In 1810 the well-known botanist Robert 
Brown establislied the genus Knightia for our plant, a name which it has retained 
until the present day. Two New Caledonian plants have been subsequently added 
to the genus, but they differ in the axillary and terminal racemes and large 
coloured deciduous bracts, and form the subgenus Eucarfha. 

Knightia excelsa is an abundant tree throughout the greater part of the Nortli 
Island, from the North Cape to Cook Strait. But although I have seen it as high 
as 2,800 ft., it is not common above an elevation of 2,000 ft., and is therefore absent 
from the higher forests of the central volcanic plateau, and from the similar forests 
on the flanks of the Ruahine and Tararua Mountains. With these exceptions, it 
might almost be said to be of general occurrence in the North Island. In the South 
Island its distribution is much more limited. So far as I am aware, it is confined 
to a few localities in Pelorus Sound and the other inlets of northern Marlborough, 
and to the vicinity of Croixelles Harbour, in Nelson. 

With the exception of the ConifercB and a few trees like the pukatea 
(Laurelia), Knightia is as tall as any of the trees constituting the New Zealand 
forest. Specimens between 80 ft. and 90 ft. high are comparatively common, and 
it is said to occasionally exceed 100 ft. The trunk ranges from 2 ft. to 3 ft. m 
diameter or sometimes slightly more. The wood is not durable in situations where 
it is exposed to the weather, although in the early days of the Dominion it was 
split into palings or even sawn into weatherboards. But for such purposes as 
inlaying, panelling, furniture and cabinet-work, and all kinds of ornamental turnery 
it is a very suitable and handsome timber. It is beautifully variegated, reddish 
on a light-brown ground, is of considerable strength, and takes a high finish. 

The fertihzation of the flowers of Knightia is well worth careful study. I have 
described it in detail in a memoir published in vol. 2 of the " Journal of the 
Australasian Association," but a short abstract mav be useful here. The flowers 
are arranged in pairs on stout lateral racemes 2 in. to 4 in. long, each raceme 
containing from 40 to 80 flowers, or even more. Before expansion the perianth 
is cylindrical in shape, slightly swollen at the base and towards the apex. In the 
young bud there is no appearance of segments, but ultimately the top of the tube 



2 

splits into four small teeth, the apex of the style showing between. Later on the 
segments come apart at the base of the perianth, but for a long time they firmly 
cohere above the middle of the tube, the • final separation always taking place 
suddenly and elastically, the four segments each coiling up into a spiral band, 
which is packed away at the base of the flower. The fully expanded racemes thus 
represent nothing more than a brush of long styles projecting from a mass of twisted 
perianth -segments. At the very base of the flower are four rounded glands which 
secrete an abundance of honey, which usually surrounds the base of the ovary. 
The flowers have a strong and peculiar odour, easily recognizable in the 
neighbourhood of a tree in full bloom. Just previous to expansion the anthers 
open and deposit the whole of their pollen on the surface of the thickened upper 
portion of the style, where it forms four little ridges. This looks like a simple case 
of self-fertilization, but a little examination proves that the stigma is not mature 
until some time after the expansion of the flower, and after the pollen has been 
removed. Clearly some means must therefore exist by which the pollen is regularly 
transferred from the younger to the older flowers. Further investigation has shown 
that this is done through the agency of honey-eating birds, such as the tui 
(Prosthemadera) and korimako (Anthornis), which regularly frequent the flowers. 
It is obvious that the bird, in thrusting its head between the styles of a recently 
expanded raceme, must dust the feathers of the forehead and throat with pollen, 
and that when it visited older flowers the pollen would be rubbed off on the style, 
and 231'obably smeared over the stigma. 

Plate 171. 7?'wjr//rfm excete, drawTi fvoiu specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. Pig. 1, 
flower-bud just previous to expansion (x 1|-); 2, fully expanded flower, the perianth-segments coiled 
up spirally ( x 1-|-) ; 3, anther ( x 3) ; 4, longitudinal section of ovary ( x 3) ; 5, transverse section of 
same ( x 3) ; 6, seed (natural size) ; 7, the same ( x 2) ; 8, embryo ( x 5). 



Plate 172. 




West.Newman imp 



PIMELEA LONGIFOLIA, Banks & Solander 



Platk 172.— PIMELEA LONGIFOLIA. 

Family THYMELJiACE^.] [Genus PIMELEA, Banks & Sol. 

Pimelea longifolia, Banks <& Sol. ex WiLsU. in Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. (1818) 280- 
Cheesein. Man. N.Z. Fl. 609. 

Of the twelve species of Pimelea found in New Zealand this is by far the 
handsomest and the most attractive, and it says little for the enterprise of colonial 
horticulturists that it is so rarely seen in cultivation. It was first gathered by Sir 
Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander at Tolaga Bay during Cook's first voyage, and was 
subsequently noticed by them at Mercury Bay and Admiralty Bay. Curiously 
enough, It does not seem to have been collected either by Forster in Cook's second 
voyage, or by D'Urville or Allan Cunningham ; in fact, it was not until Mr. Colenso 
commenced his botanical explorations that it was again met with. Subsequent 
research has proved that although it cannot be called a common plant it is 
neveTtheless thinly spread over the greater part of the North Island to the 
south of the Bay of Islands, ranging from sea-level to quite 3.000 ft. It crosses 
Cook Strait, and occurs in several localities on the west coast of the South Island 
from Collingwood to Westport and Charleston, which is the most southern localitv 
at present known. Mr. Bentham refers a plant from Lord Howe Island to the same 
species, but I have had no opportunity of examining specimens from thence. 

Pimelea longifolia usually forms an erect branching shrub 3 ft. to 5 ft. or 6 ft 
high and is easily distinguished from all the other species found in New Zealand 
by the glabrous habit, large leaves, and many-flowered heads of large white flowers 
Its nearest ally is undoubtedly P. Gnidia, which differs mainly in the much smaller 
and frequently keeled leaves, and in the smaller flowers. The variety pulchella is 
almost exactly intermediate between the two species, and might with perfect fairness 
be referred to either. 

The flowers of P. longifolia are polygamo-dioecious, or possibly trimorphic 
and should be carefully studied by any botanist who is fortunate enough to reside 
in a locality where the species is abundant. I have figured three forms in the 
accompanying plate, as follows : First (see fig. 1), what I take to be a hermaphrodite 
flower, in which the perianth is large and broad, and the stamens and style are 
about the same length, and well exserted beyond the flower. Secondly (fig. 4) a 
male flower, with a much narrower perianth, and with the stamens agreeing with 
the previous form m length, but with the style much shorter and entirely included 
withm the perianth-tube. Third (fig. 5), a female flower, also with a narrower 
perianth than in fig. I. but with the style conspicuously exserted, and furnished 
with a large papillose stigma. The stamens have short filaments placed at the top 
of the perianth-tube, and the small anthers are usually devoid of pollen. It would 
be interesting to know whether the pollen of the hermaphrodite and male flowers 
IS equally efficacious in fertilization, and also whether perfect fruit is produced 
by the so-called hermaphrodite flowers, the stigma of which is certainly not so well 
developed as in the female flowers. 

Plate 172 Pimeku loiu/i folia, drawn from specimens gathered in the vicmitv of Vucklaiid 
b ig 1 hermaphrodite flower ( x 3) ; 2 and 3, front and back view of anthers ( x 6) ■ " 4 male flower' 
with short style ( x 3) ; 5, female flower ( x 3) ; 6, longitudinal section of ovarv ( x 6) ; 7. seed (enlarged) ' 



Plate 173. 




M.SmitK Ael. 
J.N.Fitchlith, 



PIMELEA BUXIFOLIA, ^oo«: /. 



West, Newman irn-p. 



Plate 173.— PIMELEA BUXIFOLIA. 

Family THYMEL^ACEiE.] [Genus PIMELEA, Banks & Sol. 

Pimelea buxifolia, Hook. f. Hamlh. N.Z. Fl. 243 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 610. 

This handsome shrub was first collected by Dr. Dieffenbach, the naturalist 
to the New Zealand Company, during his travels in the North Island in the years 
1839 to 1841. The exact locality is not known, but, judging from his itinerary, it 
must have been somewhere in the vicinity of Lake Taupo. In 1845 Mr. Colenso 
gathered it in his first attempt to cross the Ruahine Range, and again in 1847 near 
the base of Tongariro. Specimens from all these localities were in the hands of 
Sir J. D. Hooker when preparing his " Flora Novae Zelandia?," but were confounded 
with P. Gnidia. In the subsequently published " Handbook " he corrected the 
mistake, and described the species under the name it now bears. 

Pimelea huxifolia has a somewhat limited range. Its northern limit, as far 
as is known at present, is on the mountains near the head of the Tairua River, 
Thames, where it was collected several years ago by the late Mr. J. Adams. It 
is plentiful on Hikurangi Mountain, in the East Cape district, and grows in great 
profusion on the central volcanic plateau surrounding Tongariro and Ruapehu. 
It is, in fact, one of the characteristic species of the subalpine scrub on the lower 
slopes of these mountains, at an altitude of 3,500 ft. to 5,500 ft. It occurs on the 
Kaimanawa and Ruahine Mountains, and also on Kaweka Mountain, in Hawke's 
Bay ; but, curiously enough, has not yet been recorded from the Tararua Mountains. 

As a species P. huxifolia is closely allied to P. Gnidia, but is easily distinguished 
by the branches being hirsute with coarse hairs, whereas they are glabrous in 
P. Gnidia. The floral leaves of P. huxifolia are usually more conspicuous than in 
P. Gnidia. The " evident " lateral nerves of the leaf, referred to by Hooker as 
a " good character," are sometimes decidedly conspicuous (see fig. I of the 
accompanying plate), but, unfortunately, the plant varies greatly in that respect, 
and the veins are frequently very obscure. 

Pimelea huxifolia bears two forms of flowers. The first, which may be called 
the male, has a longer and narrower perianth ; the stamens are decidedlv exserted 
and have large anthers producing plenty of pollen ; and the style, with its small 
stigma, is barely exserted beyond the perianth-tube. The second, which bears 
abundant fruit, has a shorter and broader perianth, conspicuously swollen at the 
base ; the stamens are not exserted, and the anthers are small, producing either 
a small quantity of pollen or none at all ; and the style, which bears a large papillose 
stigma, is conspicuously exserted. I have not seen hermaphrodite flowers similar 
to those figured in the previous plate of P. longifolia. 

Plate 173. P>»ielea buxijoUa, diawu from specimens collected near the base of Ngaumhoe : alt. 
4,000 ft. Fig. 1. leaf (x 3) ; 2, male flower, with long stamens and slioit style ( x 4) ; 3, perianth laid 
open ( X 4) ; 4 and .5, front and back view of anthers ( x 8) ; 6, stigma of female flower ( x 8) ; 
7, longitudinal section of ovary of female flower (x 6) ; 8, female flower, with long style and short 
stamens ( x 4) ; it. perianth of same laid open (x 4) ; 10 and 11, anthers from female flower, probably 
sterile ( x 8). 



P(a.te 174. 




West. Newman imp. 



PIMELEA ARENARIA, A.Cann.. 



Plate 174.-PIMELEA ARENARIA. 

F.M.V THYMEL.EACE^.j ^^,,,, p,^^,,^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ 

^'^.r^tkit'"''- - '"■ ""-'■ ' ''''■' ^-^- /• — • A^.^. n 244; ..._. 

support a very pec; ar a d irlt-t^ ''7"i^ "" ^'^^ '""^*-^^« ^^ New Zealand 
out the whcle leng of tit Cii Z ^^f.^^^""' remarkably uniform through- 
several other specie? re eqt 11? b3rntaf the N Z 'p^^'^"^ ^o Coprosrna aceJsa, 
arenaHa, the subject of tl?is p Ite is one of the^ .1 T "^'^/^^'^ ^^'^^^ ^^'^^^^^^ 
Wthe norther!, extreme ^ tJ^X^es^Vf'? vt^^'s S^^ °lf r^^^T""^^^^ 
such an abundant species as the Cofrosma. ^''''^ ^*^^'^- ^* ^^ ^ot, however, 

Pimelea arenaria was discovered fliTrino- rr.r.i,'„ « ^ • -^ • 
by Banks and Solander it ToC It ?, . ? ''* "?"'* "' ^^6^' ^eing collected 
seem to have been obs ved bv fhe 'Ct ''/'^ '* n^'T!^^>' ^^^- ^' ^oes not 
D'Urville during the voyage of the ''^^^^^^^^ ^°°^^ «.<^^«^^ ^«it' «r by 

Allan Cunningham near^hf entrance tt the Hol'i ' p"" '^ ""'"' ''^'''"^ ^^ 

by Richard Cunningham at TTkou Sv bt ^""^T^-^ ^^7^' ^^d a few years later 
Since then it has bW observed I^" btl "J i ^7 "^ ^'^"^^^ "^^ ^Tiangaroa. 
of either the North or the Sou h Island TtT T ' V^'^" T"^^"^'' *^^ ^°^'*-li^e 
Islands by D.effenbach fnd otlt explters ''" '"^ ^^'^"^^'^ «^ *^^ Chatham 

Pimelea arenaria is practically confined to ci.,nr1 ^,„..c, 
mam stems are usuaUy prostrate L^ p-wI. ^ ? s-md-dunes or sandy coasts. Its 
from them arise numemirerect o^ t'nT I" '" '^^'^'^"^ depth with sand ; but 
which are seldom mucrmrre hTn 2^^^^ cory„^bosely divided branches, 

a compact patch of some h tie s ze l£ mot f .i ^ «^g^%Pi^^* ^^'^J thus form 
are tough, flexible and cord like W) ? ?/ *t' '?"""' ^^ ^^^^^^^^« the branches 

send ou? adven?£o;fro:tf 'A:-ha! :^^^^^^^^^ ^ S' ''^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^• 

---.c. ....... :.:SSf- 1^"^ -- -- S-e of 

undettLfte^^'Tltwrg^^^^ branches and the 

somewhat curious that it " fosddomt: i^ gSLr'' Th?flr^'"""-' ^'^' '' '' 
heads at the tips of the branches «nH .J ^, ^^- ^.^^e flowers are m compact 
easUy recognized btbettsmatrknH^^^^^^ the females bebg 

a larger papiUose stigmlT^ ^^ ^'"'^''' ^^^^ ^^^'"^ ^^^g ^ l^^g^^ «tyle and 

branir fot^reptrmg cTol^Se t i.^T" f Y™^^^"^^ "«^^ '''' ^^^ ^ark of the 
has long smc'e ZZ' '^Tt'tl^tlLt t^^^i^^ ^1^^^ .^^^ ,^ P^^t^ winch 



has^long sm^ .ase^ The ^^^^Jl^ ^^^^^^^ ::S^:^^Z!:^t 

Havw"^j-,,2:S sx;-- ::x':z -rrT ^°"T'* ^^ ^''^ -'*-- *- ^^- ^-^^^ 

flower ( X 4) ; 3, per.anth kid open x 4- 4 and I tlr^lt''^ "^P^"":^ ^'''' ' ^ 3) ; 2, femal 



PUte 175. 




West, Newman imp. 



PIMELEA SUTERI. T.Ktrk. 



Pj.ate 175.— PIMELEA SUTERI. 

Family THYMELJCACE^.] ^Genus PIMELEA, Banks & Sol. 

Pimelea Suteri, T. Kirk m Trans. N.Z. Insl. xxvi (1894), 259 ; Clieesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 613. 
So far as I can ascertain, Pimelea Suteri was originally discovered by Sir- David 
Monro on Dun Mountam, Nelson, about the year 1854. Specimens were com- 
muiiicated to Sir J. D. Hooker at Kew, and were considered by hi.n to be an alpine 
state ot P. fwstrata (now known as P. laevigata). In the "Handbook" Hooker 
included It m his var. y of P. prostrata, although, as Mr. Kirk correctly remarks 
/ . ^Mten never has ovate or truly acute leaves, and the hairs are mostly confined to' 
the margins and apices of the leaves. In 1868 specimens gathered on Dun Mountain 
by Mr. P. Lawson were communicated to Mr. T. Kirk, who appears to have also 
exammed others collected by Mr. W. T. L. Travers and Mr. R I Kiugsley In 
1881 I observed It m the same locality, and it has since been repeatedly gathered 
by Mr. t. G. Gibbs who has kindly favoured me with the specimens from which 
the accompanymg plate has been prepared. 

As a species P Suteri is allied to P. lavigata and P. Lyallii, but differs fr.jm 
both m Its peculiar habit, and in the much narrower leaves, which have their raarLnns 
and apices ciiate with long hairs. These hairs are also occasionally present on 
each side of the midrib on the back of the leaf, as shown in fig. 1 of the plate 
I have not seen ripe fruit, but Mr. Kirk states that "it is quite unlike that 
ot any other species. ' He describes it as " baccate, ovate-acuminate, hairy at 
the apex, opaque, red." The fruit of P. Iwvigata is white, and often almost 
translucent. 

AT ^P- ^''-o^'^'^ present time P. Suteri has not been found except on the Dun 
Mountain Kange, where it is not uncommon at an altitude of from 2 500 ft to 
3,500 it. It IS worth remark that three other species— i^aowZia Gihhsii, Myosotis 
Monroi, a^nd Veronica Gibbsii-are apparently confined to the same mountain chain 
It should be stated that Ptmelea Suteri is named in honour of the late Right 
. !: ^/"-^^iter. Bishop of Nelson, who for many years paid considerable attention 
to the botany of the Nelson District. 

Plate 175 Pimelea Suteri, di^wii from specimens collected by Mr. F. G. Gibb.s on Dun Mountain 
Nelson at an altitude of 4,000 ft. F,g. 1, tip of branchlet, showing leaves ( x 5) ; 2, male flower, ^vith 
included style (x 5) ; 3 perianth of same laid open (x 6) ; 4, female flower, with exserted style x 5 • 
0, perianth of same laid open ( x 6) ; 6, longitudinal section of ovary ( x 8) ; 7, ovule ( x 10). 



Plaute 176 




West, Newman imp. 



ELYTRANTHE ADAMS II, EngLer. 



Plate 176.— EIATKANTHE ADAMSIL 

Family LORANTHACE.^.] [Genus ELYTRANTHE, Blume. 

Elytranthe Adamsii, Engl, in Engl, and Pmntl, Pftanzenj. Naehtr. i, 126 ; dheesein. Mav. 

N.Z. Fl. 1149. 
Loranthus Adamsii, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiii (1881), 296. 

Elytranthe Adamsii appears to have been originally discovered by Mr. T. Kirk, 
for there are specimens of old date in his herbarium labelled as having been collected 
in the Hunua Ranges. Through a curious misconception, he referred it to the 
totally different E. tetrupetalus, which is at once distinguished by its smaller size 
and more compact habit, by the smaller leaves, and by the much smaller flowers 
which ultimately split to the base into 4 free petals, whereas in E. Adamsii the 
corolla only splits to the base on one side, the 4 short lobes then pointing almost 
in one direction. In 1880 it was gathered in some quantity by Mr. J. Adams in 
the Thames district. Under his guidance, I had an opportunity of examining the 
plant in this habitat, and of obtaining a good suite of flowering specimens. From 
these I prepared a description of the species under the name of Loranthus Adamsii. 
Since then the genus Loranthus has been more or less disnaembered. and the plant 
is now placed by Engler and other systematists in the genus Elytranthe. 

Elytranthe Adamsii is usually parasitic on Myrsine Urvillei, Melicope ternata, 
and several species of Cnprosma. It forms a small glabrous bush seldom more than 
2 ft. or 3 ft. in diameter. In habit and mode of growth it much resembles E. Colensoi, 
and the foliage of the two plants is almost precisely similar. E. Colensoi, however, 
is a much larger plant, with a considerably more developed inflorescence, and the 
flowers are larger, ultimately splitting to the base into 4 free petals. I have already 
pointed out its differences from E. tetrapetalus. 

I am not aware of any other localities for Elytranthe Adamsii beyond those 
already quoted of the Hunua Ranges and the Thames, but there can be little doubt 
that it has a more extensive range. While on the subject of the LoranthacecF, I 
would suggest that search should be made in the Hawke's Bay District for 
Phrygilanthus tenuiflorus, originally discovered by Mr. Colenso at the base of the 
Ruahine Range (see his "Visits to the Ruahine Range," p. 11) ; and at the Bay 
of Islands and Whangaroa for the allied Phrygilanthus Raoulii, found in the two 
localities by Allan Cunningham and Raoul. These two plants have not been seen 
since their original discovery, more than seventy years ago. 

Plate 176. Elytranthe Adamsii, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. J. Adams near the Hape 
Greek, Thames. Fig. 1, flower-bud just previous to expansion (x H) ; 2 and 3, front and back view 
of anthers ( x 4). 



P/ate J 77. 




PUSANUS CUNNINGHAMII, Ber^th, s. Hook. f. 



Plate 177.— FUSANUS CUNNINGHAMII. 

Family SANTALACE^.l [Genus FUSANUS, R. Br. 

Fusanus Cunninghamii, Bevth. a.d Hook. /. ex T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 75, 76 ; Cheesem. Man. 
Santalum Cunninghamii, Hook. j. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 223. 

a- J''?^^"tlt^^^* ""^ ^^'^ P'^**^' ^"^ ^^^"^^ ^ '■^^^''^ *be specific name proposed by 
Sir J. D. Hooker was originally discovered by Allan Cunningham in forests at 
Whangaroa and the Bay of Islands in 1826. Cunningham correctly referred it to 
the bantalacea', and, believing that it constituted an undescribed genus, proposed 
to call It Mida, which he took to be the Maori name for the plant. In this he made 
an unfortunate error, the correct name, as every student of the Maori language 
knows, being maire. He committed a further mistake in attaching too much 
importaiice to variations in the width of the leaf in various specimens collected by 
him. He considered that these variations represented distinct species, and hence 
described his genus Mula as comprising three species : Mida salicifolia, with narrow- 
lanceolate leaves (see the fruiting specimen figured on the accompanying plate): 
Mida eucahjptotde.s. with lanceolate leaves ; and Mida myrtifolia, with oval or ovate- 
lanceolate leaves (see the flowering specimens figured). A very little observation 
would have shown him how untrustworthy these differences are, for all three forms 
of leaves can be found on the same plant. In 1843 Sir William Hooker figured 
two of the forms in the " Icones Plantarum " (tt. 563, 575), pointing out that they 
represented nothing more than slight varieties ; and, as he considered that 
Cunningham s genus Mida was inseparable from Santalum, he proposed that the 
plant should in future bear the name of Santalum. Mida. But Sir J. D Hooker 
m the "Flora Novae Zelandise," pointed out that Mida was not the Maori name 
of the plant, and that to adopt it was only a further instance of the impropriety 
of using Native names for scientific purposes, a practice which had " introduced 
confusion into the botany of every country, and served no good purpose " He 
consequently suggested the new name of Santalum Cunninghamii, which at once 
received general recognition. 

c. Of late years the genus Santahim has been more or less subdivided. In the 
Genera Plantarum " our plant was placed in the Australian genus Fusanus, which 
ditters from Santalum in the structure of the disc and in other characters But it 
was also admitted that the New Zealand species was sufficiently distinct to form a 
subgenus for which Cunningham's name of Mida was revived. It seems not 
improbable that some day it will be fully restored to generic rank. Whether that 
IS the case or not, it is to be hoped that fresh confusion will not be caused 
by a needless change of the specific name. 

Fusanus Cunninghamii forms a small tree from 10 ft. to 25 ft. in height with 
a trunk which seldom exceeds 9 in. in diameter. As already mentioned ' it is 
remarkable for the great variation in the shape of the leaves, which vary from 
linear to oblong-ovate. Leaves of very different shapes can often be found on the 
same branch, but it is also common for the leaves to be fairly constant Young 
plants show the greatest tendency to variation, and usually have narrower leaves 
than older individuals. Owing to the small size of the tree the wood is little used 
but It IS known to be hard and dense, and it might well be employed in ornamental 
turnery and inlaying. 

f ^^!*^c?^"^ ^'^^^''^'^ extends as far south as Cape Palliser, on the northern shore 
ot took Strait, it is rare and local to the south of Rotorua and the East Cape. It 



is most abundant north of Auckland, and is a common plant in kauri forests, and 
particularly among juvenile kauri. Its altitudinal range is from sea-level to 2,000 ft., 
but it is not abundant at an higher elevation than 1,500 ft. 

As already stated, its Maori name is maire. Unfortunately, this name is also 
applied to three species of Olea and to Eugenia Maire, a circumstance which has 
led to some confusion ; for, owing to the variability of the leaves of Fusanus, it 
is quite easy to mistake the foliage of the three genera. In some districts it is known 
by the name of New Zealand sandal-wood. 

Plate 177. Fusanus Cunninghawii, drawn from specimens cullected in the vicinity of Auckland. 
Pig. 1, flower and flower-bud (x-1); 2, section of perianth, showing stamens and ovary (x6); 
3, perianth-leaflet (x 7) ; 4 and 5, front and back view of anther (x 12) : G, longitudinal section of 
Dvary (x 6) ; 7, fruit (x 2) ; 8, section of fruit (x 2) ; 9, embryo {x 3). 



Flate J78. 




West, Newman imp 



DACTYLANTHUS TAYLORII, ffook.f. 



Plate 178.— DACTYLANTHUS TAYLOR I. 

Family BALANOPHORACE.*.] [Genus DACTYLANTHUS. Hook. f. 

Dactylanthus Taylori, Hook. /. in Trans. Linn. f^oc. xxii (1859). t25. t. 75 : Hmiflh. N.Z. 
Fl. 255 ; C}iee.se,i>. Man. N.Z. Fl. 62fi. 

This very remarkable plant was first described by Sir J. D. Hooker fro mi speci- 
mens communicated by the Rev. Richard Taylor ; but until quite lately all that 
was known of its original discovery was the account given by Mr. Taylor in his well- 
known book " Te Ika-a-Maui " (second edition, p. 697). where he says that he " first 
met with it on a mountain-range near Hikurangi, returning from Taupo." 
Mr. James Grant, however, in some notes published in the " Proceedings of the New 
Zealand Institute " for 1910-11, p. 98, has quoted some extracts from Mr. Taylor's 
manuscript journal, now in the possession of Mr. H. S. G. Harper, which show 
that the plant was gathered in March, 1845, in the rough forest-clad country not 
far from the Mangawhero River, the chief tributary of the Wangaehu River, and 
a little above where the road for Pukehika branches off from that to Hikurangi. 
From this it is evident that Mr. Taylor was travelling on the old Maori track from 
Taupo to Wanganui via Wangaehu. At a later date a Mr. Williamson gathered 
specimens at a place called Putotara and gave them to Mr. Taylor, and apparently 
it was these that were forwarded to Sir J. D. Hooker and described by him. 

So far as I can ascertain, no additional information was obtained until April, 
1869, when Mr. T. Kirk gathered it near the head of the Karaka Creek, at the Thames 
goldfields. This locality has since been repeatedly examined by the late Mr. Adams 
and myself, and no further specimens obtained. A few years later it was found 
in great abundance between Port Charles and Cape Colville by Mr. H. Nairn, who 
very kindly supplied me with flowering specimens of both sexes. Since then it 
has been noticed in many stations between Hokianga and Cook Strait, as will be 
seen froin the following Ust, which includes all the localities that have been brought 
under my notice : — 

Wooded plateau between Hokianga and the Northern Wairoa, Percy Bedling- 
tnn ! forests near the source of the Hoteo River, Kaipara, R. Glanville ! 
between Port Charles and Cape Colville, H. Nairn ! head of the Karaka Creek, 
Thames, T. Kirk ; vicinity of the East Cape and Hicks Bay, abundant, H. Hill ! 
Tarawera and Nuhaka, A. Hamilton ; Runanga and Opepe, near Taupo, H. Hill! 
T. F. C. ; Hawkston and Patoka (Hawke's Bay), F. Hutchinson ! Taranaki 
(exact locality uncertain), W. H. Skinner ; Upper Wanganui, at Pipiriki, E. Phillips 
Turner ; Upper Waitotara, /. R. Annabell ! between the Upper Wangaehu and 
Taupo, Rev. R. Taylor, H. C. Field ; Upper Rangitikei, J. P. Marshall, E. Phillips 
Turner ; Kaitoke, near Wellington, J. S. Tennant and others ! As to the altitudinal 
range of the plant, it descends almost to sea-level at Port Charles, and ascends to 
3,500 ft. or nearly so in the Upper Rangitikei and Wangaehu districts. 

The following notes, which may be regarded as an amplification of the descrip- 
tion given in the Manual, are based on the personal examination of specimens, either 
collected by myself, or communicated to me by other botanists, and in particular 
by Mr. H. Hill, of Napier. The plant is parasitic on the roots of trees in all stages 
of its growth. In its northern habitats the host is usually Schefflera digitata, but 
Panax arboreum, Coprosma grandifolia, and Myrsine Urvillei are frequently attacked. 
Further south Panax arboreuin, and Pittosporum eiigenioides are the two species 
most commonly affected ; but Fagus, Hedycarya, and Geniostoma have all been 
recorded. Careful observation will no doubt largely increase this list. 



The rhizome of Dactylanthus is a rounded or amorphous tuberous-like mass 
rough all over with wart-like tubercles. It varies greatly in size and shape, but 
is always organically connected with a creeping root of the host, which it appears 
to surround and terminate, no doubt through the early death of the root beyond 
the point of attachment of the parasite. I have seen rhizomes nearly 18 in. in 
diameter, but the average size is not much more than that of the fist. Its develop- 
ment from the germinating-seed is unknown, the smallest specimens I have seen 
being from tin. to :^in. in diameter, or about the size of small peas. But as these 
small specimens clearly show that the rootlet of the host is itself swollen and 
enlarged at the point of junction with the parasite, it seems most probable that 
the early develoj^ment is in its main features similar to that of several other 
genera of Balanophoracew, as Langsdorfpa, Scyhalium, and Balanophora. The 
rhizome is usually buried beneath the hunms of the forest-floor ; but on the sides 
of steep declivities, where the soil has presumably been washed away, they may be 
seen quite exposed. In a little gully at Opepe, near Taupo, I once saw eight or 
nine in the space of a few yards. 

Every year numerous flowering-stems are produced from the rhizome. These 
are from 2 in. to 6 in. in height, fleshy when young, clothed with brown imbricating 
scales, the lower of which are shorter and more laxly placed, the upper longer and 
much more closely packed. The stems are thus clavate in shape, being often an 
inch in diameter at the top, although very nmch less below. The uppermost scales 
form a kind of involucre for the spadices, which in the young state they entirely 
conceal. The spadices vary in number from 10 to 30 or even more, and are 
usually from Jin. to Ij in. in length. The flowers are very numerous on the 
spadices, densely packed above, rather more open below. 

Generally speaking, the flowers are dioecious, the male spadices being produced 
on one plant and the females on another. I have, however, seen several specimens 
in which the upper flowers are all male, and the lower flowers all female, one of 
these examples being shown on the accompanying plate (fig. 10). And it is quite 
common for the male spadices to have numerous abortive female flowers at the base 
(figs. 8, 9). The fruit is minute and crustaceous, and is tightly invested by the 
withered remains of the perianth. Both Mr. Hemsley and myself have failed to 
find an embryo, but possibly it is not fully differentiated from the albumen of the 
seed until germination commences. 

Dactylanthus is a very isolated genus. It is remarkable for the reduction of 
the male flowers to a solitary stamen without any trace of perianth, and the 
female flowers consist only of a 1 -celled and 1-ovuled ovary closely invested by a 
perianth which is produced upwards into 2 or 3 subulate processes. The female 
flowers resemble those of the Mediterranean Cynomorium ; the males are compared 
by Sir J. D. Hooker to the African genus Thonningia. 

The Balanophoracew have an almost purely tropical distribution. Dactylan- 
thus is the most southern representative, but the South African Sarcophyte and 
Mystropetaluni. almost reach a similar latitude. In the Northern Hemisphere 
Cynomorium, which extends as far as the south of Spain and Italy, is the only genus 
which crosses the northern tropic. All the rest of the family, comprising ten genera 
and about thirty-five species, are confined to the warm and humid forests of the 
Tropical Zone. 

According to the Rev. R. Taylor, the Maori name of Dactylanthus is pua-o-te- 
reinga, or " the fiower of Hades." I have been unable to find any legend or tradi- 
tion explaining the origin of such a name. Mr. H. Hill states that in the East Cape 
district the Maoris apply the name of wae-wae-atua to the plant. This he interprets 
as meaning " the fingers, the foot, or the toes of the atua " (or spirit). With these 
two exceptions I have been unable to find any mention of Dactylanthus in Maori 
literature. Nor is this at all strange, seeing that it is seldom found save in forest 
districts far from human habitation, and that it is not at all noticeable save in the 
short flowering-period. 



It should be mentioned that the flowers are strongly fragrant. Mr Hill states 

hat he has frequently been able to discover the plant through '' the delicious daphne 

ike fragrance which it emitted." The Rev. I Taylor says that the flowers ha^^e 

a strong smell, partly fragrant, although earthy and unpleasant." Further on 

he quotes a statement of Mr. Williamson's to the effect that the odour w^ 

IS rcfdedTv nt ^"\ '' i "Pf, "t"-" ^^ ^"^ ^^P^^--« - '^^' '^^ Cane 
dis^rpSl^ K Jt "^^"'^ ^^^ ^^^'^' fi'«* ^^'^P^'^d, but becomes heav? and 
disagreeable when they commence to decay. ^ 



Plate 179. 




West,Newrna.Ti imp 



HOMALANTHUS POLYANDRUS, Gheesem. 



PiATE 179.— HOMALANTHUS POLYANDRUS. 

Family EUPHORBIACE.E.] [Genus HOMALANTHUS, A. Juss. 

Homalanthus 'polyandrus, Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 630. 
Carumbium polyandrum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. FL 248. 

This graceful and attractive tree was discovered in Jvdy. 1854. during a visit 
made by Captain H. M. Denhani, of H.M.S. "Herald," to Hunday, or Raoul Island, 
the chief island of the Kermadec Group. The " Herald " arrived on the 2nd July, 
and remained iintil the 24th of the same month. During this brief stay a survey 
was made of the island ; and Messrs. J. Milne and W. McGillivray, the naturalists 
attached to the " Herald," made a small collection of plants. This was placed 
in the hands of Sir J. D. Hooker, and formed the foundation of a paper on 
"The Botany of Raoul Island" printed in the "Journal of the Linnean Society" 
(vol. i, p. 125). Forty-two species were recorded as inhabiting the island, and in the 
list occurs the name of " Omalanthus nutans," GuilL, a species originally discovered 
in New Caledonia. In the "Handbook" Sir J. D. Hooker recognized that the 
Kermadec plant differed from the New Caledonian, and described it under the 
name of Carumbium polyandrum. As the genus Carumbium is now merged with 
Hom,alanth'Us our plant must take the name of H. folyandrus. 

In a visit paid to the Kermadec Islands in August, 1887, I had an opportunity 
of examining the flora of the group, and of collecting specimens of most of the 
species. At that time H. folyandrus was not uncommon in sheltered places on 
Sunday Island, and I also saw a few plants in the crater-basin of Macaulay 
Island. But Mr. W. R. B. Oliver, who visited Sunday Island in 1907-8, remaining 
thereon for eleven months, states (Trans. N.Z. Inst, xlii (1910), 167) that it is 
now confined to a few localities inaccessible to goats. According to him, "these 
animals absolutely determine the existence of the species. They eat the bark 
from the trunk as high as they can reach, and the tree dies in consequence." 
With the knowledge that we possess respecting the destruction of the indigenous 
flora on St. Helena through the agency of goats, it is to be feared that Homalanthus 
folyandrus is in danger of being blotted out of existence in its only known habitat. 
Fortunately, it has found its way into Auckland gardens. 

Homalanthus folyandrus is a graceful tree 10 ft. to 25 ft. high. Young plants 
form slender unbranched rod-like stems 6 ft. to 15 ft. high, with large leaves some- 
times more than a foot in diameter. Older plants branch freely and have much 
smaller foliage from 2 in. to 4 in. long. The leaves are quite glabrous, very thin and 
delicate, glaucous beneath, and with reddish margins. In cultivation in Auckland 
the leaves often turn dark reddish-brown or sometimes nearly scarlet in winter, and 
then present a very ornamental appearance. The flowers are arranged in slender 
erect racemes 4 in. to 9 in. long, the females being few in number at the base of the 
racemes, the males very numerous and occupying by far the greater part of the 
raceme. All parts of the plant exude a milky latex when broken or bruised. 

The genus Homalanthus is essentially Polynesian and Malayan. In addition 
to the New Zealand plant, there are from eight to fifteen others, according to the 
different views of authors, ranging from Tahiti to eastern Australia, and stretching 
northwards as far as the Philippine Islands. Several of the species are very 
closely allied, and it is quite possible that their number will be reduced by future 
systematists. 

Plate 179. Homalanthus folyandrus, drawn from specimens collected on the Kermadec Islands. 
Fig. 1 , portion of male inflorescence ( x 4) ; 2 and 3, front and back view of anther ( x 5) ; 4, female 
inflorescence (x 2) ; 5, pistil ( x 5) ; 6, longitudinal section of fruit (x 3) ; 7, seed (x 3) ; 8, longitudinal 
section of same ( x 3) ; 9, half of embryo ( x 6). 



PLale ISO. 




West NewmaTi imp. 



PARATROPHIS HETEROPHYLLA, ^fe/^ie. 



Pi^ATK 180.-PARATROPHIS HETEROPHYLLA. 

Family URTICACE^.l r^ t. * t, . r. 

-• [Genvs PARATROPHLS, Blume. 

PlanS'^VE:?':;d"pi^^^^^^^^ ^^1^^ .and^^Bentham's "Genera 

species. Three of these aJe from New 7 ^^T'^^'"™^^*'"' "«^ ^o'^tains nine 
Fiji Islands, three W been rec ndv dfrrfh' l' J"' ''T ^'^"''' °"^ ^^^"^ ^b*' 
outlying species in the Ph HppSrishn T1,p ^'"!^'' /^^ '^''' ^« ^" 

which prove an affinity betZn the vetV.. fT ''J^^'^^^^^ one of those 

Malayaf an affinity wh^^^chrietter d ve oneT ft ^^ ^"'^^n"^' ^"'^"^^^^' ^^^ 

The closely^llild- P 'iani'?^^^^^ P"'^'':^ P^"^ *^^* «^«h was the case, 

collected Ind figured brBi am Solandr^T'^'^^ f "" '"^"^ ^^^^^^ P^^^^' ^^« 
P. heteropkyllaLs sup^plfeT 1 1^1 F^ knowledge of 

Akaroa in either 1840 or 1841 He nublfsW] ^^°*^"^^* .^^o^I' ^^o gathered it at 

de Plantes de la Nouvelle zSande " nnS o K 1L^« '\^''°, 'P.P*^^^'"^^ ^^ ^^^ "^hoix 
to the receipt of numerous recLnsfron?^ T ^n J^ f^^« 1^**^^ work he alludes 
belong to the same species TutThlw^^^^^ ^^ believed to 

therefore suggested that 11; nam7nl ^^^"f^,/^ ^^^ "^^«li larger foliage. He 
^eterophl^llus''.^ Ti^y^^^^^ changed to that of 

Raoul's plant in no way belonged fo Fnt "^ ^'^^l''^ ^^"^^ P^^^^ed out that 

He therefore proposed (he Slnerf^aT^^^ T ' T"^^"^ '' '^^-^^-• 

accepted Raoul's suggestion tl chLap T.? °^/«^«^^«M^«, and at the same time 
respects the alteration s to be re'refted fortller """'V ^'"'Tt'^^'''- ^^ ^'^^ 
specimens belonged to P Bmhilf^d' il /\T. ^V'^ ^^^^^^ *^'^* Hooker's 
adopted by thosf who conskkr that tt is doubtful whether the name will be 
be retained. ^^""^ *^' "^'b*^'* «P^«^fic name must in all cases 

and KlTfntZ^Z:Z%lTZl^^^ '^^ ^^^^ ^-- ^-g-- 

and Little Barrier I lands but has not h ''' '^^f^^^^- It occurs on the Great 
or the Chatham Isla S It is mo t ah„n?\'''°'^'-^ "^I'^T ^^°™ ^''^^^ ^^^^^d 
side of rivers, &c., and is seldom seen mlicTr '" 'T' ^"^^"^^ ^«^-^«*«' «^- ^7 the 
forms a tree of fr^m 15 ft o IS ft n CfcS i l*^ ^" '''"^f *^"^^ °^ ^'^^^ ^t. It usually 
in diameter, theWlfbemg gre^or alS'^Ste' T' ""7"^? ^°" '^"^ *^ ^*- 
Like many other New Zealand trep. tT ' -f ^ """"'S^ ""'^^ ^^^^^^^ lenticels. 

and foliage from that oftheaduR Til v '' ^""Tt '"'''' ^^'^"^'^ ^'^'''''S m habit 

flexuous W often Ittel tanc'ht,^3 tr - r^Z TaTk ^ '?? T' ^^^^'^^ 
distant, and vary greatly in Shane from nW^. <idrK Drown bark. The leaves are 

are frequently iL^gularfy Ued^ o/^ost nfnnatifi 7'"' '? '^'"'^^ °^^^^"^^^' ^^^ 
accompanying plate In the arhdt f^P K^ if ' ^\^^'''^^ '^ %• C of the 
numerous branchlets- am tit 1p i. ^^^^^^^es are shorter and stiffer, with 

crenate-denta e ml4inr^ "'' '''°"' "^^^ "^^^^^^ ^^ «i-« ^"d shape with 



A sweetish milky juice is exuded iu considerable quantity when the bark is 
wounded. In the early days of colonization it was frequently used with tea instead 
of milk, and from that the plant received the local names of milk-tree, or cow-tree. 
The Maori name is turepo. 

Plate 180. Paralrophis helerophylla. dnuvn from specimens (male, female, and l)raucli from a 
young tree) collected near Mercer, by the Waikato River. Fig. 1, leaf (x2); 2, male flower-bud 
( X 6) ; 3, peltate scale ( x 8) ; 4, male flower ( x 6) ; 5, male flower from above ( x 6) ; 6, stamen 
(x8) ; 7, branclilet, with female flowers (x5) ; 8, section of ovary (x 7) ; 9, longitudinal section of 
fruit ( x 2i) ; 10, section of seed (x 3) ; 11, embryo (enlarged). 



Plate IS]. 




West, Newman imp. 



BOEHMERIA DEALBATA, Cheesem. 



Plate 181.— BCEHMERIA DEALBATA. 

Family URTICACEiE.] [Genus BCEHMERIA, Jacq. 

Bcehmeria dealbata, C'heesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiv (1892), tlO ; Ckeesem. Man. N.Z. 
Fl. 637. 

Our knowledge of this fine species of Bcehmeria dates from August, 1887, when 
I collected it on Sunday Island, the chief island of the Kermadec Group, during 
a visit of the Colonial Government steamer " Stella," made for the purpose of form- 
ally annexing the group to the Colony of New Zealand. At that time I was inclined 
to place it as a variety of the Norfolk Island B. australis, a species with which I was 
only acquainted through the descriptions of Endlicher and Weddell, and I accord- 
ingly referred it to that plant in my account of the flora of the Kermadec Islands 
published in the " Transactions of the New Zealand Institute " (vol. xx, p. 173). 
Later on, however, Mr. Hemsley did me the favour of comparing it with authentic 
specimens of B. australis, and ascertained that it differed from that species in having 
the leaves more shortly petiolate, 3-nerved and otherwise strongly nerved, and with 
the upper surface distinctly rugulose. It appears to be intermediate in its characters 
between the Norfolk Island B. australis and the Lord Howe Island B. calophleba. 

The genus Bcehmeria, which attains its southern limit in the Kermadec Islands, 
is found in almost all tropical and subtropical countries, the number of species known 
being about fifty. At the time of my visit B. dealbata was not uncommon in woods 
in the lower portions of Sunday Island, and it has since been noticed by all visitors 
interested in the plants of the island. Mr. W. R. B. Oliver, who has recently made 
a careful botanical exploration of the whole group, also observed it on the rocky 
sides of some ravines in Macaulay Island. 

I have had B. dealbata in cultivation in my garden at Renmera since 1888. 
Although the flowers are small and inconspicuous, and oft'er no attraction to the 
horticulturist, the plant is not without some value in the shrubbery. Its growth 
is rapid, it stands exposure well, and it has a neat and compact mode of growth. 
In addition, the leaves are decidedly handsome from their conspicuous ribbing, and 
from the contrast between the hoary white of the under surface and the green and 
glabrous upper surface. 

Plate 181. Bcehiiicn'a dedlbulu, (hawn from specimens cultivated in Auckland. Fig. I, male 
flower ( X 8) ; 2, the same with the perianth laid open ( x 8) ; 3 and 4, front and back view of stamens 
(x 8) ; 5, female flower ( x 8) ; 6, the same laid open ( x 8) ; 7. enlarged perianth enclosing the ripe 
fruit ( X 6) ; 8, fruit removed from the perianth ( x 8) ; 9, embryo (enlarged). 



Plate 182. 




MSinith del 
J M.Fitch hth. 



West, Newman imp. 



FAG US APICULATA, Col. 



Plate 182.— FAGUS APICULATA. 

Family OUPULIPER^.] [Genus FAGUt-^, Linn. 

Fagus apiculata, (hi. in Trans. N.Z. IvM. xvi (1884), 335 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 642. 

Fagus apiculata was first discovered by the veteran botanist Mr. Colenso in 1883, 
in dense forests between Matamau and Dannevirke, Hawke's Bay ; and was 
described by him in the " Transactions of the New Zealand Institute " for the same 
year (vol. xvi, p. 335). In subsequent years he frequently visited the same locality, 
and obtained a considerable number of flowering and fruiting specimens. Some 
of these were communicated to Mr. T. Kirk, and formed the material from which 
the plate given in the " Forest Flora " was prepared ; others were kindly forwarded 
to me, and have been used in drawing the accompanying illustration. The range 
of the species is imperfectly known. The typical state — i.e., that discovered by 
Colenso and figured herewith — is only known for certain in the locality mentioned 
by him ; but closely allied plants have been collected in several localities near 
Wellington, and along the flanks of the Tararua Range. A similar plant, of 
which I have seen no specimens, has also been recorded by Dr. Cockayne from 
Mount Fyfe, Marlborough. 

In the " Forest Flora " Mr. Kirk restricts F. apiculata to Colenso's type, which 
has thin apiculate almost glabrous leaves, which are nearly entire. The Wellington 
plants mentioned above, which have more coriaceous leaves pubescent beneath and 
with the margins obscurely toothed, were referred by him to F. fusca as varieties 
dvhia and obsoleta. But they have the small leaves and narrow involucres of 
F. apiculata, and are nmch more appropriately placed under it. Mr. Colenso, in his 
original notice of the plant, quite correctly stated that it constitutes a link between 
the species with large serrated leaves (F. Menziesii and F. fusca) and those with small 
entire leaves {F. Solandri and F. cliff ortioides). Since then another species with 
intermediate leaves has been described {F. Blairii, T. Kirk). But it differs from 
all the forms of F. apiculata in the more coriaceous leaves clothed with fulvous 
tomentum beneath. 

F. apiculata forms a tall handsome tree 40 ft. high or more, with a trunk 2 ft. in 
diameter. The branches spread in a horizontal plane, and according to Mr. Colenso 
are rather thinly covered with leaves. He also states that the bark of the trunk 
is pale and smooth, of the branches dark brown with lighter-coloured spots. He 
gives the length of the leaves as " 1 in.," but most of the specimens forwarded to 
me have leaves rather under that size. Nothing is known of the value of the 
timber, but probably its quality will be very similar to that of F. fusca. 

Plate 182. Fagus apiculata, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. Colenso in forests near 
Norsewood, Hawke's Bay. Fig. 1, branchlet, with male and female flowers ( x 3) ; 2 and 3, front and 
back view of anthers ( x 6) ; 4, bract ( x 3) ; 5, female flowers and involucre ( x 4) ; 6, a single female 
flower removed from the involucre (x6); 7, longitudinal section of same ( x 6) ; 8, several fruits 
enclosed within tlje involucre (x 3) ; 9, a single fruit (x .5) ; 10, seed (x 5). 



Plate 183 




FAGUS CLIFFORTIOIDES, Hook, f- 



Plate 183.— FAGUS CLIFFORTIOIDES. 

Family OUPULIFER^.] [Genus FAGUS, Linn. 

Fagus cliffortioides, Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 673 and t. 816b ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. 
Fl. 643. 

So far as I can ascertain, this well-known tree was first gathered in Dusky Sound 
in the year 1791 by Mr. A. Menzies, the surgeon to Vancouver's expedition. His 
specimens, however, remained unnoticed for more than fifty ye'ars, for it was not 
until 1844 that Sir J. D. Hooker figured and described the species in the " Icones 
Plantarum." Almost immediately afterwards it was collected on the Nelson moun- 
tains by Mr. Bidwill, and on the Ruahine Range by Mr. Colenso. And, as soon 
as the vegetation of the mountainous interior of both the North and South Islands 
was examined, it was found that our plant was a dominant and widely distributed 
species, ranging from the Bast Cape to Foveaux Strait. 

F. cliffortioides, for which Kirk's suggested name of " mountain-beech " should 
be adopted, forms a small tree from 15 ft. or 20 ft. to 50 ft. in height. Its size, how- 
ever, is purely a matter of altitude, exposure, and soil. Near the upward limit of 
its growth it may be reduced to a densely branched bush a few feet in height, while 
in favourable situations, at a comparatively moderate elevation — say, from 2,000 ft. 
to 3,000 ft. — it sometimes reaches an extreme height of 60 ft., with a trunk over 2 ft. 
in diameter. The bark of the old trees is dark brown, but in young plants it is 
usually pale-coloured. The branches spread in a more or less horizontal plane, and 
are often arranged tier above tier, and the branchlets have their minor divisions 
and the leaves inserted in a distichous manner. The leaves are the smallest in the 
genus, the average size being from Jin. to |-in. ; but I have seen specimens barely 
more than Jin., and sometimes they are as much as fin. In outline they vary 
from ovate-oblong to ovate or ovate-orbicular, thus differing from those of F. Solandri, 
in which they are always oblong. The leaves are also more pointed at the apex 
and more rounded at the base than in F. Solandri. The upper surface is glabrous, 
but the under surface is more or less clothed with greyish-white hairs. The flowers 
are produced in great profusion, but the males greatly outnumber the females, and 
from their red colour often tinge the whole tree. The wood is not considered to be 
durable, but is often used for fence-posts, &c., in districts where it is the chief tree. 

In the mountain districts of the South Island, especially on the eastern flanks 
of the Southern Alps, and on the central mountains of the North Island, Fagus 
cliffortioides often constitutes the greater portion of the mountain-forests, and in 
some localities is almost the only tree. In such situations it imparts a peculiar 
physiognomy to the forest. The general appearance is dark, sombre, and gloomy, 
particularly when looked at from a little distance, when it appears to cover 
mountain-slope and valley alike with one uniform sheet of dark dull green. But, 
as Mr. Kirk remarks ("Forest Flora," p. 201), when isolated trees of symmetrical 
shape are scattered over the landscape, giving a park-like character to the scenery, 
the general effect is decidedly pleasing. Within the forest there is often but little 
undergrowth, and that mainly composed of young plants of the Fagus. In fact, 
the open nature of the forest, and the comparative ease with which it can be 
penetrated in all directions, is one of the characteristic features of a forest of 
F. cliffortioides. 

Plate 183. Fayus cliffoitioides, drawn from specimens collected on Ruapehu, and on Mount 
Arthur, Nelson. Fig. 1, male inflore.scence ( x 3) ; 2 and 3, front and back view of stameu.s { x 0) ; 
4, female inflorescence ( x 3) ; 5, ovary ( x 3) ; 6, fruit ( x 5) ; 7, involucre ( x 5) ; 8, section of fruit ( x 5). 




Wesfc,Newnian. imp. 



AGATHIS AUSTRALIS, SccUsb. 



Plate 184.— AGATHIS AUSTRALIS. 

(THE KAURI.) 
Family CONIFER/E.] [Genus AGATHIS, Salisb. 

Agathis australis, Steud. Nom. ed. ii, i, 34 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 645. 
Dammara australis, Lamb. Pin. ed. i, ii, 14. 

Although Cunningham and others have stated that the kauri was discovered 
during Cook's first voyage, it is quite certain that it is not mentioned in Solander's 
manuscript flora, and that no specimens are contained in the Banksian collections. 
It is somewhat remarkable that such should be the case, for from Cook's anchorage 
in Mercury Bay (Opuragi, as he called it) forests of kauri could easily be discerned ; 
and when, a little later in the voyage, his ship anchored off Tararu Point, at the 
entrance to the Thames River, and Cook, accompanied by Banks and Solander, 
made a boat voyage up the river to examine the immense forests of kahikatea that 
then clothed its banks, they must have passed within full view of the many groves 
of kauri which until 1868 occupied the spurs and ridges between the Kuranui and 
Karaka Creeks, immediately behind the present site of the Town of Thames. In 
both these localities they must have seer the tree in the not very remote distance. 
But probably Cook did not feel sufficiently sure of the behaviour of the Maoris to 
allow his people to wander far from the shore. In his second and third voyages 
he did not visit any locality within the geographical range of the kauri. 

The actual discovery of the kauri was due to the French expedition of Marion 
du Fresne, and indirectly led to the death of Marion himself. His two ships, the 
" Marquis de Castries " and the " Mascarin," entered the Bay of Islands in May, 
1772, or not much more than two years after Cook, and anchored near Motuarohia 
Island, directly in front of Manawara Bay. Marion's chief reason for visiting the 
Bay of Islands was to obtain some spars for the " Castries," which had lost her mizzen- 
mast and bowsprit in a collision with the other vessel. While exploring for suit- 
able timber Marion discovered a kind of "cedar" with the leaves of an olive {un 
cedre a feuilles (Volivier). Quoting from Lirg Roth's translation of the Abbe Rochon's 
account of the voyage (p. 73). " I had cedars of this variety cut down whose trunks 
were more than 100 ft. long from the ground to the lowest branches, and 52 in. 
in diameter. The trees are very resinous ; the resin is white and transparent and 
gives out an agreeable smell like incense when burnt. It appeared to me that this 
cedar is the commonest and highest tree of the country ; its wood is elastic, and 
I judged it very suitable for making ships' masts." It cannot be doubted that this 
" cedar " is identical with the kauri. Marion established a shipyard on shore for 
the preparation of his spars, and, having the utmost confidence in the friendliness 
of the Maoris, did not hesitate to allow his men to land unarmed. The ending which 
might have been anticipated came at last. One evening Marion and fifteen officers 
and men were attacked and massacred, and on the following morning another boat's 
crew of eleven men was also surprised, only one escaping to warn the others. Marion's 
successor in command. Lieutenant Crozet, avenged this treacherous massacre by 
destroying the villages of the Maoris and by shooting many people ; but with his 
reduced numbers he was unable to remove the partly completed masts, some remains 
of which were seen by Dr. Thomson in 1859, eighty-seven years after the event. 

Very early in the nineteenth century a trading intercourse sprang up between 
the North Island and Sydney, and a small European settlement began to form at 
the Bay of Islands. This led to a fuUer acquaintance with the kauri, at that time 



usually called "cowrie" or "kaudi." Samples of the timber were sent to England and 
attracted much attention. It was suggested that it might prove serviceable for the 
topmasts of the larger ships in the Navy, for which spars varying from 75 ft. to 85 ft. 
in length were required ; and the Admiralty despatched two ships — the "Dromedary" 
and the " Coromandel " — to obtain cargoes for experimental purposes. Other 
consignments were obtained at a later date. A small export trade also sprang 
up with Sydney, kauri timber being much preferred for building purposes to the 
Australian timbers then in the market. All this drew attention to the kauri, and 
by the year 1830 it was generally recognized that few timbers in any part of the 
world equalled it for durability, ease with which it could be worked, and adapta- 
bility to a great variety of purposes. After the establishment of British supremacy 
and the colonization of the country kauri rapidly took the first place as a commercial 
timber, a position which it has occupied ever since. 

So far as I can ascertain, the first scientific description of the kauri was given 
by D. Don in the appendix to Lambert's " Pinetum," published in 1824. He recog- 
nized its affinity to the Dammar pine of Borneo, and placed it in the same genus 
under the name of Dammara australis. For many years it was almost universally 
known by that title ; but it was eventually pointed out that Rumphius, who first 
proposed the name of Dammara for the Bornean plant in 1741, had never given a 
defijiition of the genus, but had simply associated with the Dammar pine two other 
resin-bearing plants which did not even belong to the ConifercE. Under these 
circumstances, Salisbury's name of Agathis, being the earliest accompanied with 
a sufficient diagnosis, was accepted by Hooker and Bentham in the " Genera 
Plantarum," and by Eichler in the " Pflanzenfamilien." Finally, at the Vienna 
Conference, the name of Agathis was included in the " Nomina Conservanda," 
or list of names which in any case must be retained. 

Being anxious to ascertain who supplied the specimens described by Don, I 
induced Mr. Hemsley to trace the matter in the library at Kew. He has supplied 
me with the following quotation from Lambert's " Pinetum " : " For the branch 
represented in the plate I am indebted to the friendship of John Deas Thomson, 
Esq., Commissioner of the Navy. It was brought home by Captain Downie, under 
whose order two ships were sent by the Government some time ago for the purpose 
of procuring timber for shipbuilding." I have ascertained that Captain Downie 
was the master of the naval storeship " Coromandel," which visited New Zealand 
in 1820 for the purpose of obtaining spars for the Royal Navy. 

The kauri is almost too well Icnown to need a special description. It is a lofty 
forest-tree, with a massive columnar trunk and rounded almost bushy head. Its 
average height is from 50 ft. to 120 ft., with a trunk 4 ft. to 10 ft. in diameter ; but 
it may attain as much as 150 ft. or 170 ft., with a trunk 15 ft. to 22 ft. in diameter. 
The leaves of the mature trees are crowded along the short stout branchlets, and 
are from fin. to 1| in. in length. They are of a dull olive-green colour, very thick 
and coriaceous, and linear-oblong in shape. The leaves of young plants are longer 
and narrower, 2 in. to 4 in. long by J in. to | in. broad ; but they pass by insensible 
gradations into those of the older trees. The flowers are invariably monoecious, 
the males being axillary, and the females terminating short branchlets. The cones 
are almost spherical when mature, and from 2 in. to 3 in. in diameter. As the 
scales separate from the axis at maturity, the cones are seldom seen except when 
a tree is felled. 

The kauri has a very limited geographical range. Some scattered trees exist 
in the North Cape district, especially between Tapotopoto Bay and AVliangakea, 
but it is not found in any quantity to the north of Ahipara and Mongonui. From 
these two locaHties southwards to the Manukau Harbour on the west coast and 
Tairua on the east is the proper home of the tree — the district which for seventy- 
five years has suppUed almost the whole of the kauri timber used in the Dominion 
or exported therefrom. Its extreme southern Umit on the east coast is near Maketu, 



'1 .. T^^ ^^^ ' "?" *¥ '^''*' '"^ *^'^ "^^'^^^y "f Kawhia Harbour. In the valley 

ot the Ihames an extensive kaun forest once existed at Waiorongomai, near Te Aroha 
but It has long since been cut down. A few isolated trees, however, still exist on the 
flanks of the ranges flanlcing the eastern side of the Thames River, the Gordon Settle- 
ment being the southern Inmt. In the Waikato district scattered trees or small 
c umps were once not uncommon on the west side of the Waipa near Ngaruawahia 
stretching southwards almost as far as Whatawhata. The southern boundary of 
A.%ni "'™ *^f ^"[•^^ b« '^'i^^^ ««i^«jde with the 38th paraUel of south latitude. 
As for Its altitudmal range, it descends to sea-level in many localities, but it I 
most abundant from 250 it. f. 1,000 ft. It is not common above 1,500 ft although 
^Zm^Z^f^L:"" ''' '"'' ''''''' ^-^-^^- -^ between-'Hokian^a 
Although the kauri mil flourish in almost all soils and situations, save those 
winch are exceeding y wet, it prefers hilly and somewhat rugged locaHties and a 
poor and decidedly clayey soil. Isolated trees are-or, rather, fere-found in a'most 
all forests nor h of Auckland, but as a rule the tree forms little clumps or smal 
groves rather than continuous forests. These groves may contain from a dozen 
to a hundred or even seveml hundreds of trees. Usually they are separated from one 
another by forest tracts m which few kauris are present. Rarely the groves may 
almost coalesce forimng a forest in which the kauri is the dominant although b^no 
means the sole tree. Nowadays such instances can hardly be found, for the ravLes 
of more than sixty years of sawmilHng, and the gradual spread of settlement, hfve 
either swept the forest out of existence or very greatly changed its character and 
appearance. In many cases what was once a noble and magnificent spectacle has 
been reduced to a scene of utter ruin and desolation. Those who were fortunaJe 
enough to see the kauri forests of the Northern Wairoa and the Hokianga districts 
as they existed thirty-five years ago will readily agree with Mr. Colenso when he 
says There are few sights more impressive of grandeur than an untouched 
forest of this stately tree ; few more impressive of misery and devastation than a 
worked-out and abandoned one ! " ("Essay on the Botany of the North Island," 

The physiognomy of a kauri forest has often been described. Perhans one of 
the earliest accounts is that given by the illustrious Darwin, who visited New Zealand 
in 1835, and who was taken to see a patch of kauri then existing not far from the 
'"^fiT^ o?'''"'^ ^* Waimate, Bay of Islands (see " Naturahst's Voyage" 
p. 427). Mr. Colenso s paper, quoted above, also contains some excellent reniarks • 
and numerous other publications could be mentioned. But by far the best and most 
reliable popular account of the kauri is that given by Hochstetter ("New Zealand " 
pp. 40 to 150). For more recent and more strictly scientific information reference 
should be made to Mr Kirk's "Forest Flora," and Dr. Cockayne's " BotanTca^ 
Survey of the Waipoua Kauri Forest." ^ -ootanicai 

A kauri forest, or, rather, a forest containing numerous clumps of kauri has a 
very remarkable and distinctive appearance. Even when seen from a considerable 
distance these clumps are at once recognized by the manner in which they stand 
far above the adjoining forest, by the pecuHar ramification of the trees, and bv the 
dark, dusky-green colour of the foHage. But it is from the interior of the forest that 
the kauri is seen to the best advantage, and the majestic size and noble proportions 
of the trees can be best appreciated. On all sides rise the huge columnar trunks 
sometimes towering up for more than 80 ft. mthout a branch, and tapering but 
shghtiy from base to summit, smooth, grey, and ghstening. At the base of the trunk 
is the hugh mound of debris produced by the fall of the bark, which is regulariy cast 
off in large flakes. It is from this pecuHarity that the bole of the kauri is so free 
from the climbing and epiphytical plants whicli commonly clothe the stems and 
lower branches of the larger trees of the New Zealand forest. From the ton of the 
trunk spring the short but immensely thick branches, often given out almost from 
a single point. These, with the branchlets and foliage, form a high vaulted roof 



to the forest, through which a varying amount of daylight filters to the ground. 
Owing to the great height of the trunk, and the fact that the branches are usually 
confined to the upper portion, and owing to the further fact that large trees of other 
species seldom grow plentifully intermixed with the kauris of a particular grove, 
the forest has an open appearance not usually seen in the New Zealand wood- 
lands. Under the vaulted roof of branches the eye can penetrate far and wide 
among the massive trunks, which have hence been compared to the pillars of some 
vast Gothic cathedral. 

So much for the physiognomy of the kauri itself. But one of the most distinc- 
tive features of a kauri grove of any size is the peculiar nature of the associated 
vegetation. I have already said that few really large trees grow intermixed with 
the kauri ; but smaller trees and shrubs do, together with certain herbaceous 
plants and ferns. And wherever a clump of kauri exists these plants are also found, 
or, at any rate, the greater portion of them. Space will not permit of a full account 
of this most interesting association of plants, but it will be well to mention the names 
of the most prominent species composing it. Of shrubs or small trees the most 
abundant are Alseuosmia macrophylla, Dracophyllum latifolium, Senecio Kirkii, 
Goprosma lucida, Phebalium nudum, Metrosideros florida and M. albiflora, Myrsine 
salicina, Santalum Cunninghamii. Of non-shrubby plants the most noteworthy are 
Astelia trinervia, Gahnia xanthocarpa, and Freycinetia Banksii. In many localities 
the first of these constitutes the chief undergrowth, and is generally known by 
the name of " kauri-grass." Among the ferns are Cyathea dealhata, Lomaria discolor 
and L. Frazeri, and Lygodium articulatum. 

A young kauri — say, from fifty to a himdred years of age — differs entirely in 
appearance from the mature tree. It has a narrow-conical and sharply pointed 
outline, and is furnished for a considerable part of its height with a succession of 
short slender branches inserted at right angles to the stem. As the tree increases 
in size the lower branches are successively cast off ; but it is only by very slow 
degrees that the bushy-topped shape of the adult is attained. It is a curious fact 
that young kamis are not commonly found in the groves of mature trees. Pro- 
bably the reason is that the amount of light is not sufficient for the growth of the 
very young tree. The juvenile kauri is usually found on the outskirts of the forest 
proper, and is accompanied by such trees as Leptospermuni ericoides, Weinmanniu 
sylvicola, Persoonia Tom, Santalum Cunninghamii, Knightia excelsa, and others. 
Such localities have very truly been called the nursery of the kauri. Granted suffi- 
cient time, this mixture of young kauris and other trees would develop into a forest 
of mature kauris, and in point of fact the intermediate stages can be observed 
without much difficulty. The comparative absence of young kauri-trees in a mature 
kauri grove is, however, somewhat suggestive, for it seems to point to the conclu- 
sion that a particular kauri grove, if left to itself, would not maintain its character 
through the gradual replacement of older trees by younger ones, as is the case in 
many forests of Coniferce in other parts of the world, and as is evidently the case 
with our own kahikatea. 

The probable age attained by a kauri -tree has not been investigated by previous 
writers with sufficient care, and assumptions have been made for which there is really 
no proof whatever. Even such a careful observer as the late Mr. T. Kirk hazarded 
the opinion (" Forest Flora," p. 145) that the gigantic specimen at Mercury Bay, which 
has a trunk 24 ft. in diameter, " must be considerably over four thousand years," 
an estimate which is probably more than double the correct amount. Mr. Kirk was 
also inclined to hold the view that the kauri forms more than a single cylinder of wood 
during each year, which, if correct, would make the rings of growth of little value 
for determining the age of the tree. On this latter point, however, direct evidence 
has recently been obtained. In the year 1865 several kauris and certain New 
Zealand Taxads were planted in the Auckland Domain. In 1905 it became necessary 
to remove some of them, and, at the suggestion of the writer, Mr. J. Stewart, C.E., 
obtained cross-sections of the trunks. In all cases the number of concentric 



rings of growth agreed with the number of years since the trees were planted. 
Mr. Stewart's results, which are embodied in a paper printed in the " Transactions 
of the New Zeahxnd Institute " (vol. xxxviii, p. 374), may be taken as proving that 
the New Zealand Gymnosperms do not produce more than a single well-defined 
cylinder of woody tissue in each year. 

Mr. Laslett, formerly Timber Inspe(;tor to the Admiralty, who visited New 
Zealand for the special purpose of obtaining kauri spars for line-of-battle ships, has 
pubhshed some useful information respecting the rate of growth of small kauris 
In Ins " Timber and Timber-trees " (2nd ed.. p. 45) he gives the number of con- 
centric circles, or woody layers, in trunks ranging from 6 in. to 3 ft. in diameter the 
average being 13-4 layers to each inch of radius. The cross-sections examined by 
Mr. Stewart showed forty-two concentric layers for a radius of 6 in., or seven layers 
per inch. A section of a tree 4 ft. in diameter inspected by myself at Whangarei 
many years ago showed 188 annual rings for its radius of 24 in., or 7-8 per inch 
Another tree, 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter, examined at Coromandel in 1888 showed 280 
rings, or 8-5 per inch. Three trees at Waitakarei, measuring 4 ft. 4 in , 5 ft and 
5 ft. 7 in., had 213, 280, and 270 rings respectively, the average of the three being 
thus 8-2 per inch of the radius. The fine cross-section of a kauri 8 ft. in diameter 
presented to the Auckland Museum by Messrs. Leyland and O'Brien, when examined 
by Mr. Stewart and myself some years ago, proved to have 455 annual rings or an 
average of 9-4 per inch. Lastly, a tree recently examined at Waitakarei, measuring 
10 ft. 11m. in diameter, had only 476 rings, an average of 7-3 per inch of the 
radius. The measurements quoted above throw grave doubts on some of the 
pubhshed statements respecting the age of the kauri. For instance, Mr. Kirk 
without actually counting the rings of a complete section, says (" Forest Flora,'' 
p. 145), " The age of a tree 7 ft. in diameter must be 1,260 years," whereas the 8 ft 
section in the Auckland Museum has only 455 rings. The figures indicate that 
kauri of serviceable size— that is, with trunks from 2 ft. 6 in. to 4 ft in diameter— 
nnght be produced by trees from 100 to 175 years of age. So far as I am aware 
no trunks of a greater diameter than 11 ft. have had their rings of growth counted 
throughout. It is probable, however, that the number of concentric circles per inch 
increases as the tree reaches a great age. Trees with a diameter of from 12 ft. to 
18 ft. may average about nine or ten annual rings per inch. And, with respect 
to the Mercury Bay specimen with a diameter of 24 ft., we may fairly conclude 
that an average of twelve rings per inch might be anticipated, which would make 
its age 1,728 years. I feel sure that we have no evidence to justify a higher 
estimate than that. 

The wood of the kauri is too well known to require a lengthy description It 
IS generally admitted to hold the first place among New Zealand timbers, on account 
of the variety of uses to which it can be applied, from its great durability, and from 
the ease with which it can be worked. It possesses hghtness combined with strength 
and durabihty, is firm, close and straight in the grain, is remarkably free from knots 
and shakes, is easy to plane, taking a particularly smooth and silky surface, and can 
be readily poUshed. The investigations made by the Admiralty many years ago 
proved that for masts and yards it is unrivalled in excellence. To use the words of 
the Late Mr. Laslett, " It not only possesses the requisite dimensions, hghtness 
elasticity and strength, but is much more durable than any other pine, and wall stand 
a very large amount of work before it is thoroughly worn out " (" Timber and 
Timber-trees," 2nd ed., p. 390). For general house-building and joinery, sashes, 
doors, furmture, shop-fittings, carving and ornamental turnery, wharves, 'bridges' 
shipbuilding and boatbuilding, it easily takes the first place. It is exceedingly 
doubtful if any pine timber in any part of the world is capable of such wide 
apphcation, possesses so many good qualities, and is so relatively free from defects 

The limited range of the kauri, the extent to which the forests have been already 
depleted, and the very small area of untouched forest still remaining, all point to the 
early arrival of a time when the output of kauri as a commercial timber must either 



cease or be reduced to very small proportions. In 1909 Mr. W. C. Kensington, 
whose official position as Under-Secretary for Crown Lands gave him unique oppor- 
tunities of forming a reliable opinion, informed the Royal Commission on Timber 
and Timber Industries that although the supply of timber generally would last from 
fifty to sixty years, that of kauri at the then rate of consumption would probably 
be exhausted in twenty years or thereabouts ; and this view is shared by other 
experts. Under these circumstances, it is a matter for gratification that the Lands 
Department have set apart the Waipoua Block, between the Northern Wairoa and 
Hokianga, as a State forest reserve. It is without doubt the finest specimen left 
of a really good kauri forest, and should be retained, with proper provision for 
safeguarding it from fire, as an example of one of the most distinct and noble plant 
associations that have ever existed. The present generation may not fully appre- 
ciate the value of such an endowment, but those who come after us will regard it 
as a priceless possession, and will fully recognize the enlightened foresight of those 
who have assisted in preserving such a magnificent remnant of the former kauri 
forests of north New Zealand. 

A few words should be said in reference to the resin of the kauri-tree, ordinarily 
called " kauri-gum." In a fresh state every part of the kauri is filled with a trans- 
parent turpentine, which exudes from the smallest wound. An injury to the bark, 
a broken branch, even bruised leaves, at once cause a copious flow of this resin. 
At first soft and viscid, and of whitish colour, it gradually hardens on exposure 
to the air, and becomes more transparent, forming lumps ranging in size 
from small tear-drops to irregularly shaped masses often many pounds in weight. 
These pieces may be found in the axils of the branches or " forks " of the 
tree, in hollows or depressions on the trunk, or concealed in the hugh mound 
of debris which accumulates at the base of the tree. But in addition to 
the resin to be met with in a living kauri forest, very much larger quantities 
can be found buried at various depths on the sites of previous forests, although 
these may have ceased to exist for hundreds or even thousands of years. This 
older resin is much harder, and, as a rule, paler and more transparent than that 
found in the recent forests. That these deposits are of enormous antiquity can be 
proved by the changes that have taken place in the physical configuration of the 
country since they were formed. Kauri-gum has been found under the beds of 
shallow lakes ; it has been dug up in large quantities from considerable depths in 
swamps ; and it has been excavated from strata overlaid by sand-dunes them- 
selves of no very recent formation. As the kauri never grows naturally in low and 
swampy situations, the presence of the gum in such situations incontestably proves 
that great physical changes have taken place, involving a great lapse of time. An 
additional argument in the same direction can be derived from the fact that in not 
a few localities deposits of kauri-gum have been traced into beds dipping under the 
present level of the sea ; and that on the Auckland Isthmus kauri-gum has been 
found in strata distinctly older than the volcanic rocks so plentiful thereon. 

These facts lead to a conclusion of some little scientific importance. What 
we know of the age of the kauri is sufficient to prove that the existing forests, which 
contain trees ranging from a few hundreds to nearly two thousand years in age, are in 
themselves of great antiquity, for we can hardly assume that the trees now living 
were the first to occupy the forest. But in making tliis admission we go far towards 
granting that the chief components of an important plant association may persist 
from generation to generation for very long periods indeed. And when, as in the 
case of the kauri, we have proof of the former existence of forests of immeasurably 
greater antiquity than those living, we may commence to suspect that just as 
individual species may persist for long ages, so also those groups of species which 
give a peculiar physiognomy to the vegetation of a country or district may also 
have an enormous duration in time. May we not reasonably surmise that the 
kauri forests wliich clothed the north of New Zealand at the beginning of the 
Pleistocene period were very similar in composition and appearance to those now 



living ? Proof of this supposition may not be obtainable at the present time ; 
but, on the other hand, there are many indications to support it. 

Kauri-resin is of very great importance in the manufacture of the finest kind 
of oil varnishes. For that purpose it holds the chief place in the market, and 
commands a high price. Its export from New Zealand dates back as far as 1847, 
but for many years the amount shipped was but small, and the price excessively 
low. Since 1880 the amount exported has ranged from 6,000 to 11,000 tons per 
annum, the average price being estimated by the Government Statistician at about 
£50 per ton. The export for 1910 (the latest year available) was 8,693 tons, the 
declared value being £465,044. At the present time it is estimated that over six 
thousand people are employed in the digging of kauri-gum. 

The genus Agathis, of which the kauri is the most important member, contains 
about eight well-defined species, ranging from the Philippine Islands and Borneo 
southwards to Australia, western Polynesia, and New Zealand. Its present focus 
of distribution is evidently Polynesian, for we find two or possibly three endemic 
species in New Caledonia, one in the New Hebrides, one in the Santa Cruz Group, 
and one in the Fiji Islands. It is somewhat curious that no species has yet been 
recorded from New Guinea or the Solomon Islands, but future explorations may 
remove this apparent anomaly. In any case Agathis must be regarded as an 
important constituent of the Malayan and Polynesian section of the New Zealand 
flora. 

Plate 184. Agathis australis, drawn from specimens supplied by Mr. H. Carse, of Fairburn, 
Mongonui ; the cone forwarded by Mr. J. W. Hall, Thames. Figs. 1 and 2, front and back view of 
anthers ( x 5) ; 3 and 4, young cone-scale ( x 5) ; 5, cone-scale, with young seed ( x 3) ; 6 and 7, seeds 
( X 3) ; 8. seed ( x 3) ; 9, section of same ( x 3) ; 10, embryo ( x 3). 



PlsLte 185. 




■West.Newmaji imp- 



PODOCARPUS TOTARA, D.Don-. 



Plate 185.— PODOCAKPUS TOTARA. 

(THE TOTARA.) 
Family TAXACE^.J [Genus PODOCAKPUS, L'Hkrit. 

Podocarpus Totara, G. Beim. ex D. Don in Lamb. Gen. Pin. ed. ii (1832), 189 ; Cheesem. Mart 
N.Z. Fl. 648. 

Although the totara is found throughout the whole length of both the 
North and South Islands, there is no evidence to show that it was obserA^ed 
by the earlier botanists who visited New Zealand— as Banks and Solander, 
Forster, Menzies, &c. The first reference I can find— and that a bare men- 
tion of the name— is in Nicholas's " New Zealand," published in 1817. The 
first botanist under whose notice it came was the talented and enthusiastic 
Allan Cunningham, who gathered it during his first visit to New Zealand, 
in the year 18!>6. His diagnosis of the species, published in 1838 in the 
well-known " Precursor," was the earliest scientific description to appear; but 
the name Podocarjms Totara \iSid. been previously applied by D. Don in the 
second edition of Lambert's " Pinetum," issued in 1832. Don's name, and 
his remarks respecting the plant, were based on information supplied by 
Dr. George Bennett, of Sydney, who visited New Zealand in 1829, and who 
not only formed botanical collections of some importance, but who also 
gathered a considerable amount of information respecting the natural history 
of the country and its Maori inhabitants. 

The totara does not equal the dimensions of the kauri, but is nevertheless 
a noble forest-tree 50 ft. to 100 ft. in height, with a trunk ranging from 2 ft. to 
6 ft. in diameter, or even more. When growing in full luxuriance the stem is 
tall, straight, and clean, and is often quite bare fm' 50 ft. or 60 ft., above which 
there is a broad crown of horizontally spreading branches. The foliage is 
dense, and from its dull-brown colour is somewhat unattractive when seen in 
the mass. The bark is thick and deeply furrowed, stringy and papery, and 
often horizontallv ringed at intervals of' a foot or two, especially towards the 
base of the trunk. The tree attains its greatest size and luxuriance in deep, 
rich alluvial soils, but it will grow fairly well in a great variety of situations,! 
from the light pumiceous soils of the Taupo plains to stiff retentive clays. 

As already stated, the totara is found from the North Cape to Foveaux 
Strait, but it is often somewhat sparsely distributed, especially to the north 
of the Auckland Isthmus. It is most abundant in the central portions of 
the North Island, from the Upper Waikato and Waipa southwards to Lake 
Taupo, and from thence to the Upper Wanganui, Rangitikei, and Manawatu 
on the western side of the Island, and to Hawke's Bav and the Wairarapa on 
the eastern. In several parts of this area it is being so rapidly converted 
into sawn timber that the once extensive forests are fast being worked out. 
At the present rate of consumption, totara suitable for milling purposes will 
be exhausted in about thirty years. Its altitudinal range is from sea-level 
to 2,000 ft.; but it is seldom found of large size above 1,500 ft At altitudes 
greater than 1,500 ft. or 2,000 ft. its place is taken by the allied species or 
variety P. Hallii. 

It is generally admitted that next to the kauri the totara produces the 
most valuable timber in the Dominion. It is exceedingly durable— more so, 
in fact, than kauri; it is not liable to warp or twist, and is easy to work! 



although It does not take such a high hnish as the kauri. Its chief detect is 
its brittleness, which, though not excessive, interferes with its use for purposes 
where it is subject to heavy strains and stresses. It also suffers more from 
wear-and-tear than either kauri or rimu. On the other hand, its greater 
durability makes it valuable tbr telegraph-poles, house-blocks, window and 
door frames, and particularly for any outside buildmg-work m contact with 
the ground. It resists the attack of the Teredo better than any other indi- 
genous timber, and in consequence is largely employed for the piles of wharves 
and marine bridges — a position from which, however, the introduction oi 
ferro-con Crete piles is now displacing it. Although very suitable for furni- 
ture, its somewhat plain appearance and want of figure handicap its use in 
comparison with kauri and rimu. A mottled variety, however, is- much sought 
after for ornamental panelling, veneering, &c. 

Before the advent of Europeans the totara was the tree most highly valued 
by the Maoris, or, as Mr. Elsdon Best appropriately puts it, was " the most 
prized tree of the forest, the foremost of raJ^au rangatira." Its timber was 
the best for canoes of all kinds, from the huge wala-tana, or war-canoe (often 
from 60 ft. t^ 90 ft. in length, and capable of carrying a hundred fighting-men), 
to the small river or fishing canoes used by but two or three. It was also 
the timber chiefly used for the elaborately carved houses, of which two kinds 
were usually seen in the larger Maori villages — the whare-whakairo, or guest- 
house, with its highly decorated interior; and the pataka, or storehouse, 
where the carved work, often exceedingly elaborate, was on the outside of 
the building. Totara timber was also used for the huge carved gateways 
(waharoa) of the fortified villages, or for the grotesquely carved posts placed 
in the fence or palisading surrounding them. The bark of the totara was also 
serviceable in several ways. With care it could be peeled off in long broad 
strips, which were then employed as roofing; or were folded and tied up into 
baskets or other vessels in which preserved birds, fruits, &c., could be stored. 
With the single exception of Pliormium, it is probable that no plant was so 
generally serviceable to the ancient Maori as the totara. 

The nearest ally of the totara is undoubtedly Podocarpus Hallii, or flail's 
totara. In point of fact, the two plants are so similar that several botanists 
efuse to admit their distinctness as species. This view is held by Dr. Pilger, 
in the monograph of the Taxacece contributed by him to the " Pflanzenreich " 
(heft 18); and it must be admitted there is much to be said in its favour. 
Mr. Kirk, who first distinguished P. Hallii, relied chiefly on the weak flexuous 
branches and larger leaves of its young state, the much thinner and more 
papery bark, the longer peduncles of the male flower, and the more pointed 
nut. I much fear that the last two characters are not trustworthy, the shape 
of the nut in particular depending very much on its age, and the length of 
the peduncle is evidently subject to variation. It is much to be desired that 
some local botanist would make a careful comparison of the two plants in 
those localities, such as the Waimarino Forest, near the base of Ruapehu, 
where they are to be found almost side by side, and where their differential 
characters can be easily examined. 

The geographical distribution of the genus Podocarvvs presents some 
interesting features. It attains its extreme northern limit in Japan, from 
whence three or four species are known. In China and India it is but spar- 
ingly distributed; but it is plentiful throughout the greater part of the Malay 
Archipelago, not less than eight or nine well-defined species having been 
described. Coming further south, four species occur in New Guinea, two in 
the Fiji Islands, and no less than seven in New Caledonia. Australia has 
five species, and New Zealand seven. Altogether, from Japan to New Zea- 
land, about thirty-eight species are known. In Africa the genus extends 



from Abyssinia to the Cape; hut the number of species is comparatively small 
not exceeding eight or nine. In America the genus is better represented' 
about fatteen species being recorded, but it does not extend further north than 
the West Indies, and is most plentiful along the chain of the Andes. No 
doubt the large number of species found in New Zealand, New Caledonia and 
Ma aya shows that the present centre of distribution of the genus is essen- 
tially Malayan and Polynesian; but the presence of the genus in both Africa 
and America, and its widespread distribution generally, seem to point to an 
ancient origin. Probably it will be necessary to go well back into Mesozoic 
times to trace its phylogeny and geographical evolution. 

WhaZltT ^It f'"^°f''P'^ ^°'"'-«> '1/^^ from specimens collected by Mr. A. Gordon at Ruatangata, 
WHangarei. Fig 1, male mflorescence ( x 4) ; 2 and 3, front and back vi-w of anther (x 8) ■ 4 female 



PLaXe 1S6. 




Wesl,Newma.ii imp. 



PODOCARPUS NIVALIS, Hook. 



Plate 186.-PODOCAKPUS NIVALIS. 

(THE ALIMNE TOTAKA.) 

Family TAXACEJd].| [Genus PODOCAilPUS, L'HjiKiT. 

Podocarpus nivalis, Hook. Ic. PUiiU. U 582 ; (Jhceseni. Man. N.Z. Ft. 649. 

Podocarpus nivalis was one of tlie many interesting plants discovered by 
Mr. J. C. Bidwill in 1839 on the slopes of Ngauruhoe, which he was the first 
European to ascend. A single specimen given by him to Mr. Colenso was 
communicated by that gentleman to Sir VV. J. Hooker; and from that slender 
material the species was described and figured in the " Icones i'lantaruin," as 
quoted above. In 1845 Mr. Colenso gathered the plant during his first 
journey to the Ruahine Mountains, and two years later he also collected it at 
the eastern base of Tongariro (" Visits to the Uuahine Range," pp. 21 and 39). 
Since then it has been found to be a most abundant plant on the mountains 
of both the North and South Islands, in many localities forming a considerable 
proportion of the subalpine " scrub " at elevations of from 2,500 ft. to 5,500 ft. 
Its northern limit is the little tract of open moorland which forms the very 
summit of Moehau (Cape Colville), the altitude of which is a little over 
3,000 ft.; but it does not appear again until Mount Hikurangi is reached, 
in the East Cape district. From thence southwards it is found in all moun- 
tain districts of sufficient altitude as far as the south-west of Otago, but 
apparently it does not cross Foveaux Strait into Stewart Island. 

Podocarims nivalis varies much in size and habit. Occasionally, when 
growing in sheltered situations, as, for instance, near the upper limits of the 
beech forests of central and north-west Nelson, it takes the shape of an erect 
shrub 2 ft. to 8 ft. high, with numerous close-set spreading branches; but usually 
it forms a depressed much branched slirub from 6 m. to 2 ft. or 4 ft. in height, 
with very numerous much interlaced prostrate and rigid branches spreading 
outwards in all directions, the whole ))lant thus forming a dense springy mat 
often many feet in diameter. The lower branches give off numerous roots 
from their under-side, and are also provided with many suberect leafy branch- 
lets. The leaves are small, \ in. to | in. long, erect or suberect, linear-oblong, 
rounded at the tip but distinctly mucronate, very thick and coriaceous. The 
flowers are dioecious, the females being solitary and axillary, the males usually 
2 to 4 together at the top of a short axillary peduncle, but frequently solitary. 
The fruit is a small oblong-ovoid nut seated on the top of a bright-red fleshy 
peduncle. 

P. nivalis is allied to both P. totara and P. acutifolius, but is separated 
from the first by the small size and different habit, obtuse leaves, and usually 
clustered male flowers. Its stout spreading habit and thick and coriaceous 
obtuse leaves at once distinguish it from P. acutifoliits. Its dimensions are 
too small to allow its timber to be applied t'o any economic purpose; but, as 
remarked by Mr. Kirk in his " Forest Flora," the plant is serviceable from its 
spreading and rooting habit, which helps to bind the loose surface of steep 
mountain-slopes. 

Pl.\te 186. Podocarpus iiiraUs, drawn from specimens collected on the Nelson Mountains, at an 
altitude of 4.000 ft. Fig. 1. portion of branchlet, with leaves {x3): 2, male inflorescence, the usual 
short type ( x 3) ; 3 and 4, front and back view of anthers ( x 7) ; 5, male inflorescence, long and slender 
type (x3); 6, female flower, with leaf (x3); 7, female flower, with its peduncle or "receptacle" 
of two swollen bracts ( x 8) ; 8. front view of ovule (x8); 9, longitudinal .section of ovule (x8); 
10, nut, seated on the enlarged and succulent receptacle (x 2.5) ; 11, longitudinal section of nut (x 5) ; 
12, embryo (x 10) 



PlAte JS7. 




West.Ne-wman imp 



DACRYDIUM BIDWILLII, Ifook.f. 



Plate 187.— DACRYDIIJM BIDWILLII. 

(THE MOUNTAIN-PINE.) 
Family TAXACE^.j !Genus DACRYDIUM, Sol. 

Dacrydium Bidwillii, Hook. f. ex T. Kirk w Trans. N.Z. hist, x (1878), 388 ; Cheesem. Man. 
N.Z. Fl. 653. 

As its name denotes, the subject of this plate was one of the many dis- 
coveries of Mr. J. C. Bidwill, who was the first botanist to examine the moun- 
tain vegetation of the Dominion, and who consequently reaped a rich harvest 
of novelties. His specimens were gathered in some locality near Nelson, in all 
probability on the Dun Mountain Range. At that time the mountain species 
of Dacrydiuvi were very imperfectly understood, and in both the " Flora " 
and the " Handbook " Sir J. D. Hiooker included the three species now known 
as D. biforme, D. Bidwilli, and D. C'olensoi under the last-mentioned name. 
It was not until 1877, as one of the results of a systematic investigation of 
the New Zealand species of the genus made by the late Mr. T. Kirk, that the 
specific distinctness of D. Bidwillii was established, and Mr. Bidwill's connec- 
tion with the plant recognized. 

Dacrydium Bidvnllii has a wide range in mountain districts in New Zea- 
land. It attains its northern limit on the open peaty summit of Moehau 
(Cape Colville), at an altitude of 3,100 ft., where it is associated with Podo- 
carjms nivalis, Phyllocladus alpinns, and a considerable number of other sub- 
alpine plants, which also find in that bare and wind-swept locality their most 
northerly station! I am not aware of any intermediate locality between 
Moehau and the summit of Hikurangi, in the East Cape district, where it was 
gathered by Mr. James Adams in 1897; but it is plentiful in suitable places 
all round the base of Tongariro and Ruapehu, ascending to the summit of 
Kakaramea and Hauhungatahi. It has been gathered by Mr. Colenso on the 
Ruahine Range, and by Mr. B. C. Aston on the Kaimanawa IMountains. It 
does not seem to have been recorded from the Tararua Mountains, but it 
doubtless occurs thereon. It is not uncommon in moimtain districts in the 
South Island, from Collingwood to Foveaux Strait, and is abundant in Stewart 
Island, where it descends to sea-level. In the North Island, so far as I am 
aware, it is not found below 3,000 ft. ; but in the South Island it is occa- 
sionally seen at much lower levels, especially in the Te Anau district, where 
it descends as low as 800 ft. 

D. Bidwillii varies greatly in size and habit of growth. When surrounded 
by dense vegetation it often assumes a pyramidal or conical shape, and then 
attains the stature of a small tree; but when growing in the open, and par- 
ticularly where it is exposed to strong winds, it forms a broad round-headed 
shrub, the branches spreading horizontally, the lowermost often rooting at the 
tips. Mr. Kirk, in the " Forest Flora," describes some remarkable specimens 
observed by him near the Thomas River, in the Canterbury Alps, which I have 
also had an opportunity^ of examining. These form rounded clumps from 
2 ft. to 5 ft. in height, and from 10 ft. to 20 ft. in diameter, with a perfectly svm- 
metrical outline, the main branches prostrate and rooting at the tips. Side 
by side with these were other clumps, consisting of crowded rings of young 
plants with open centres. No doubt the main trunk had perished through 
age or through some injury, the rooted tips of the branches providing a ring 



of young plants to take its place. As to its habitat, D. Bidwillii may either 
form an appreciable part of the subalpine vegetation on the slopes of the 
mountains, where the ground is firm and often somewhat stony, or it may 
grow in peat bogs. In this latter case it is often seen in clumps or scattered 
singly over a surface covered with Sphagnum, Oreobolus, Carjyha, and other 
bog-plants. 

The great difference between the leaves of the juvenile and adult states 
of D. Bidwillii is well shown in the figure A of the accompanying plate, where 
it will also be noticed that the larger linear spreading leaves of the juvenile 
form pass most abruptly into the snuxller scale-like imbricating leaves of the 
adult. In this respect D. Bidwillii agrees with D. biforme and D. Kirkii, 
and differs altogether from the renuiinder of the New Zealand species, in 
which the leaves of the juvenile plant pass by gradual transitions into those 
of the adult. It should be mentioned that the linear leaves are not confined 
to young plants, but can always be found on the lower branches of old ones. 

The genus Dacrydiwni is better developed in New Zealand than in any 
other country, no less than seven species out of the sixteen that are known 
being found in it. Of the remainder, four are from New Caledonia, three 
from Malaya and the Philippine Islands (one of them being also recorded from 
the Fiji Islands), one from Tasmania, and a single isolated species from South 
Chile and Patagonia. These facts seem to point without much doubt to a 
Malayan and Polynesian origin for the genus. 

Plate 187. Dacrydium, Bidwillii, drawn from specimens collected on the Nelson mountains, 
at an elevation of 4,000 ft. A, branch from a young plant ; B, from a male plant ; C, from a female. 
Fig. 1, juvenile leaves (x 2) ; 2, tip of branchlet, with male inflorescence (x 4) ; 3, leaf from mature 
branch (x 5) ; 4 and 5, anthers (x 8) ; 6, tip of branchlet, with female inflorescence ( x 6) ; 7, female 
flower (x8); 8, the same in longitudinal section ( x 8) ; 9, section of ovule (x8); 10, longitudinal 
section of nut (x 8) ; 11, section of seed, showing embryo (x 12). 



Pl&te 188. 




West.Newman imp. 



DACRYDIUM INTERMEDIUM, T.Kirk. 



Plate 188.— DACRYDIUM INTERMEDIUM. 

(YELLOW-PINE.) 
Family TAXACEiE.] [Genus DACRYDIUM, Sol 

Dacrydium intermedium, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst, x (1878), 386, t. 20 ; Cheesem. Man. 
N.Z. Fl. 655. 

For our first knowledoe of this handsome pine we are indebted to the 
late Mr. T. Kirk. He first observed it in 1867 on the Hirakimata Range, on the 
Great Barrier Island ; and in the followino- year also detected it on the higher 
mountains of the Cape Colville Peninsula, where it is not uncommon at an 
elevation of from 1,700 ft. to 2,500 ft. Further research has shown that it has 
a wide range. The most northern station that I am acquainted with is the 
Puhipuhi Forest, between Whangarei and the Bay of Islands, from whence 
I have seen specimens collected by Mr. R. Mair. It occurs in several scattered 
localities between the Thames goldfields and Te Aroha Mountain, but has not 
yet been detected on the Patetere Plateau or in the East Cape district. In 
the Waimarino Forest it is not uncommon, although not so plentiful as its 
close ally D. Colensoi. I have seen specimens collected on the Ruahine Range 
by Mr. Colenso and others, and it has been reported from the Kaimanawa 
and Tararua Mountains. In the South Island it appears to be fairly plen- 
tiful on the western side of the Island, from Nelson and Collingwood to the 
Sounds on the south-west coast of Otago; and it is common on Stewart Island, 
where it chiefly occurs at low levels. I have seen it at an elevation of fully 
4,000 ft. on the Nelson mountains. 

The yellow silver-pine, as it is frequently called in Westland, is a small 
tree 30 ft. to 40 ft. or 50 ft. in height, with a trunk 1 ft. to 2 ft. in diameter, 
rarely more. In shape it is usually conical, with slightly drooping ultimate 
branchlets; but when growing on the tops of ridges, or in exposed places gene- 
rally, it has a shorter trunk with more spreading branches, with stiffer and more 
crowded erect branchlets. This is the state usually seen on the mountains of the 
Cape Colville Peninsula, and at first sight looks somewhat different from the 
taller and more slender form of the Nelson and Westland Districts. The foliage 
differs greatly at successive stages of the growth of the tree. The leaves of 
yv^ung seedlings are lax and spreading, narrow linear-subulate, acute, curved, 
and terete, and vary in length from ^ in. to i in. (see fig. A. of the accompanying 
plate). These gradually pass into the leaves of young trees, which are close-set, 
erecto-patent, ^ in. to } in. long, broadly subulate, trigonous, acute (see fig. B). 
These again pass by imperceptible gradations into those of mature plants, 
which are densely quadrifariously imbricate and appressed to the branch, 
rhomboid, obtuse, keeled, thick and coriaceous, tVin. to x^oin. long (see fig. C). 
It is worth mention that in Nelson and Westland young trees still bearing what 
may be called the second stage of foliage produce flowers and fruit profusely, 
a peculiarity which I have not noticed in Cape Colville specimens. 

D. intermedium produces a timber of great strength and durabilitv. It 
is straight and even in the grain, very dense and compact, easily worked, and 
takes a high finish. Together with its near ally D. Colensoi. it has been 
largely used in Westland for railway-sleepers, telegraph-poles, &c., and has 
been found to give the utmost satisfaction wherever tried; but, unfortunately, 
the supply is fast becoming exhausted in accessible localities. The timber i's 
also well adapted for furniture and general building purposes. 



The nearest ally of D. inter medium is undoubtedly D. Colensoi, which 
very closely resembles it in size, mode of growth, and quality and appearance 
of its timber. But D. Colensoi is taller, and has a more conical outline; the 
trunk is straighter and cleaner; the leaves of young trees are flatter and more 
distichous; the mature leaves are smaller, and the branchlets more slender; 
while the nut is smaller, and enclosed almost as far as the middle in the well- 
developed aril. 

Plate 188. Dacrydium intermedium: A, foliage of juvenile plautis ; B, of young trees; C, 
male specimen, adult ; D, female specimen, adult ; the specimens from the Cape Colville Peninsula and 
the Hope Mountains, Nelson. Fig. 1, leaves of juvenile plants ( x 4) ; 2, leaves of young trees (x 4) ; 
3, tip of branch, with male inflorescence (x 4) ; 4, leaf of mature tree (x 4) ; 5 and 6, anthers (x 8) ; 
7, branchlet, with female flower at the tip ( x 4) ; 8, female flower within its scale ( x 8) ; 9, section 
of the same ( x 8) ; 10, mature nut ( x 4) ; 11, section of same, showing embryo partly detached (x 4) ; 
12, embryo (xl2). 



Plate 189. 




West. Newman imp, 



DACRYDIUM LAXIFOLIUM, Hook f. 



Plate 189.— DACRYDIUM LAXIFOLIUM. 

(THE PYGMY PINE.) 

Family TAXACE^.] [Genus DACRYDIUM, Sol. 

Dacrydium laxifolium, Hool;. f. hi Lond. Journ. Bot. iv (1845), 143 ; Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 234; 
Cheesem. Man. N .Z. EL 657. 

Dacrydium la.Tifolii/m is i)robably the smallest known pine. I have seen 
fruiting specimens not more than Sin. in diameter, and certainly not rising 
2 in. above the soil. Usually, Itowever, its trailing stems are from 1 ft. to 3 ft. 
in length, and, being profusely branched, form mats oi' carpets 2 ft. to 6 ft. in 
diameter. It never produces an erect stem; but, as stated bv Mr. Kirk in 
his " Forest Flora," it is sometimes found growing amongst other shrubs, among 
which its branches may scramble to a height of 3 ft. or 4 ft. 

It was originally discovered by Mr. J. C. Bidwill in 1839 near the base 
of Ngauruhoe, on the central volcanic plateau of the North Island. At 
page 48 of his " Rambles in New Zealand " he says, " I found here a most 
curious little plant of the yew family {Dacrydium); it was not larger than 
a clump of moss, and was mistaken for a moss by me when I first saw it." 
Bidwill's specimens were forwarded to Kew, and the species was described by 
Sir J. D. Hooker in 1845 under the name it still bears. Some years later it 
was again collected by Bidwill, this time on the Nelson mountains; and also 
by Colenso, on the Ruahine Range. So far as is known at present, the 
northern limit of the species is on Mount Kakaramea, immediately to the 
north of Tongariro; but there is a strong probability that it exists on the sum- 
mit of Hikurangi, in the East Cape district. It is not uncommon on the 
Ruahine and Kaimanawa Mountains, but has not yet been recorded from the 
Tararua Range. In the South Island it is abundant in mountain districts 
from Collingwood to the south-west of Otago, usually in moorland swamps. 
It crosses Foveaux Strait, and attains its southern limit in the Rakiahua and 
Freshwater Valleys, on the west side of Stewart Island. In these two locali- 
ties it descends almost to sea-level, and grows as a heath-plant on the con- 
solidated surface of ancient sand-dunes. In the North and South Islands it 
is rarelv found below 2,500 ft., and is most abundant between 3,000 ft. and 
4,000 ft." 

D. laxifolitim, like all the New Zealand Gymnosiperms, has heterophyl- 
lous foliage. The juvenile plant, which is represented by the central figure 
on the accompanying plate, has rather long narrow-linear acute leaves, which 
are lax and spreading. These, through the growth of the plant, are gradually 
replaced by shorter and close-set linear-oblong obtuse leaves, which are spreading 
or suberect. What may be called the mature foliage consists of small ovate 
or rhomboid imbricating leaves, which, unfortunately, are not clearly repre- 
sented on the plate. In many plants, and even in some localities, the imbricat- 
ing leaves are not developed; and even when they are, there is always an 
abundance of the spreading linear-oblong type. 

D. laxifoliinn, although very distinct from all the other New Zealand 
species in habit and mode of growth, is nevertheless a close ally of D. inter- 



medivm, with which it agrees in the shape of the juvenile leaves, and in the 
niicropyle of the ovule being elongated and strongly incurved (see figs. 8 
to 11 in the accompanying plate). 

Plate 189. Dacrydium laxifolium, male, female, and foliage of young plant, drawn from speci- 
mens collected on Moimt Kakaramea, Taupo, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1 , leaves from a young 
plant ( X 4) ; 2, spreading leaves from an older plant ( x 4) ; 3, tip of branchlet, with male inflorescence 
(x 4) ; 4 and 5, anthers (x 8) ; 6, tip of branchlet, with female inflorescence (x 4) ; 7, pair of female 
flowers, with bracts ( x 7) ; 8, single flower, with its bracts ( x 8) ; 9, flower (ovule) seated within its 
scale (x8); 10, longitudinal section of same (x8); 11, mature nut, the "receptacle" not enlarged 
or succulent ( x 4) ; 12, another specimen, the receptacle greatly enlarged and succulent ( x 4) ; 
13, longitudinal section of the same (x4) ; 14, embryo (x8) ; 1-5, tip of branchlet bearing two nuts 
or seeds (x 5). 



FlsLte 190. 




PHYLLOCLADUS TRICHOMANOIDE S, D.Don. 



Plate 190. PHYLTiOOLADUS TRICHOMANOIDES. 

(THE TANEKAHA.) 

Family TAXACE^.J [Genus PHYLLOCLADUS, L. C. Rich. 

Phyllocladus trichomanoides, D. Don in Lamb. Pin. cd. ii, App. ; Hook. j. Fl. Nor. Zel. i, 235 ; 
Cheescin. Man. A'.Z. Fl. 058. 

The tanckaha, as it is usually called by Maoris and Europeans alike, is a 
familiar tree to the residents of North New Zealand, and from its singularly 
graceful shape and attractive appearance should be more connnonly seen in 
cultivation than is the case at the present time. Its first discovery has been 
attributed to Banks and Solander, but, I believe, erroneously, for it is neither 
mentioned in Solander's manuscript Flora, nor are specimens contained in 
the set of Banksian plants presented to the Dominion by the Trustees of 
the British Museum. It was, however, collected by Allan Cunningham in 
1826, by D'Urville in 1827, and by Dr. G. Bennett in 1829. From specimens 
and information supplied by the latter a notice of the plant was contributed 
by D. Don to the second edition of Lambert's " Pinetum " (xVppendix), but 
the first diagnosis under its present name was that given by Allan Cunning- 
ham in his " Precursor," published in 1838. In 1843 it was excellently figured 
by Sir W. J. Hooker in the " Icones Plantarum " (tt. 549-551). 

The geographical range of P. trichomanoides is limited to the North 
Island and tTie extreme north of the South Island. From the North Cape 
southwards to the Upper Waikato it is tolerably frequent in all forest dis- 
tricts. Further south it is often rare and local, although it extends to the 
East Cape and Hawke's Bay on the eastern side of the Island, and to Tara- 
naki and the Tararua Mountains on the western. In the South Island I 
have gathered it in the Maitai Valley, near Nelson; Mr. Macmahon has sent 
me specimens collected in the Rai Valley ; and many years ago Mr. Kirk 
collected it in some locality near Picton. On the western side of the Island 
it has been gathered at West Wanganui by Mr. R. J. Kingsley. It has also 
been reported from the vicinity of Westport, but T have not seen specimens, 
and it is not mentioned in Mr. Townson's catalogue of the Westport flora. 

The tanekaha attains a height of from 60 ft. to 80 ft. The stem is from 
2 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter, and is usually bare for 30 ft. or 40 ft., above which is 
a regular pyramidal crown of spreading branches. The bark is thick and 
smooth, and of a dark-brown colour. The timber is yellowish- white, firm, 
hard and compact, and of much closer grain than the kauri, and of greater 
specific gravity. It is durable, tough and strong, works up well, and takes 
a good finish. It is suitable for outdoor work of any kind, and has been 
used for posts and rails, sleepers, the floors of verandas, and the decking of 
small vessels, the piles of wharves, and to a small extent for building pur- 
poses. The bark, which contains from 20 to 25 per cent, of tannin, is of 
great value to the tanner, and at one time considerable quantities were 
exported. It also yields a red dye, formerly often used by the Maoris for 
dyeing their cloaks, &c. According to Dr. G. Bennett, " the bark is pounded 
and then placed in a vessel of cold water, into which hot stones are thrown 
till the water boils. After the bark has been boiled for some hours, the 
decoction becomes of a dark-red colour; it is then left to cool, when it is 
strained and readv for use." 



The genus Phyllocladtis contains six well-established species. Of these, 
three (P. glaiicits, P. tnclwmanoides, and P. alpinus) are endemic in New. 
Zealand; one {P. aspleniifolins) is confined to Tasmania; another (P. hypo- 
phyllus) is found in Borneo. The sixth {P. protracttis) has the widest distri- 
bution of any of the species, having been recorded from the Philippine 
Islands, the Moluccas, and New Guinea. The genus thus ranges from the 
Philippine Islands to New Zealand, and has a very similar distribution to 
Dacrijdinm, A gat his, and the greater part of the Podocarpi, with the excep- 
tion that it has not yet been detected in New Caledonia or elsewhere in 
Melanesia. 

Plate 190. PliijllodadKS tiichoinanoides, drawu from specimens collected in the vicinity of Auck 
laud. A, branch with male inflorescence ; B, branch with female inflorescence ; C, cladodes from a 
yomig plant ; D, cladodes from an unusually large state. Fig. 1, male inflorescence (x 2|) ; 2, bract 
(x 4) ; 3 and 4, different views of anther (x 6) ; 5, portion of female inflorescence (x 4) ; 6, another 
portion more highly magnified ( x 6) ; 7, ovule { x 8) ; 8, portion of f ruiting-branch ( x 2) ; 9, ripe nut, 
the base concealed by an involucre of thick and fleshy scales (x 3 J) ; 10, the same with the involucre 
removed, showing the nut enclosed in a cup-shaped aril ( x 3i-) ; 11, section of involucre, aril, and niit 
(x3J). 



PLa.Le 1 91. 





A. BAGNISIA HILLII, Che&sem. 

B. BULBOPHYLLUM TUBERCULATUM, Col. 



Platk 191.— BAGMSIA HILLII and BULBOPHYLLUM 
TUBEKCLLATUM. 

Family BURMANNIACE.E. [Genera BAGNISIA, Becc, and 

ORCHIDACE^.] ]}ULIiOPHYLLUM, Thouars. 

Bagnisia Hillii, Cheesein. in Kew RuUelin (1898), 420; Trans. N.Z. Inst, xli (1909), 140. 



Bulbophyllum tuberculatum, ('<d. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884), 336; (Jheesem. Man. IS. Z. 
Fl. 664. 

Bagnisia Hillii, originally discovered by Mr. H. Hill in 1903, is probably 
the most interesting addition made to the New Zealand flora during the last 
ten years, for it adds another family to the list of those known to occur in 
the Dominion. It is a small colourless saprophyte, usually found on the 
mound of decaying leaves and humus which accumulates at the base of the 
trunk of the kahikatea {Podocarjms dacrydioides). On account of its small 
size it is easily overlooked, even in the flowering season, the flowers being 
often concealed by fallen leaves. The creeping rhizome is fr'om 2 in. to 4 in. 
in length, and is usually more or less branched. Here and there it puts up 
erect or curved peduncles bearing 3 to 5 minute scale-like leaves or bracts, 
and terminating in a single rose-pink flower. This is large for the size of 
the plant, being from ^ in. to f in. in length. Its appearance is decidedly 
bizarre, the three inner segments of the perianth, which are widely sei:)arated at 
the middle, being tightly connivent at the tips, thus giving the flower somewhat 
of the look of a bishop's mitre, or perhaps of a lantern with three elliptical 
windows or openings. In the bud, or in the newly expanded flower, the three 
outer segments partly close these openings, but ultimately they s^Dread out- 
wards and become sharply reflexed. The structure of the androecium is most 
peculiar, and deserves careful study. There are six stamens, which are 
abruptly deflexed within the perianth-tube (see fig. 4). The filaments are 
short, and quite free; but the connectives of the anthers are much enlarged, 
and, being connivent at their margins, form a broad membranous tube. On 
account of the curious manner in which the stamens are deflexed, this tube 
lies parallel to the inside of the perianth-tube, the tips of the connectives 
pointing to the base of the flower, and the minute anthers opening into the 
narrow space between the connective-tube and the wall of the perianth-tube. 
The ovary is inferior, 1-celled, with three free placentas; the style is short 
and stout; and the stigma is deeply 3-lobed. The fruit is unknown. 

So far Bagnisia Hillii has only been found in dense forests at Opepe, 
about fifteen miles to the eastward of Lake Taupo. When first discovered 
by Mr. Hill only a few imperfect specimens were observed, and although he 
made a second expedition in the same year, during which I accompanied him, 
we failed to obtain more than one or two damaged flowers. But in January, 
1907, Mr. Hill, accompanied by Mr. A. Hamilton, paid another visit to the 
locality, and was fortunate enough to find a considerable number of specimens 
in full flower, most of which he very kindly forwarded to me, and which have 
proved of the greatest service in the preparation of this plate. 

Much attention has been paid to the Burmonniacece of late years, the 
American species in particular having been worked up by Warming, and by 
Urban in his elaborate " Symbolae Antillanese." From a recent classification 



of the family given in part 2 of the " Nachtrag " to Engler and Prantl's 
" Natui'lichen Ptianzenfamilien," it appears that sixteen genera, with about 
seventy-five species, are now known. The distribution of the family is 
mainly tropical; but it stretches northwards as far as China and Japan in 
the Old World, and Virginia in the New. It attains its southern limit in 
Mew Zealand and Tasmania. The genus Bagnisia, in which I have placed 
Mr. Hill's plant, contains three other species — one from Borneo, one from 
Java, and the third from New Guinea. 

Bulbophyllum tuberculatum, the second species figured on the accompany- 
ing plate, is a charming but little-known plant. It was first described by 
Mr. Colenso in 1884, from specimens collected by Mr. A. Hamilton at Petane, 
Hawke's Bay. At a later date Mr. Hamilton also gathered it in woods near 
Palmerston North. It has since been found near Kaitaia by Mr. R. H. 
Matthews, in the Lower Waikat'o by Mr. Carse, in the East Cape district 
by Mr. L. Wall, and near Collingwood by Mr. Dall. In all probability it is 
not uncommon in forest districts in the North Island and the northern 
portions of the South Island; but as it is principally found on the upper 
branches, of tall forest-trees it is not at all easy to detect its presence. 
Although agreeing in habit with B. pygmceiim, it differs in the larger size, 
2-4-flowered peduncles, and larger flowers with a bright orange-red lip. The 
lip of B. pygmcetiiri is always white. 

Plate 191a. Bagnisia Hillii, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. II. Hill in fuiests at Opepe, 
near Lake Taupo. Fig. 1, flower-bud just previous to expansion (x 2) ; 2, flower in a more advanced 
stage, the outer periantli-segmeuts commencing to spread outwards ( x 2) ; 3, fully mature flower, 
the outer perianth-segments reflexed (x 2) ; 4, section of flower, showing the stamens shai-ply deflesed 
within the perianth-tube, the anthers concealed behind the greatly expanded and connivent connectives 
(x4); 5, the same with the stamens turned upwards, showing three pairs of anther-cells (x4); 
6, outer perianth-segment (x 3) ; 7, muer perianth-segment (x 3) ; 8, a pair of stamens seen from the 
inside of the perianth-tube ( x 8) ; 9, the same seen from the other side, showmg the anther-cells 
(x 8) ; 10, a single stamen with dehisced anther-cells (x 8) ; 11, stigma (x 6) ; 12, section of ovary, 
showing the three parietal placentas and the numerous ovules (x 6). 

Plate 191b. Bulbophyllum tuberculatum, drawai from specimens collected near Kaitaia by 
Mr. R. H. Matthews. Figs. 13 and 14, difi'erent views of flower (x 8) ; 15 and 16, front and side view 
of lip (greatly enlarged) ; 17, column (greatly enlarged) ; 18, ripe capsule (x 4). 



Pla.te 192. 




West, Newman imp. 



A. THELYMITRA LONGIFOLIA, Forst. 

B. THELYMITRA PULCHELLA, /TooAr, /? 



Plate 192.— THELYMITRA LONGIFOLTA and 
THELYMITRA PULCHELLA. 

Family ORCHIDACEiE.] [Genus THELYMITRA, Fokst. 

Thelymitra longifolia, Fuml. Char. Gen. 98, t. 49 ; Hook. j. Ilamlh. N .Z. Fl. 270 ; Cheesem. 

Man. N.Z. Fl. 669. 
Thelymitra pulchella, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 244 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 670. 

For the first discovery of T helyrnitra longifolia we have to go as far 
back as October, 1769, when it was gathered at Tolaga Bay by Banks and 
Solander during Cook's first voyage. Solander, in his manuscript " Primitise 
Floras Novae Zelandiaj," described it under the name of Serajnas rcgiilaris: 
but as this work was never actually published his names have no standing 
in botanical literature. It was also collected by the two Forsters in Cook's 
second voyage, but in what locality is not stated, although it must have been 
either in Queen Charlotte Sound or Dusky Bay. After their return it was 
published in their " Characteres Generum Plantarum " under the name it 
bears at the present time. It has been observed by almost all subsequent 
botanists, and is now known to range from the Three Kings Islands and the 
North Cape southwards to Stewai't Island and the Auckland Islands. It is 
common at sea-level, and ascends the mountains to a height of over 4,000 ft. 
Although mainly a heath-plant, and nowhere more abundant than on the 
Leptospermum-c\ad hills that form such a large percentage of the northern 
part of the North Island, it is really found in all soils and situations, with 
the exception that it does not occur in dense forests, although occasionally 
seen in light bush. When it is mentioned that in addition to lowland heaths 
it is also plentiful on sand-dunes, ledges on seacliffs, the margins of swamps, 
subalpine meadows, &c., it will be seen that its range of habitats is remark- 
ably wide. It is said to have an extensive range in Australia; but the 
specimens I have seen from thence hardly match those from New Zealand, 
and if really belonging to the same species should be treated as a different 
variety. It has also been recorded from New Caledonia. 

T. longifolia falls into a section of the genus known as Cncidlaria, in 
which the column-wing is produced behind the anther, and overtops it in the 
form of a hood-shaped projection furnished with lateral lobes. It is dis- 
tinguished from the other species of the section by the very large middle lobe 
of the column-wing, which forms a smooth rounded hood projecting over the 
anther, and which considerably overtops the lateral lobes, which are closely 
and densely ciliate at their tips. In the allied species of the section the 
lateral lobes are longer than the middle lobe, which does not form such a 
prominent hood. It is very variable in size, stoutness, and number of flowers, 
varying from less than Gin. in height, with a single small flower, to 18 in. or 
20 in., with twelve to fifteen large flowers. The colour of the flowers is 
mainly white, wnth a greenish-))ur)ile tinge on the back of the three outer 
perianth-segments ; but some varieties have blue flowers, and others pinkish- 
red. For an account of the fertilization, see a paper by myself in the 
" Transactions of the New Zealand Institute " (vol. xiii (1881) 291). 

Thelymitra pulcheUa was originallv discovered bv Mr. Colenso in the 
North Island, but I am ignorant of the exact locality. It was first published 
by Sir J. D. Hooker in the "Flora Novae Zelandiffi": but Hooker bracketed 
with Colenso's plant sonie specimens collected by Lyall in Otago; and in the 



•' Handbook " he also included a plant gathered by Sir D. Monro in the Nelson 
Provincial District. But although I have examined a great number of 
Thehjmitrce from the South Island I have found none with the characters of 
T. pulcliella, and am inclined to doubt the occurrence of the species to the 
south of Cook Strait. In fact, I have not seen undoubted specimens of 
T. pulchella from the south of the Waikato River. North of Auckland it is 
common on LepfosiJervium-clRd hills, often associated with T. lungifolia, and 
is particularly abundant between the Bay of Islands and the North Cape. I 
have not seen it at a greater elevation than 800 ft. 

T. imlchella belongs to the section Macdonaldia, in which the column- 
wing extends behind the anther, but is shorter than it, and is not hood- 
shaped; and the lateral lobes, though often toothed or fimbriate, do not possess 
the dense tufts of cilia so obvious in the section CucuUaria (compare figs. 1 
and 9 of the accompanying plate). It is one of the handsomest of the New 
Zealand species, from the large size of the blue-purple flowers, which are 
often an inch in diameter or even more. 

The centre of distribution of the genus Thelymitra is in Australia, from 
whence thirty species are known. New Zealand contains eleven, and addi- 
tional species will be recorded. As already stated, the New Zealand and 
Australian T. longifolia (or an allied form) occurs in New Caledonia, and 
there is an outlying species {T. javannica, Blume) in Java. 

Pr.ATE 192a. Thelymitra longifolia, drawn from specimens collected in tlie vicinity of Auckland. 
Fig. 1, side view of column ; 2 and 3, front views of same ; 4, lateral lobe of column, terminated by a 
dense mass of cilia ; 5, some of the cilia ; 6, dehisced anther. (All magnified.) 

Plate 192b. Thelymitra pulchella, drawn from specimens collected near Mongonui Harbour. 
Fig. 7, front view of column ; 8, back view of same ; 9, side view of same ; 10. dehisced anther. (All 
enlarged.) 



Plate 193. 




■West,N6Wina:a imp. 



A. THELYMITRA UNIPLORA, Hook. f. 1-3. 
B. PRASOPHYLLUM COLENSOI, Hook.f. 4-i 



Plate 193.— THELYMITRA UNIFLOKA and 
PHASOPHVLLUM COLENSOI. 

Family ORCHIDACK^.] ["Genera THELYMITRA, Forst., and 

PRASOPHYLLUM, R. Hr. 

Thelymitra uniflora, Hook. /. Fl. Antmct. i. 70; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. tu2. 



Prasophyllum Colensoi, Hook. /. Fl. Nor. Zel. i, 241 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 675. 

Thclyinitia iinifiora was first observed on the Auckland Islands by Lieut. 
Le Guillon, one of the officers of the French exploring-ships " Astrolabe " and 
" Zelee," which, under the command of Admiral D'Urville, visited the Islands 
in March, 1840. Le Guillon's specimens were very imperfect; but in Novem- 
ber of the same year it was again collected by Sir J. D. Hooker during the 
Antarctic voyage of Sir J. C. Ross. In 1844 it was published by Hooker in 
the " Flora Antarctica " under the name it still bears. It was first gathered 
in New Zealand proper by Dr. Lyall, at Milford Sound; and shortly after- 
wards in eastern Otago by Mr. Buchanan. Since then it has been found to 
l)e abundant on the margins of peaty swamps or on damp, open, elevated 
moorlands as far north as Rotorua. It descends to sea-level in Stewart Island 
and in several localities in the South Island, but is most abundant between 
2,000 ft. and 3,500 ft. It is specially plentiful on the Waimarino Plateau, to 
the west of Tongariro and Ruapehu, where in the month of January every 
peaty swamp is adorned with its dark-blue flowers. 

T. vniflora belongs to Lindley's section Biaurella, in which the column- 
wing does not extend behind the anther, but has two prominent erect lateral 
lobes. In T . uniflora these lobes are more or less spirally involute, as shown 
in figs. 1 and 2 of the accompanying plate, and are sometimes connected by a 
crest at the back of the anther (see fig. 2). Its nearest ally is undoubtedly 
the Tasmanian T. cyanea, if, indeed, the two plants are not identical. 

Prasophyllum. Colensoi, as its name indicates, was one of the many dis- 
coveries made by Mr. Colenso, but I am not aware of the exact habitat in 
which it was first found. This, however, is not of any great importance, 
seeing that it is now known to extend from the North Cape to Antipodes 
Island, and to be one of the most abundant orchids in subalpine moorlands. 
Whether the fo)-m so generally distributed in mountain districts at elevations 
ranging from 2,000 ft. to 5,000 ft., and which must be taken as the type of the 
species, is quite the same as that which is sparsely found in lowland situa- 
tions, and which extends to the extreme north of the Dominion, is not quite 
certain. The question cannot be settled until a detailed comparison of fresh 
specimens has been made. 

P. Colensoi belongs to the typical section of the genus, called by Bentham 
Evprasop/n/lb/m, m which the lip is sessile at the base of the column. The 
only other species of the section found in New Zealand is the Australian 
P. vatens, which differs in its much greater size, larger paler flowers, and longer 
lip, which has a nuich larger recurved lamina, the adnate plate not extending 
almost to the tip, as it does in P. Colensoi (see fig. 8 of the accompanying 
plate). The nearest ally of P. Colensoi, however, is probably the Tasmanian 
plant described by R. Brown under the name of P. alpinnm, but which Ben- 
tham, in the '" Flora Australiensis," merges with P. fuscum, 



The genus Prasophyllum contains about thirty-five species. Of these, 
thirty-two are found in Australia (including Tasmania), four in New Zealand, 
two of which are apparently identical with Australian species, and one 
{P. caloftermn, Rchb. f.) in New Caledonia. 

Plate 193a. Thehjiniira niu'flora, drawn from .speciiuen.s collected on the Waimarino Plaiu.s, at 
the western base of Ruapeuu ; altitude 3,000 ft. Fig. 1, front view of column ; 2, back view of same ; 

5, dehisced anther. (All enlarged.) 

Plate 193b. Prasophyllum Colensoi, drawn from specimens obtained ui the same locality as the 
preceding. Fig. 4, two flowers (x5); 5, the two lateral sepals, connate below the middle (x8); 

6, one of the petals ( x 8) ; 7, side view of lip and cohimn ( x 10) : 8, front view of same ( x 10). 



Pla.te 194. 




A. PRASOPHYLLUM PUMTLUM, Hook.i. 1" 5. 
B. PTEROSTYLIS TRULL IFOLIA, -i¥oo.%:. /. 6-12. 



Plate 194.— PRASOPHYLLUM PUMILUM and 
PTEROSTYLIS TRULLI FOLIA. 

Family ORCHIDACE^.] [Genera PRASOPHYLLUM, R. Br., and 

PTEROSTYLIS, R. Br. 

Prasophyllum pumilum, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 242 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 675. 



Pterostylis trullifolia, Ilo,,!.: Fl. AV»\ Zel. i. 24'.l : Cheescin. Man. N.Z. Fl. 682. 

Prasophyllvm juimilinn was originally discovered by Mr. J. Edgerley, a 
gentleman of considerable scientific attainments, who collected plants in the 
northern portion of New Zealand in the years 1841-42, and who forwarded 
his specimens to Sir W. J. Hooker at Kew. I do not know the exact statioji 
in which Mr. Edgerley obtained the species, but as his travels were confined 
to the district ])et\veen the Hauraki Gulf and the Bay of Islands it must 
have been somewhere within those limits. A little later it was gathered by 
Mr. Colenso, probably at the Bav of Islands; and, according to the "Hand- 
book," it was collected in the vicinity of Auckland by Dr Sinclair. Its 
southern limit, so far as I am aware, is on the Leptosper mum -clad hills 
between Rangiriri and the Whangamarino River, where I observed it many 
years ago. Both Mr. Kirk and myself have gathered it in several stations 
near Auckland, although (as in all its localities) in small quantity. I have 
also collected it at Coromandel, in several stations between Helensville and 
Port Albert, at Whangarei, at the Bay of Islands, and at Mongonui. 
Mr. R. H. Matthews and Mr. Carse have both found it to be " not uncommon " 
near Kaitaia, and Mr. Kirk has recorded it from the tract of country between 
Parengarenga and the North Cape. It is ])urely n heath-plant, and I have 
never seen it except on the comparatively bare clay hills which are so frequent 
in the North Auckland Peninsula, and which, from the auantitv of kauri - 
resin that has been dug from them, are locally known as " gum-lands." 
The vegetation on these hills is mainly composed of stunted Lc/ifospermi/m 
scnparhim, mixed with varving proportions of Pomaderris plujUccp folia and 
P. elUvtica (and less commonly P. Edqerleyi), Levcopoaon fasciculatus, Draco- 
phyllum TJrmUeanum. and other shrubs, together with some sedges, Pteris 
aqvilina, and several small herbaceous plants. It is in open places of perhaps 
a yard or so in extent, often covered with Campylopvs and other mosses, that 
the Prasophyllum is usually found. 

Prasovhylhnri mimihnn belongs to an altogether different section of the 
genus to that which includes P. Colen^oi, figured in the previous plate, and 
which bears the name of Genoplpsivm. In it the lip is articulated on to a 
flat ribband-like projection from the base of the column, and is more or less 
mobile. Its nearest allv, according to Hooker, is the Tasmanian P. despectans, 
with which I am not acquainted; but it is also comparatively close to the 
New Zealand plant which I have for the pi-esent referred to the Australian 
P. rufum, but which differs from P. pvmilvm in the horizontal (not deflexed) 
flowers, in the narroAver lip and lateral sepals, the latter being tipped by a 
minute gland, and in the narrower lateral lobes of the column. 

Pterostylis trnllifolia is another of the discoveries mad° bv Mr. J. 
Edgerley, having been collected bv him at the Bav of Islands in 1841. About 
the same time, or very shortly afterwards, it was gathered bv Mr. Colenso in 



the same district. Since then it has been observed by every botanist who has 
examined the vegetation of tlie nortliern portion of the North Ishmd, for, so 
far as the district to tlie nortli of the Bay of i'lenty and Kawhia is concerned, 
it is one of the most abundant of tlie terrestrial orchids. In the southern 
portion of tlie North Island it is decidedly rare and local, although it extends 
to the neighbourhood of Wellington. In the South Island the only locality 
yet recorded is Mount Peter, in northern Marlborough, where it was detected 
some years ago by Mr. J. H. Macmahon. 

P. trullifolia has a somewhat wider range of habitats than Prasophyllum 
pumilu/ii. Although often found on Leptotipenniivt-cldd hills, it requires 
more shade than the Prasophylhim, and delights in sheltered nooks in tall 
Leptospermum, where there is a plentiful supply of luunus and not too much 
moisture. It is also conunon in mossy places in tolerably dry and open forest, 
but is seldom seen where the forest is thick and dense. Its altitudinal range 
is from sea-level to 2,000 ft. or a little more. Two well-marked varieties are 
commonly seen. The hrst, which must be regarded as the type, has a rather 
large flower often an inch in length, and the petiolate radical leaves are 
usually present in flowering specimens, and frequently very numerous in 
barren ones, forming a conspicuous rosette. The other variety, which may be 
distinguished as var. gracilis, is taller and more slender, with a smaller flower 
varying from i in. to | in. in length; the caiiline leaves ai'e nanower, the radical 
leaves are seldom present in flowering specimens, and in barren plants are 
fewer in number and smaller. Both varieties are hgured in the accompanying 
plate. 

The genus Pterostylis has a very similar geographical distribution to that 
of Thelymitra and Prasophyllum. It contains approximately about fifty 
species, of which thirty-six or thirty-seven are Australian. Eleven species 
are found in New Zealand, two of them being the same as Australian forms; 
three are known from New Caledonia, one of them being probably identical 
with an Australian species; and a single species {P. papuana, Rolfe) is found 
in New Guinea. 

Plate 194a. Prasophyllum pumilum, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. R. H. Matthews 
near Kaitaia, Mongonui Coimty. Fig. 1, two flowers ; 2, the two lateral sepals, coanate at the base 
3, lateral petals, lip, and column ; 4, side view of lip and column ; 5, front view of column, with the 
ribband-like base of the lip. (All enlarged.) 

Plate 194b. Pterostylis iruUifolm, drawn from specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. 
Fig. 6, flower (x 1^) ; 7, a single petal (x 2) ; 8, lip and column (x 4) ; 9, lip with its appendix (x 6) ; 
10, front view of rolumn, with the wings spread open (x 6) ; 11, tip of appendix to the lip, highly 
magnified. 



FUte 195. 




PTEROSTYLIS BANKSII, R.Br. 



Plate 195.— PTEKOSTYLIS BANKSII. 

Family ORCHIDACEzE.J (Genus PTEROSTYLIS, R. Br. 

Pterostylis Banksii fl^ Dr. ex A. Cnnn. in Bot. Mag. t. 3172; Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 248 • 
Cfieesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 679. ' 

Pterostylis Banksii, which i.s by far the finest species of the genus found 
n New Zealand was first discovered by Banks and Solander at Mercury Bay 

F^oran/N^'' Z^f' ^,""T ^""f' ^''} ""^^S"^- S^^^"^^^' ^^ ^is manuscript 
llZ ! , , Zealand, referred it to the genus Arethvsa, but gave no detailed 
account of It, for he supposed that it was identical with an Australian plant 
described m another part of his manuscripts. It was not again seen unti 
1826 when the talented and enthusiastic Allan Cunningham Vhered it on 
the banks of the Kawakawa River, Bay of Islands. Since then it has been 
found to range through almost the whole length of the Dominion, from the 
Worth Cape to Stewart Island, and from sea-level to nearly 4 000 ft 

F. 5a/i/.v.^^ IS usually found along the sides of lightlv wooded gullies or 
on the margin of forest lands, and .sometimes occurs in considerable quantities 
It is variable in size, sometimes attaining a height of quite 18 in tor even 
more, at other times barely reaching 6 in. Specimens of the sizes quoted 
above have been collected by myself in a single locality growing ^under 
uniform conditions; but, speaking generally, the taller specimens ar"e found 
m sheltered places along the sides of ravines, and the smaller in more open 
■ situations. The large green flowers, often streaked with red or reddish-brown 
and with the three sepals all furnished with long filiform tails have a most 
curious and bizarre appearance, and always attract the notice of strangers 
when seen for the first time. ''"gcis 

• ^ The remarkable fertilization of Pterostylis was first described by myself 
in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute" (vol v p 'i5^ et sea) 
Ihe upper sepal and petals are connate into a hood, at the back of which the 
column IS placed. The tip of the lip, which is extremelv sensitive, hangs out 

Wets ' wr%'' i^^ ^'''' -'^^"^ ^"'■"^^"°- ' ^'^"^^"ient landing-place fo 
nsects. When touched by an insect it springs up, carrving the Tnsect with 
t, and thus enclosing it withm the flower. The position then occupied by 
the lip IS that shown m fig. 2 of the accompanying plate, and the insect is 
enclosed m the space between the lip and the column. The hood Hke flower 
prevents any escape to the right or left of the lip, and as the lip remains 
closely appressed to the projecting wings of the upper part of the column as 
long as the insect is present, the onlv mode of escape is bv crawling up the 
front of the column and passing between the wings (see fig 4) In doing 
this It IS f^rst smeared with viscid matter from the rostellum, which proiects 
at^ the back of the passage between tlie wings, and then drags away the 
pollinia, which can hardly fail to adhere to its sticky bodv. When visiting 
another flower it must pass over the stigma before escaping, and can hardlv 
fail to leave some of the pollinia on its viscid surface. From the above it is 
clear that the fertilization of the flower depends entirelv on the irritab itv 

ifn itnri'? 1^'fl^ *' ^^'Ji ^^ '^"^^^"'^ '^''^ "" ^"^ ^^^^^^«" I removed the 
hp from twelve flowers while vonng, so that insect visitors would not be com- 
pelled to crawl out of the flower bv the passage between the w^K^s of X 
column. When these flowers commenced to wither thev were examined when 
It was found that they were not fertilized, and that not a single pollen-mass 



had been removed from the anther. I have also repeatedly placed minute 
insects on the lip, thus causing them to become entrapped, and in several 
instances I have seen these escape from the flower in the manner described 
above, bearing poUinia on their backs. The whole of the New Zealand species 
of Pterostylis are fertilized in the manner described above; and, according 
to the researches of the late Mr. Fitzgerald, it is also the manner employed 
in the Australian species. 

Plate 195. Pterostylis Banksii, drawn from specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. 
Fig. 1, petal (x 2) ; 2, lip and column (x 2) ; 3, lip alone (x 2^) ; 4. front view of column, the wingB 
spread open (x 2). 



Plate 196. 




PTEROSTYLIS FOLIATA, ^ooA. / 



Pj.atk ]i)6.— PTEKOSTYLIS FOLIATA. 

Family ORCHIIJACEiE.] [Genus PTEROSTYLIS, R. Br 

Pterostylis foliata, Hook. j. FL Nov. Zcl. i, 249 ; Checsem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 681. 

This is one of the numerous species the discovery of which is due to 
Mr. Colenso, who for many years was, to use the words of Sir J. D. Hooker, 
" the foremost New Zealand botanical explorer." He first collected it near 
Cape Palliser in 1845; and again in 1847 near the summit of the Rua- 
hine Mountains, where it was associated with Caladenia hi folia, figured 
in the following plate. Subsequently he obtained it in several other locali- 
ties on the eastern side of the North Island, where it has also been 
gathered by Mr. Tryon, Mr. Guthrie-Smith, and others. In 1863 Mr. 
Buchanan collected it on the uplands of eastern Otago, where, some years 
afterwards, it was also observed by Mr. Petrie. Mr. Kirk obtained it 
in a single station in Marlborough; but these two districts are the only known 
localities in the South Island. It is usually found in Sphagnurn bogs, and it 
ranges from sea-level to 3,500 ft. elevation. 

I have never had the good fortune to examine Piero.'ityHs foliata in its 
native habitat, and am consc<piently greatly indebted to Mr. Guthrie-Smith 
for an ample supply of s]Decimens in a fresh state collected by him on the 
margin of Lake Tutira, in northern Hawke's Bay, and from which the accom- 
panying plate has been prepared. His specimens proved that the species 
varies greatly in size, some of them barely exceeding 4 in. in height, while 
others reached quite 18 in. When fresh the leaves are rather fleshy, and the 
reticulated veins are by no means obvious; but when dried the leaves become 
much thinner, and the veins decidedly conspicuous, as shown in the plate. 
The upper part of the peduncle, the ovary, and occasionally the lateral sepals, 
are more or less glandular-pubescent, a character that has not been mentioned 
in previous descriptions of the plant. 

As a species P. foliata is allied to P. micromcga, but differs in the stouter 
habit, larger more reticulate and usually rosulate radical leaves, in the cauline 
leaves being reduced to sheathing-bracts, and in the smaller flowers with 
much shorter points to the lateral sepals. P. Oliveri is separated by the same 
characters, and by the much larger conspicuously decurved flower. According 
to Dr. Schlechter, it is closely allied to the New Caledonian P. Biireauviana, 
a species with which I am not acquainted. 

Plate 196. Pterostylis foliata, drawn from .specimeas collected b}' Mr. Guthrie-Smith on the 
margin of Lake Tutira, Hawke's Bay. Fig. 1, flower (x 2) ; 2, petal (x 2) ; 3, lip (x 3) : 4 and 5, 
front and side view of column (x 3). 



Plate 197. 




A. LYPERANTHUS ANTARCTICUS, ffook.f. 1-5. 

B. CALADENIA BIFOLIA, Hook. f. 6-9. 



Plate 197.— LYPEKANTHLS AMAKCTICUS and 
CALADJi^iSlA Bli^ULlA. 

Family UKCHIDACE^.j [Genera LYl'ERANTHUS, R Br. 

CALADENIA, R. Br. 

Lyperamhus antarcticus, Hook. /. FL Aniarct. ii, 544 ; V/teesem. Man. N.Z. Fi. 687. 

Caladenia bifolia, Uook. /. FL Nov. Zel. 247 ; Vheesew. Man. A.Z. Fl 689 

Chiloglottis Traversii, F. Muell. Vey. Vhath. Is. ol. 

Chiloglottis bifolia, Hchlechler %n Jitu/l. Hot. Jakr. baud 45, p. J8a. 

Ljperantkus antarcticus was lirst diacovered in the Auckland Islands in 
March, 1840, by Lieut. Le Guillon, a member of Admiral D'Urville's explonnii' 
expedition in the '" Astrolabe " and " Zelee." In November of the same year 
feir J. L. Koss, in the "Erebus" and "Terror," also visited the islands; and 
S5ir J. U. Mooker, who accompanied the expedition, obtained imperfect speci- 
mens of the plant. All that Hooker could do m the hrst volume of the " Elora 
Antarctica was to allude to the plant under the heading " dubii generis"- 
but an examination of Le GuiUon's specimens enabled him to refer it to the 
genus Lyperantlms, and in the supplement to the second volume he conse- 
quently described it under the name it still bears. In 18G3 it was collected 
by bir James Hector and Mr. Buchanaii in the interior of Otago Since 
then It has been found to have a wide distribution in subalpine districts from 
the lararua Eaiige southwards to Stewart Island and the Auckland Islands 
in i\ew Zealand it is most common between -2,500 ft. and 4,000 ft elevation 
but it descends to sea-level in Stewart Island. 

Lyperanthus antarcticus differs from the type of the genus in the upper 
sepa being much broader and more hooded, in the less spreading sepals and 
petals, and in the shorter and broader column, but the differences are not 
suthcieiit for generic distinction. According to Dr. Schlechter, the e-enus is 
conhned to Australia and New Zealand, and is limited to four or five species 
Ihe New Caledonian plants formerly placed m the genus he now refers to 
Megastyhs (see Engl. Bot. Jahr. vol. 45, 384). 

Caladenia bifolia was also first collected on the Auckland Islands imper- 
fect specimens having been gathered thereon by Sir J. D. Hooker in 1840 
and referred to in the '-Flora Antarctica" under the heading ^^ Caladenii 
No. 5. A few years later It was collected in Otago by Dr. Lyall, and on the 
KuaJiine Kange by Mr. Colenso. Subsequent exploration has proved that it 
IS by no means uncommon m montane and subalpine districts from Rotorua 
and laupo southwards to Stewart Island; it is also found in the Chatham Islands 
Antipodes Island, and the Auckland Islands. It ascends as high as 4,500 ft ou 
the Nelson mountains, but descends to sea-level in the Chatham Islands and 
Stewart Island. 

Caladenia bifolia is a somewhat anomalous member of the oenus its habit 
being precisely that of Chiloglottis, to which it has been refe°rred by Baron 
Mueller and more recently by Dr. Schlechter. But, as I have pointed out 
in the Manual, it wants the essential character of the wings of the column 
produced into two lobes behind the anther. In this respect the student 
should compare fig. 9 of the accompanying plate, showing the column of 
Caladenia bifolia, with fig. 4 of Plate 198, representing the column of Chile 
glottis comuta. On the whole, I am still of opinion that the species is best 
placed in Caladenia. 

k M^';^'^ ^Vt' ^V^ranihm aniarcticus, drawn from .specimens collected on the Auckland Islands 
by Mr. B C. As on. Fig. 1 front view of flower (x 2) ; 2, side ^^ew of same (x 2) ; t Hp shoS 
tlie longitudmal lamelte (x 1) : 4, side view of column (x 4) ; 5, front view ot column (x i) ^ 

FI.ATE 197b Calmlenia bifolia, drawn from specimens collected in the Mount Arthur Pkfpa,, 
NelBon, at an altitude of 4,000 ft Fig. 6, side view of flower (x2): 7, front vSw of flower (x 2' 
8, hp, showmg the two Imes of calli (x 4) ; 9, column (x 4). ^ ' ' 



PUte 198. 




A CHILOGLOTTIS CORNUTA, Hook. f. 
B. TOWNSONIA DEFLEXA, Ckeese-m. 



Plate 198.-CH1LOGLOTTIS CORNUTA and TOWNSONIA 

DEFLEXA. 

Family ORCHIDACE^.] [Genera CHILOGLOTTIS, R Br and 

TOWNSONIA, Cheesem. ' 

Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. /. Fl. Antarcl. i, 69 ; (Meesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. im. 
Townsonia deflexa, dheesem. Man. N.Z. FL 692. 

Chiloglottis cornuta, like the two species iigured in the previous elate 
was first collected during the Antarctic expedition of Sir J C Ross h^W 
been gathered on Campbell Island by Dr. Lyall, one of the natur J st! 
attached to the expedition, in December, 1840. The first record of Soccut 
rence in New Zealand proper was published by Mr. T. Kirk in 1870 his 
ZTc^:^rr-^r^ obtained at Northcote, L the immediate viinYtyo 
the City of Auckland, a locality where it still exists, aIthou"h in fast 
diminishing numbers. Almost immediately afterwards t was Sbserved A" 
severa botanists in various portions of both the North and the South Islands 
and at the present time it is known to extend through almost the vvole 
"fnd fh Chattm^ri from the North Cape district southwards to St^wa 
ben Isiai^cl. Tn fJ^t f,:"'^ Antipodes Island, and the Auckland and Camp- 
Dell Islands. In fact, there are few districts in the Dominion where it cannot 
be obtained although it is rarely present in considerable nZbers Ti 
to quit'e sS T"^"' '"""" ^" ""^' ''''^'^ ^^''''' ^^^ '^-Ses from sea level 
fho '?Si ^''" f ■ P- P°°!^''r^ original de.scription of the species, published in 

n tl. ''?w''.V'''^i'^^ ^^^'- 1' P- 6^)' ^'^ ""'^^'^ tl^e remark, ''l am inclined 
to think that the glands on the disc of the labellum will be found to rove 
a variable character." This surmise has been fully verified, bo h as reCrds 
specimens from tlie islands to the south of New Zealand and from New'Zea 

Zf f^'T / ^1?"^ 'V* '^'' ^""^'^^^ °^' '^' ^-^^"^^ ^^ries from 6 to 12 and 
that the glands tliemselves are very inconstant in size, shape, and pos tfc^n 
Facts hke these show that such variable organs are of little value in the dis' 
Se"ncr '"'""' ""■'" ''^'^ '^^ accompanied by other and more stable 
In addition to C. cornuta, the genus Chiloalottis contains six or seven 
New Zealand ""'''' '"' "^^'^- ^"^^ f'^^^'^'f^'^^ Fitzgerald) also extends to 
_ The charming little plant figured in this plate under the name of Torvn- 
soma deflexa j!^^ discovered in the vicinitv of Westport bv Mr. W Townson 
m the year 1904, and up to the present time has been gathered bv noX? 
botanist. As stated m the Manual, the generic name commemorates the 
services rendered to botanical science by Mr. Townson. who more than anv 
other person has contributed to the elucidation of the flora of the soiith- 
western portion of the Nelson Provincial District. Among the discoveries 
made bylym are^t^he following species illustrated in this work: A^Mla 
r.™., Plate 62), DracorhvUvm To.msoni (Plate 130), Gentiana ToJn^^i 
^ t, y yerommdivergens (Plate 148). and the plant now figured 
p ^''\ ^"7"'°" informs me that T. deflewa occurs on the spurs of Mount 
Rochfort, Mount Frederic, and the Paparoa Mountains, which coIIccTS 
Z\}^ T'* '''^Tf' ^^^^.diately to the north and south of the mouth of 
the Buller River. It ranges from 1,500 ft. to 2,000 ft. elevation, and is usiialh 



found on the mossy surface of rocks and logs under the shelter of Lepto- 
sjjeniuim and Olearia Colensoi, its colour harmonizing so closely with that of 
the moss that it is easily overlooked. It blooms in November and December, 
and when fully mature the flowers have a purplish tinge. It should be 
mentioned that the radical leaves are usually produced on special caudicles, 
and not at the base of the flowering-stem. 

In the Manual I regarded Toumsonia as a close ally of Adenochihis, 
relying principally on the structure of the column and the close similarity in 
habit. Dr. R. Schlechter, who has recently published some interesting notes 
on the genus (Fcdde, Hepertorium, ix, 249), suggests that it should be placed 
in the vicinity of Aclanthus, with which it agrees in the smooth undivided 
lip, devoid of any projections or protuberances beyond two or three obsisure 
ridges. He also points out that the Tasmanian Acianthus viridis, Hook, f., 
is very closely allied to T. deflexa, and must be placed in the same genus. 
Townsonia is therefore a genus of two species — one confined to the Soutli 
Island of New Zealand, the other endemic in Tasmania. Dr. Schlechter also 
traces an affinity to the genus Stigmatodactylus, which has three species, found 
respectively in Japan, India, and Java. 

Dr. Schlechter considers Townsonia to be an Antarctic type {typisch 
antarktische). But surely he uses the term in an entirely different sense from 
that understood by most New Zealand botanists. Genera like Colobanthus, 
Acama, Azorella, Nertera, PliyUachne, Rostkovia, Oreobolus, &c., which have 
species in the extreme south of South America, New Zealand, Tasmania, and 
the circumpolar islands, may well be called Antarctic, and we are entitled to 
speculate on their probable previous existence on the Antarctic Continent. 
But in the case of Townsonia, whose nearest allies are the genera Acianthus, 
Adenochihis, and Stlgmatodactylus, which have a purely Australian, Mela- 
nesian, and Malayan distribution, the term seems inappropriate. And 
especially is it so when we consider that the Orchidacece of New Zealand show 
absolutely no relationship to the few members of the family found in the 
extreme south of South America. 

Plate 198a. Chiloglotlis cornuki, drawn from specimens collected at Maungatapere, Whangarei, 
by Mr. H. Carse. Fig. 1, side view of flower (x 3) ; 2, lip, showing glands (x 5) ; 3, front view of 
column (x 5) ; 4, the same with the wings spread open (x 5). 

Plate 198b. Townsonia deflexa, drawn from specimens collected in the vicinity of Westport 
by Mr. W. Townson. Fig. 5, side view of flower (x 3) ; 6, front view of same (x 3) ; 7, petal (x 5) ; 
8, lip (the ridges much too conspicuous) (x5); 9 and 10, front and side views of column (x 5) ; 
11, dehisced anther (x 6). 



Plate 199. 




West, ■Newman imp. 



A CCRYSANTHES MATTHEWSII Cheesem. 1-4. 
B. „ OBLONGA, Hook f. 5-8. 



Plate 199.— COKYSANTHES xMATTHEWSll aj.i> 
OOKYSANTHES OBLOJS(iA. 

Family ORCllIDACE^.J [Genus CORYSANTHES, R. Br 

Corysanthes Matthewsii, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. 1ml. xxxi (1899), 351 ; Man. N.Z. Fl. 693. 



Corysanthes oblonga, Hook., j. Ilandb. N.Z. Fl. 694 ; Cheesein. Man. N.Z. Fl. 691. 

Corysanthes Maltheivsii is one of the discoveries of the late Mr. R. H. 
Matthews, of Kaitaia, who during a residence of many years in the extreme 
north of the Dominion paid special attention to the OrchidacecB, and who 
added several species to the flora C. Matthewsii was first gathered in the 
vicinity of Kaitaia in 1898; but it has since been found by Mr. H. Carse 
at Fairburn, between Kaitaia and Mongonui, where it is not uncommon on 
shaded mossy slopes. It has also been collected by Mr. A. Thompson at 
Aponga, inland from Whangarei. No doubt it will be found in other localities, 
for it is not easy to exhaust the orchid-flora of any district, particularly as 
regards the smaller terrestrial* species. Their period of bloom, during which 
alone they can be positively recognized, is but short; and their habitats are 
often of a recluse and sequestered nature. 

C. Matthewsii is much more closely allied to C. oblonga than any other 
species, but can be at once distinguished by the rather larger flowers; by the 
much smaller lateral sepals and petals, which are never more than half the 
length of the upper sepal, whereas in C. oblonga they are more than twice as 
long; and by the margin of the lip being either quite smooth or very 
obscurely denticulated, while the disc is furnished with a thickened patch of 
close-set deflexed hairs. G. Carsei, a species which I have lately described from 
the same district, is also allied; but its flower is longer and often conspicuously 
deflexed, the dorsal sepal is narrower, and the lip has a curious projecting 
lamina at its tip. 

According to Sir J. D. Hooker, Corysanthes oblonga. was originally dis- 
covered by Allan Cunningham; but, if so, it is curious that it was not included 
in his " Precursor." It was, however, collected at nearly the same time by 
Mr. Edgerley in some locality in the North Island, by Mr. Colenso at the Bay 
of Islands, and by Colonel Haultain in the vicinity of Auckland. Subsequent 
research has proved that it extends throughout the whole length of the 
Dominion, from the North Cape district southwards to Stewart Island and 
the Auckland Islands. It is usually found on moist mossy declivities in 
shaded forests, and although common at sea-level it ascends as high as 2,500 ft. 
I have already pointed out the differences between it and its nearest ally, 
C. Matthetvsii. 

The genus Corysanthes contains about thirty-five species. It attains its 
southern limit in New Zealand, where eight species are now known. It 
stretches northwards through Australia to New Guinea, the Himalaya Moun- 
tains, and the Philippine Islands; and eastwards as far as Tahiti. It has, 
therefore, the characteristic distribution of most of the genera of the New 
Zealand Orchidacem. 

Pl.-vte 199a. Corysanthes Matthewsii, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. R. H. Matthews 
La the vicinity of Kaitaia, Mongonui County. Fig. 1, side view of flower (x 4) ; 2, dorsal sepal (x 4) ; 
3, lip spread open (x 4) ; 4, column (x 6). 

Plate 199b. Corysanthes oblonga, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. R. H. Matthews in 
che vicinity of Kaitaia. Fig. 5, side view of flower (x 4) ; 6, lip spread open (x 4) ; 7 front view of 
column (x 6) ; 8, side view of same (x 6). 



Plate 200. 




West^Newman imp. 



RHIPOGONUM SCANDENS, Forst. 



Plate 200.— RHIPOGONUM SCANDENS. 

(THE SUPPLEJACK.) 

Family LILIACEyE.] [Genus RHIPOGONUM, Forst. 

Rhipogonum scandens, Forst. Char. Gen. 50 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 700. 

Few plants are better known to the frequenter of the lowland forests of New 
Zealand than the subject of this plate, the kareao of the Maoris, and the supplejack 
of the European colonists. Its long climbing stems arrest the progress of the 
traveller at every turn, binding one tree to another, and presenting a bewildering 
tangle always difficult to penetrate, and sometimes almost impossible. The first 
description ever framed of the plant — that of Dr. Solander, no doubt written with 
a vivid recollection of a contest with it — begins so accurately and yet so quaintly 
that I may be excused for quoting the opening sentence here : " Frutex ambula- 
toribus sylvarum molestissimus ilhsque ubique obstans." 

As hinted above, Rhipogonum scandens was originally discovered during Cook's 
first voyage to New Zealand in the year 1769. It was collected by the naturalists 
to the expedition at Tolaga Bay, Mercury Bay, the Thames River, and Queen Char- 
lotte Sound. It was fully described, and an excellent figure prepared of it, neither 
of which, however, was actually published. It was again gathered by the two 
Forsters during Cook's second voyage, and was published by them in their " Characteres 
Generum Plantarum" under the name which it still bears. Almost every botanical 
explorer since then has collected or observed it, and it is now known to range from 
the North Cape southwards to Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands. In the 
northern portion of the Dominion — that is, to the north of the Upper Waikato — 
its distribution is pretty general, and it ascends as high as 2,000 ft. ; but it is absent 
from the central volcanic plateau and the higher mountains of the North Island, 
and in the South Island is mainly found in lowland forests not far from the sea. 

The mode of growth of Rhipogonum scandens presents many peculiarities worthy 
of attentive study. A. Richard, in his " Flore de la Nouvelle Zelande," quotes some 
excellent remarks from Forster's manuscripts, proving that the main facts of its 
Ufe-history were known to him. He mentions the creeping rhizome, and the tuber- 
cular mass, " as large as a fowl's egg," from which the stems spring. He clearly 
describes the knotted stems, mentioning the smooth interspaces between the knots, 
and he also describes with considerable detail the remarkable and early deciduous 
cauUne leaves, so very different in shape from the foliage leaves, whicli are usually 
confined to the upper branches. Some valuable remarks on the behaviour of 
Rhipogonum as a cUmbing plant will be found in Dr. Cockayne's " Report on the 
Waipoua Kauri Forest " (p. 24). 

The long tough and durable elastic stems have been appUed to a variety of 
purposes, as the manufacture of baskets, hurdles, fences, &c. They were also used 
by the Maoris in constructing rope ladders, with which to ascend cliffs, or the walls 
of their pas or fortifications. A decoction of the root was used in the place of 
sarsaparilla by the early colonists, and it was also employed medicinally by the 
Maoris. 

The genus Rhipogonum contains five species in all. Four of these are confined 
bo eastern Australia ; the remaining one, the subject of tliis plate, is endemic in 
New Zealand. 

Plate 200. Rhi-pogoiium scatidem, diawa from specimens collected on the Waitakarei Ranges, 
near Auckland. Fig. 1, portion of inflorescence (x 3) ; 2, bract and two bracteoles (x 6) ; 3, perianth- 
segment and stamen (x 5) ; 4, back of stamen (x 5) ; 5, pistil (x 10) ; 6, longitudinal section ol same 
(xlO); 7, tran verse section of same (x 10); 8, transverse section of fruit ( x 2J) ; 9, longitudinal 
section ot fruit (x 2^) ; 10, seed (x 3) ; 11, embryo (enlarged). 



PlAte 20J. 




V7est,"Ne-wroan imp. 



LUZURIAGA MARGINATA, Benth & Hook. f. 



Platk 201.— LUZURIAGA MARGINATA. 

Family LILTACEiE.] [Genus LUZURIAGA, Ruiz & Pav. 

Luzuriaga marginata, Bcrdh. and Hook. f. Gen. Plant, iii, 768. 

Callixene parviflora, Hook. f. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 632 ; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 281. 

Enargea marginata, Banki and Sol. ex Gaerln. Fruct. i, 283, t. 59 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. FL. 704. 

According to Sir J. D. Hooker (Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 254), this charming little plant 
was first discovered in New Zealand by either Forster or Menzies, although it is not 
recorded in any of the early publications on the botany of the Dominion. Be that 
as it may, it was not again seen until December, 1841, when it was gathered by 
Mr. Colenso " at the foot of large trees in the beech forest, on the ascent of the 
mountains from Lake Waikare." A few years later it was collected by Mr. Bidwill 
on the Nelson mountains, and by Dr. Lyall in some locality in the south of the South 
Island. Farther explorations have shown that it attains its northern limit on Moehau 
Mountain (Cape Colville), from whence it stretches southwards, on the summits of 
the higher peaks only, to the East Cape and the central volcanic plateau. From 
thence it is of common occurrence in wooded upland districts as far south as Stewart 
Island. Its altitudinal range is from sea-level to 3,500 ft. 

In the Manual I followed Baron Mueller in adopting the generic term Enargea 
for the plant now figured and its immediate allies ; my reasons being that Enargea, 
having been published in 1788 by Gaertner from Banks and Solander's MSS, was 
clearly entitled to precedence over Callixene, wliich did not appear until the following 
year, and over Luzuriaga, which was not published until 1802. But since then the 
Vienna Conference of 1905 has definitely ruled that Luzuriaga is the name to be 
employed. As it is clearly desirable, for the sake of uniformity of nomenclature, 
that the decisions of the Conference should be loyally accepted, I have adopted that 
name in this work. 

Luzuriaga contains three or possibly four species. Two of these are found in 
Chile ; the third in Fuegia and New Zealand. It should be mentioned, however, 
that the Fuegian plant, to which the name marginata properly belongs, differs from 
that found in New Zealand in the much larger flowers, which are said to be nearly 
double the size. It was mainly on account of this character that Hooker described 
our plant as a distinct species, under the name of Callixene parviflora. In the 
" Genera Plantarum," however, he gave his assent to the union of the two plants, 
and it appears best to follow that course until a careful comparison can be made. 

Plate 201. Luzuriaga marginata, drawn from specimens collected on Dim Mountain, Nelson, 
by Mr. F. G. Gibbs. Fig. 1, leaf, showing venation (x 2|) ; 2, bracts and pistil ( x 3) ; 3, flower (x 1^) ; 
4, outer perianth-segment (x il) ; 5, inner perianth-segment (x 4i) ; 6 and 7, front and back view of 
anthers ( x 3) ; 8, longitudinal section of ovary ( x 5) ; 9, vertical section of same ( x 5) ; 10, ovule 
(enlarged) ; 11, section of fruit ( x 2) : 12, seed ( x 4) ; 13, section of seed ( x 4). 



Plate 202. 




BULBINELLA HOOKERI, Benth & Hook. f. 



Plate 202.-BULBINELLA HOOKEKl. 

Family LILIACE^.] ^q^^^,^ BULBINELLA. Kunth. 

Bulbinella Hooked, Benth. and Hook. f. Gen. Plant, iii, 784 ; CTiee.sem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 718. 

Although the species now figured is one of the most widely distributed 
subalpine plants in the Dominion, in some localities forming a large percentaee 
of the vegetation, it was not gathered by any of the early investigators of the New 
Zealand flora. So far as I can ascertain, it was not observed until 1847, when it 
was collected by Mr. Colenso during his second journey to the Ruahine Range 
About the same time, or shortly afterwards, it was gathered by Mr. Bidwill in the 
Wairau Valley, Nelson ; and a little later by Dr. Lyall in the southern portion of 
the bouth Island It attains its northern limit on Mount Egmont and in the Taupo 
district from whence it stretches southwards as far as Stewart Island In the 
Worth Island I am not aware of any locality at a lower elevation than 2,000 ft • 
but in the southern portion of the South Island it comes down to sea-level' 
or nearly so. 

Bulbinella Hooheri is most plentiful in moist peaty soil, or in peaty swamps 
where not too wet. But it is by no means confined to such situations, and often 
occurs in abundance on comparatively dry slopes or on open saddles. Of late years 
It has increased enormously in almost the whole of the open subalpine country 
along the chain of the Southern Alps, mainly through its power of resisting fire 
and from the fact that as a rule it is distasteful to stock. As far back as 1878 the 
date of my first visit to the Nelson mountains, I was informed by the late Mr J 
Kerr that its increase in the Wairau Valley was most noteworthy and in 
subsequent visits I was able to confirm the statement and to extend it to other 
districts. Similar observations have been recorded fr.mi other parts of the South 
Island ; and Mr. R. M. Laing has proved that the allied B. Rossii is increasing its 
numbers m Campbell Island in a very similar manner. 

Bulbinella Hookeri is an erect perennial herb with a rosette of green or glaucous- 
green leaves springing from the top of the bundle of fleshy fibres which constitute 
the root. From the centre of the leaves rises the scape-like peduncle or flowering- 
stem, quite bare of cauhne leaves, and ending in a raceme of more or less crowded 
bright-yellow flowers. It varies greatly in size : on the Mount Arthur Plateau 
iNelson, I have seen specimens barely 4 in. high growing within a few yards of others 
attaining quite 2 ft. or even more. The proportionate width of the leaves, the 
length of the racemes, and the number of flowers are also highly variable ' Up 
to the present time, however, I have been unable to sort these forms into systematic 
varieties distinguished by stable characters. 

The genus Bulbinella, as characterized in the " Genera Plantarum " and " Die 
Naturlichen Pflanzenfamihen," consists of twelve or thirteen species, all natives 
of the Cape of Good Hope except the two species found in New Zealand. It is 
often quoted as evidencing a relationship between the New Zealand and South 
African floras; but the New Zealand species differ greatly in habit and other 
characters from the South African ; and it must be borne in mind that Bulbinella 
and other genera are separated from the widespread genus Anthericum more by 
arbitrary characters than by structural differences of importance. 

Plate 202. Bulbinella Hookeri, drawn from specimens colJected on Jollie's Pass, Hanmer at an 
elevation of 3,000 ft. Figs. 1 and 2, side and upper view of flower (x 3) ; 3 and 4, front and back \4ew 
of anthers (x 6) ; 5, ovary and style (x 5) ; 6, transverse section of ovary (x 7) ; 7 ripe capsule 
(x 3) ; 8, capsule dehiscing (x 3) ; 9, seed (enlarged) ; 10, longitudinal section of seed (enlarged) 



PUte 203. 




ROSTKOVIA GRACILIS, Hook.f. 



Plate 208.— ROSTKOVIA GRACIT.IS. 

Family JUNCACE^.] [Genus ROSTKOVIA. Desv. 

Rostkovia gracilis, Hook. /. Fl. Anfarcl. i, 83, t. 47 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 722. 

Rostkovia gracilis was first collected by Sir J. D. Hooker on the Auckland and 
Campbell Islands towards the close of the year 1840, during the short visit made 
to the islands by Sir J. C. Ross in the Antarctic exploring-vessels "Erebus" and 
" Terror." On his return to England Hooker published the species in his 
monumental " Flora Antarctica," giving a full description and excellent plate. 
He remarks that it was found " amongst rocks and also in marshy places ; common 
at an elevation of 800 ft. to 1,200 ft." Subsequent visitors to the group have also 
found it to be plentiful. The first botanist to observe it in New Zealand was Sir 
Julius von Haast, who in 1865 collected it on the slopes above Browning's Pass, at 
the head of the Rakaia Valley. It is now known to be generally distributed in alpine 
localities in the South Island, from the Mount Arthur Plateau, Nelson, to Foveaux 
Strait. It does not seem to have been recorded from Stewart Island. The late 
Mr. Buchanan separated the New Zealand plant from that found in the Auckland 
and Campbell Islands in the belief that the latter always had the leaves solitary 
and two or three times longer than the stems. But in point of fact specimens from 
both localities are variable in the number and length of the leaves. 

Taking the genus Rostkovia in the sense of the " Genera Plantarum," it 
contains four species. Of these, three are found in the southernmost portions of 
South America, one of them also extending to the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, 
and the Auckland and Campbell Islands. The remaining species, which is the one 
figured in this work, is confined to the New Zealand region. Rostkovia is thus a 
typical Antarctic genus, if it is allowable to use the term for those genera which 
exist on several of the land- masses which most nearly approach the Antarctic 
Continent, but of whose previous existence thereon we have no proof whatever. 

Plate 203. Rostkovia gracilis, drawa from specimens collected on Moimt Torlesse, Canterbury, 
at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf (x2); 2, flower (x2); 3 and 4, anthers (x6); 
5, pistil (x 6) ; 6, transverse section of ovary (x 6) ; 7, capsule (x 2) ; 8, seed (enlarged). 



Plate 204. 




West, Newman imp. 



A. LUZULA COLENSOL tToo^./:' 

B. LUZULA CHEESEMANH, Bachen. 



Plate 204.— LUZULA COLENSOI and LUZULA 
CHEESEMANIl. 

Family JUNCACE^.] [Genus LUZULA. D.C. 

Luzula Colensoi, Hook. /. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 293 ; Ckeesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 734. 

Luzula Cheesemanii, Bnchen. Monog. June. 146 : Cheesem. Man. N .Z. Fl. 735. 

As its name denotes, Luzula Colensoi was one of the many discoveries of 
Mr. Colenso, and was gathered by him on the summit of the Ruahine Range in Feb- 
ruary, 1847, on the occasion of his first successful attempt to cross the range. In his 
interesting " Visits to the Rualiine Mountain Range " (p. 60-61) he mentions a number 
of plants forming " isohited patches, tufts, or hemispherical-shaped cushions closely 
compacted together," and includes in the list " a Juncaceous plant, scarcely an inch 
high, Luzula Colensoi. which also assumes dumpy hemispherical tufts or cushions." 
There is no record of the species being met with again until 1878, when I gathered 
it on the summit of Gordon's Nob, in the Nelson Provincial District ; and in 
successive years in several other localities in the Nelson and Canterbury mountains. 
More recently it has been collected by various botanists in numerous localities in 
both the North and South Islands. It attains its northern limit, so far as I am aware, 
on Mount Egmont and on Tongariro Mountain, where it is unusually plentiful ; 
and stretches southwards as far as the Longwood Range, in the south of Otago. 
It is a high alpine, and I have not myself seen it much below 4,000 ft. altitude, 
while it ascends to considerably above 6,000 ft. 

As a species Luzula Colensoi is readily distinguished by its small size and almost 
glabrous habit ; by its compact cushion-shaped mode of growth ; by the remark- 
ably short stems, the flowers being sunk amongst the leaves ; and by the pale- 
coloured inflorescence. 

The pretty little plant to which the name of Luzula Cheesemanii has been applied 
by Dr. Buchenau was first collected by myself on the summit of Gordon's Nob, Nelson, 
in the year 1878. Two years later Mr. J. D. Enys and myself gathered it on the 
mountains near the source of the Broken River. Canterbury, at an altitude of nearly 
6,000 ft. It has since been collected by Mr. Kirk on Mount Mouatt (Marlborough) ; 
on Mount Torlesse by Dr. Diels ; and on the Craigieburn Mountains (Canterbury) 
and on Mount Kyeburn and the Dunstan Mountains (Otago) by Mr. Petrie. Its 
altitudinal range is very similar to that of L. Colensoi. 

L. Cheesemanii is very similar in size, habit, and appearance to L. pumila, but 
differs in the more compound inflorescence and in the broader perianth-segments, 
which have a narrow dark-chestnut stripe down the middle, and very broad silvery- 
white margins. In L. pumila the chestnut stripe is broad and distinct, and the 
white margins are either absent or very obscurely represented. From L. micrantha 
and L. Colensoi it is at once removed by the flowering-stems being always longer 
than the leaves. 

The genus Luzula contains about sixty species, the great majority of which 
are confined to the Northern Hemisphere. The seven New Zealand species (or rather 
eight, for Buchenau's L. racemosa var. ulofhijlla is doubtless distinct) are all very 
closely connected with the cosmopolitan L. campestris. With the exception of 
L. campestris and L. racemosa, the whole of them are confined to New Zealand. 

Plate 204a. Luzula Colensoi, drawn from specimens gathered on Mount Egmont, at an elevation 
of 6,000 ft. Fig. 1, leaf (x 5) ; 2, inflorescence (x 5) ; 3 and 4, bracts (enlarged) ; 5, flower laid open 
(x 8) ; 6, anther (x 10) ; 7, ovary and styles (x 7) ; 8, capsule (x 7) ; 9, section of capsule (x 10) ; 
10, seeds (enlarged). 

Plate 204b. Luzula Cheesemanii, drawn from specimens gathered on Gordon's Nob, Nelson, 
at an altitude of 5,000 ft. Fig. 11, leaf ( x 4) ; 12, flower ( x 8) ; 13, flower laid open ( x 8) ; 14, anther 
(x 10) ; 15, fruiting inflorescence (x 5) ; 16, capsule (x 8) : 17, seed (enlarged). 



Pla-te 205. 




West.NBWman imp. 



SPARGANIUM ANTIPODUM, Oraebner. 



Plate 205.— SPARGANIUM ANTIPODUM. 

Family SPARGANIACEiE.] [Genus SPARGANIUM, Linn. 

Sparganium antipodum, Graebner in Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. iv (1899), 33 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. 
Fl. 744. 

Mr. J. C. Bidwill appears to have been the first to collect Sparganium antipodum 
in New Zealand, but I am unaware of the exact locality. Mr. Colenso and other 
early botanists also obtained it ; so that Sir J. D. Hooker, in the " Flora Novae 
Zelandiee," spoke of it as being common in the North Island in watery places. This, 
however, requires some quaUfication, for south of the East Cape and Taranaki 
it is rarely seen except in lowland districts not far from the sea. In the South 
Island it has been recorded from Picton by Mr. Rutland, from the Westport district 
by Mr. Townson, and I have seen a specimen said to have been collected in North 
Canterbury by Dr. Gaze. 

S. antipodum extends to AustraUa, where it ranges from Queensland to Vic- 
toria, and is the only species of the genus found in the Southern Hemisphere. In 
the " Flora," and again in the " Handbook," Sir J. D. Hooker referred it to the northern 
S. simplex. Mr. Bentham, in the " Flora Austrahensis " (vol. vii, p. 161) says that 
" this plant has the simple inflorescence, foliage, and habit of the erect varieties of 
S. simplex, but has not the narrow acuminate fusiform fruit of that species. The 
fruit is more like that of S. ramosum, but smaller." Mr. Bentham therefore revived 
Robert Brown's name of S. angustifolium, in spite of the fact that it had already 
been appUed to an American species. In 1900 Dr. Graebner, in liis monograph of 
the genus published in " Das Pflanzenreich " (heft 2), proposed the new name of 
S. antipodum. This I accepted in the Manual ; but there can be little doubt that 
Morong's name of S. subglobosum, appHed to a plant collected by Wilkes's Expedition 
at the Bay of Islands, is the one which will ultimately have to be accepted, as it has 
eleven years' priority of date. 

According to Dr. Graebner, there are fifteen well-ascertained species of the genus ; 
all of them, except S. antipodum, confined to the temperate or frigid zones of the 
Northern Hemisphere. Most of the species are very variable, and are divided by 
Graebner into numerous subspecies, varieties, and minor divisions, mainly character- 
ized by sUght differences in habit, shape of the leaf, shape and size of the fruit, &c. 
The occurrence of a species of the genus in Australia and New Zealand so far 
removed from all its allies is a very remarkable problem in plant distribution. 

Plate 205. Sparganium antipodum, drawn fiom specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. 
Fig. 1, section of inflorescence (x 3) ; 2 and 3, perianth-segments (x 10) ; 4, anther (x 8) ; 5, cross- 
section of anther (enlarged) ; 6, section of female inflorescence ( x 3) ; 7 and 8, perianth-segments 
from female flower (x 10) ; 9, section of ovary (enlarged) ; 10, ripe fruit (x 8) ; 11, sectior of same 
( X 8) ; 12, section of seed (enlarged) ; 13, embryo (enlarged). 



I'la.te 206. 




WestjNswman imp. 



POTAIMOGETON CHEESEMANII, A. Bennett. 



Plate 206.— POTAMOGETOX CHEESEMANII. 

Family NAIAD ACE^.] [Genus POTAMOGETON, Linn. 

Potamogeton Cheesemanii, A. Bennett in Journ. Hot. xxi (1883), 66; Ckeesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 749. 

Allan Ciiniiingham was the first to collect this species in New Zealand, for 
although he referred his specimens to the widespread P. natans, the description of 
the leaves given in the " Precursor," where he says " foliis natantibus petiolatis 
ellipticis basi apiceque rotundatis," agrees with P. Cheesemanii, and does not suit 
P. natans, which has acute or subacute leaves, often more or less subcordate at the 
base. His specimens were gathered " in stagnant waters near the missionary station 
on the Kenkeri River, Bay of Islands." It was also gathered in early times by 
Mr. Colenso and Dr. Sinclair, and probably by other botanists ; but as Sir J. D. 
Hooker, both in the - Flora" and the " Handbook," confused the species with P. natans, 
it IS difficult to be sure of the identity of the specimens he had before him. Its 
specific distinctness was first pointed out by Mr. Arthur Bennett, of Croydon, in the 
Journal of Botany for 1883 (p. 66). his description being based on specimens collected 
by myself m St. John's Lake, near Auckland. It is now known to be by far the 
most abundant member of the genus found in New Zealand, ranging from the North 
Cape to Stewart Island, and from sea-level to quite 4,000 ft. altitude. 

P. Cheesemanii. in addition to the shape of its floating leaves, can be at once 
distmguished from P. natans by possessing numerous well-developed submerged 
leaves, which are much longer and proportionately much narrower than the floating 
leaves, and which gradually pass into them towards the upper part of the stem. 
In P. natans the submerged leaves are often absent, and if present are very narrow- 
linear and semi-terete, sometimes almost setaceous. According to Mr. Bennett 
{Journal of Botany, 1887, p. 177), P. Cheesemanii occurs in Tasmania as well as New 
Zealand. 

In the last revision of the genus— that of Dr. Graebner, published in heft 31 
of the " Pflanzenreich "—eighty-seven species are accepted. Of these, five are 
found in New Zealand, three of them (P. natans, P. polygonifolius, and P. pectinatus) 
being practically cosmopoHtan. The remaining two extend to the Australian 
Continent. 

Plate 206,^ Polaimgeton Cheesemanii, drawn from specimens collected on the Waikato River. 
Fig. 1, flower ; 2 and 3, front and back view of anther, with perianth-segment ; 4, caqjels ; .5. section 
of a carpel ; 6, ripe carpels ; 7, a single carpel separated from the rest ; 8, section of ripe' carpel • 
9, seed. (All enlarged.) ' 



PLa.te 207. 




West, Newman imp. 



POTAMOGETON OCHREATUS. Eaou.1. 



Platk 207.— POTAMOGETON OCHREATUS. 

Family NAIADACE^.] [Genus POTAMOGETON, Linn. 

Potamogeton ochreatus, Raoul, Choix, 13, t. 7 ; A. Bennett in Journ. Bot. xxv (1887), 178 ; 
Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 750. 

Potamojeton ochreatus was originally discovered by M. Raoul, who, as surgeon- 
aaturalist to the French frigate " L'Aube," which was stationed at Akaroa from 
August, 1840, to November, 1841, and from January, 1842, to January, 1843, had 
excellent opportunities of examining the vegetation of Banks Peninsula and the 
neighbouring districts. After Raoul's return to France he pubhshed his discoveries 
first of all in the " Annales des Sciences Naturelles " (series iii, vol. 2) ; but in 1846 
he incorporated them in a work of wider scope under the title of " Choix des Plantes 
de la Nouvelle Zelande," illustrated by thirty beautiful plates. A full description 
of P. ochreatus appeared in this work, together witli a finely executed plate (t. 7). 

Many views have been advanced respecting the systematic position of 
P. ochreatus. Sir J. D. Hooker, in the "Flora of New Zealand" (p. 236), suggested 
that it was identical with the widely spread P. gramineus, and in the " Handbook " 
he doubtfully referred it to that plant. Mr. Bentham, in the " Flora AustraUensis," 
considered it to be a form of P. obtusifolius, Mert. and Koch, a determination which 
has been repudiated by subsequent workers. Mr. Kirk, in his first exploration of 
the Waikato River, expressed the opinion that it was identical with P. zostercefolius ; 
but he subsequently arrived at the conclusion that it was a separate species, " equally 
distinct from P. compressus and P. gramineus " (Trans. N.Z. Inst, iv (1872). 258). In 
1887 the matter was fully investigated by Mr. .Arthur Bennett, who fully proved 
the specific distinctness of the plant, and this view is now generally accepted. 

P. ochreatus belongs to the section of the genus in which the whole of the leaves 
are submerged, and narrow-linear in shape, the broad floating leaves being entirely 
absent. It has a wide range in New Zealand, being common in slow-flowing streams 
and lakes from the North Cape to Otago, in many places forming dense masses. In 
Australia, according to Mr. Arthur Bennett, it ranges from Queensland to Tasmania ; 
and Dr. Graebner has lately referred a Japanese plant to the same species. 

Plate 207. Potomojetow ocAreaiws, drawn from specimens collected in the Waikato River. Fig. 1, 
flower-bud ; 2 and 3, flowers ; 4, back of perianth-segment ; 5, front view of perianth -segment, with 
stamen; 6, carpels ; 7, a single carpel cut longitudinally ; 8, young fruit ; 9, section of same ; 10, seed. 
(.4.11 enlarged.) 



PLate 208. 




West, Newman imp. 



LEPYRODIA T RAVERS II, /'AfiifiW. 



Plate 208.-LEPYROD1A TRAVERSIT. 

Family RESTIACE.E.] [Genus LEPYRODIA, R. Br. 

Lepyrodia Traversii, F. Muell. Fnir/ni. viii, 79 ; Cheeseni. Man. N.Z. Fl. 760. 

Dr. DiefEenbach, the naturalist to the New Zealand Company, and the author 
of the well-known " Travels in New Zealand," visited the Chatham Islands in 1840, 
and formed a small collection of plants, which for many years comprised all that 
was known to science of the vegetation of that then seldom- visited outher of the 
Dominion. Included in the collection were barren specimens of a Restiaceous plant 
which Sir J. D. Hooker, in the " Flora Novae Zelandise " and again in the " Handbook," 
referred to as a doubtful species of Calorophus. Curiously enough, Mr. H. H. Travers, 
in his first expedition to the Chatham Islands, does not seem to have observed the 
plant ; but during a subsequent visit he obtained specimens which Baron Mueller 
in the first instance described under the name of Lepyrodia Traversii, but ultimately 
erected into a new genus which he called Sporadanthus. According to Mueller, 
Sporadanthus differs from Lepyrodia in the nucular 1-celled fruit ; but Hooker and 
Bentham, in the " Genera Plantarum," have replaced it in Lepyrodia. 

Lepyrodia Traversii is a common plant in peat bogs in the Chatham Islands. 
Dr. Cockayne, in his valuable memoir, " On the Plant Covering of the Chatham Islands " 
(Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiv (1902), p. 285), gives a lengthy account of a plant association 
which he calls the " Lepyrodia-Olearia bog " in which the vegetation is largely com- 
posed of the Lepyrodia, together with Olearia semidentata and Dracophyllum paludosum 
{D. scoparium, var.), and speculates on the probability of this association having 
once occupied even more extensive areas than is now the case. Nor is L. Traversii 
confined to the Chatham Islands. In January, 1879, I observed it in great abundance 
in the extensive peat bog between Hamilton and Ohaupo, in the Middle Waikato 
district, a locaUty where it is still plentiful, although somewhat thinned by fires and 
drainage operations. And as recently as 1906 Mr. R. H. Matthews observed it in 
the large stretch of peaty country lying between Lake Tongonge and the sea. 

I have already remarked that in the " Genera Plantarum " Hooker and Bentham 
reduced Sporadanthus to Lepyrodia. They point out that in habit it is evidently 
very close to the Australian L. scariosa, R. Br., and hint that the fruit is 1-celled 
and 1 -seeded by abortion. At that time fruiting specimens were alone known ; but 
since then, through the kindness of Mr. Calhoun, of Ohaupo, I have received numerous 
fine specimens in all stages of flower and fruit, from which the accompanying plate 
has been prepared. After a careful examination of young flowers, I have been unable 
to find any trace of the ovary being 3-celled, nor does the ovary ever contain more 
than a single ovule. And the style is invariably single, with a decurrent stigma 
along one side. Under these circumstances, I am inclined to think that Mueller was 
justified in creating a new genus for the plant, and that we shall ultimately have to 
revert to his generic name of Sporadanthus. 

Plate 208. Lepyrodia Traversii, drawn from specimens gathered by Mr. Calliomi in the extensive 
peat bog stretching from Hamilton to Ohaupo, Waikato. Fig. 1, portion of inflorescence, with two 
male flowers (x 5) ; 2, male flower (x 8) ; 3, jieriantli-segment and stamen (x 10) ; 4, stamens and 
rudimentary ovary (x 10) ; 5, female flower (x 8) ; 6, ovary with rudimentary stamens at the base 
(x 12) ; 7, longitudinal section of ovary (x 12) ; 8, transverse section of ovary (x 12) ; 9, ovule (x 12) ; 
10, ripe fruit (enlarged) ; 11, longitudinal section of fruit (enlarged) ; 12, seed (enlarged). 



Plate 209. 




West, NewmaJi imp 



SCHOENUS CARSEI, Cheesem. 



Plate 209.— SCHCENUS CARSEJ. 

Family CYPERACEiE.] [Genus SCHCENUS, Linn. 

Schoenus Carsei, Vheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 781. 

The discovery of this interesting species is due to Mr. H. Carse, now a resident 
of Mongomii County, and well known as an active and zealous botanist. His first 
specimens were collected between Mauku and the southern shore of the Manukau 
Harbour, but he subsequently observed it in some quantity at Whangarei. On 
communicating some of Mr. Carse's specimens to the late Mr. C. B. Clarke, he 
informed me that the species was certainly distinct, but that there were examples 
of it in the Kew Herbarium, collected by Mr. T. Kirk in 1863 in swamps at 
Papatoetoe, near Auckland, and that these had been erroneously referred by Sir 
J. D. Hooker to the closely allied S. pauciflorus. A search in my own herbarium 
also disclosed some immature specimens collected by myself in the Ngaire Swamp, 
Taranaki. Quite recently it has been gathered by Mr. P. H. Allen in swamps by 
the Waitoa River, Thames Valley, and I cannot doubt but that it will be found 
to be plentiful in lowland swamps in the northern half of the North Island. 

The nearest ally of <S. Carsei is undoubtedly Hooker's S. pauciflorus. But 
it differs from that species in the much more slender habit, shorter leaves, much 
longer panicle with more numerous spikelets, by the bristles being either absent 
or very small, and in the white oblong nut. which is not at all trigonous, as is always 
the case in S. pauciflorus. The latter species differs also in its distribution, for 
it is either found in mountain districts or in the extreme south of the Dominion. 
In the Manual I stated that *S. Carsei had no hypogynous bristles, but I find that 
three minute ones are generally present, as shown in fig. 4 of the accompanying 
plate. In S. pauciflorus the scales are long, almost equalling the style. 

I'late 209. Schceiiut! Cai/iei, drawn fri>iu speciiueus collected, by ilr. H. Car.se at. .Mauiigatapere, 
Whangarei. Fig. 1, section of stem ; 2, spikelet ; 3, the same with the glumes removed ; 4, filameuts 
and the minute hypogynous bristles ; 5, anther ; 6, ovary and style- branches ; 7, ripe nut. (All 
enlarged.) 



Plate 210. 




West.Newmam imp. 



CLADIUM COMPLANATUM, Berggr. 



Plate 210.— CLADIUM COMPLANATUM. 

Family CYPERACEiE.] [Genus CLADIUM, P. Browne. 

Cladium complanatum, Benjqr. in Miimesk. Fisioy. Sii.llsh. Lund (1877), 23, t. fi, f. 1-5 ; 
Cheeseui. Man. N.Z. Fl. 785. 

Dr. Sven Berggren, an accomplished Swedisli botanist who spent the years 
1874 and 1875 in investigating the botany of New Zealand, collected the subject 
of this plate during a visit paid to the North Auckland Peninsula, his specimens 
being obtained at Ohaeawai and Taheke, between the Bay of Islands and Hokianga. 
On his return to Sweden Dr. Berggren described the new Phanerogams which he 
had obtained in a memoir published in the " Minneskrift " of the University of 
Lund for 1877, including therein a plate and. excellent description of Cladium 
complanatum. The plant was not again seen until 1890 or thereabouts, when 
Mr. T. Kirk collected specimens at Puhipuhi, between Whangarei and the Bay of 
Islands. Lastly, in 1898 Mr. H. Carse discovered an excellent locality for the species 
at Maungatapere, between Whangarei and the Northern Wairoa River. From the 
above it will be seen that the plant has a singularly restricted distribution, and 
has not yet been found outside the limits of the Bay of Islands and Whangarei 
Counties. 

Cladium complanatum belongs to the subgenus Baumea, which is chiefly 
separated from the rest of the genus by the spikelets having one or rarely two perfect 
flowers, and by the nut being sessile, tumid at the apex, and not narrowed into 
a cuspidate beak. It thus includes the greater number of the species, and is most 
plentiful in Australasia, Polynesia, and Malaya, although it extends northwards 
to India and southern China, and westwards to Mauritius. So far as I am aware, 
the section Baumea does not occur in South Africa or in any part of America. 

I was informed by the late Mr. C. B. Clarke that the nearest relative 
of C. complanatum is the New Caledonian C. Deplanchei, which comes very near 
to it indeed. It is perhaps worth mention that two New Zealand species — 
C. junceum and C. articulatum — actually occur in New Caledonia. 

Plate 210. Clndiioii complanatum, drawn from .sjieciiueus collected by Mr. H. Carse at Mau- 
ngatapere, Whangarei. Fig. 1, 2-flo\vered spikelet (x 6) ; 2, spikelet (x6); 3 and 4, outer glumes 
( X 6) ; 5, flower ( x 8) ; 6, anther (enlarged) ; 7, ovary and style- branches (enlarged) ; 8, ripe nut 
(x 4) ; U, seed with persistent filaments (x 5). 



Plate 211. 




West, Newman imp. 



CLADIUM SINCLAIRII , ffook.f. 



Pj.atk 211.— CLADIUM SINCLAlRll. 

Family CYPERACEiE.] [Genus CLADIUM, P. Browne. 

Cladium Sinclairii, Ilvok. j. Haiidh. N.Z. Fl. 305 ; Cheese.m. Man. N.Z. Fl. 785. 

The discovery of this handsome plant is due to Banks and Solander, who 
collected it at Tolaga Bay in October, 1769, during Cook's first visit to New Zealand. 
It does not seem to have been observed again until Mr. Colenso gathered it in the 
early "forties " at the Bay of Islands, and in 1846 in Hawke's Bay. Shortly after- 
wards it was collected near Auckland by Dr. Sinclair, and at Mercury Bay by 
Mr. JolifEe. It is now known to be abundant in the northern portion of the North 
Island, from the North Cape to the Thames Valley ; and from thence more sparingly 
southwards to the East Cape and Hawke's Bay on the eastern side of the Island, and 
to the Wanganui River on the west. Its altitudinal range is from sea-level to 
•2,000 ft. 

C. Sinclairii is usually found on the faces of damp cUffs, either by the sea or 
along the banks of rivers ; but it is also frequently seen in damp places in Leptos- 
permum scrub. It forms large clumps often several feet in diameter, and frequently 
attains a height of 5 ft. or even more. The broad and flat deep-green equitant leaves 
give the plant a very striking ajjpearance, and we can readily agree with Dr. Solander, 
who in his original discription stated that in the absence of flowers it could be easily 
taken for an iris or gladiolus. The large excessively branched nodding panicles, 
with their innumerable rich dark red-brown velvety spikelets, are really very 
handsome, and it is somewhat surprising that the plant has not found its way into 
cultivation. 

G. Sinclairii falls into the section Vincentia of the genus Cladium, which is 
mainly distinguished by the stipitate triquetrous nut, which is narrowed both to 
the base and apex (see fig. 5 in the accompanying plate). In addition to the New 
Zealand plant, the section includes eight other species, of which three are found 
in South America, one of them extending to Mauritius as well, one in Juan Fernandez, 
two in Polynesia, one in Lord Howe Island, and one in Sumatra. 

It should be mentioned that in C. Sinclairii the filaments are persistent, and 
elongate greatly during the ripening of the fruit, to the base of which they are 
usually attached. When the nut drops from the glumes it often remains swinging 
by the entangled filaments, exactly as in Gahnia (see the following plate, and 
fig. 6 of the present one). 

Plate 211. Cladium SmdairU, drawn from specimens collected in the vicinity of Auckland. 
Fig. 1, small portion of inflorescence ; 2, a single spikelet ; 3, a single flower with its glume ; 4, anther ; 
5, ovary with style and style-branches ; 6, ripe nut swinging from the spikelet by the entangled 
persistent filaments (all enlarged) ; 7, a single culm, with leaves and inflorescence (reduced to one- 
third natural size) 



Plate 212. 




West, Newman imp. 



GAHNIA PROCERA, i^o/^^i. 



Plate 212.— GAHNIA PROCERA. 

Family CYPERACE^.] [Genus GAHNIA, Forst. 

Gahnia procera, Forst. Char. Gen. 52 : Hook. /. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 306 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 794. 

This very distinct species was discovered by the two Forsters in Dusky Sound 
in 1773 during Cook's second voyage to New Zealand. After the return of the 
expedition to Enghind the Forsters described the plant in their " Cliaracteres Gene- 
rum " as the type of a new genus, under the name of Gahnia procera ; and it appeared 
under the same title in George Forster's subsequently issued " Prodromus." The 
descriptions given in both these works are vague and incomplete ; but a much fuller 
account of the plant is quoted from Forster's manuscripts in A. Richard's " Flore." 
For a considerable period no further information was obtained ; but between the 
years 1848-51 it was gathered at Port Preservation by Lyall ; and in 1864. or there- 
abouts, it was obtained by Mr. Buchanan in the south-west of Otago. Since then it 
has been proved to have a wide range in the western and southern portions of the 
South Island, from the Karamea River to the Sounds of the south-west coast of 
Otago, and from thence to the Bluif and Stewart Island. It is usually found in open 
forests, and ascends to an altitude of 2,500 ft. 

Gahnia procera is one of the most strongly marked species of the genus, and 
can be distinguished at a glance by the stout moderately tall culms, large purplish- 
black leaf -sheaths and spikelets, long empty glumes, and large red -brown nut. As 
in all the New Zealand species, the filaments elongate to an extraordinary extent 
after the fall of the pollen, and ultimately reach the length of from 1 in. to 2 in., or 
many times the length of the flowering-glumes. In most instances they remain 
attached to the base of the nut when it drops from the flower, and as the other end 
of the filament is usually entangled with the glumes or with the filaments of other 
flowers, the nut remains swinging by the filaments but otherwise quite free from 
the spikelet (see fig. 6 of the accompanying plate). The nut of G. procera is remark- 
able for its stony hardness, and for being transversely grooved within. As the seed 
completely fills the cavity of the nut, it presents the appearance, when withdrawn 
from the nut, of being surrounded by conspicuous elevated ridges or laminse (see 
figs. 7 to 10). 

The genus Gahnia comprises about thirty species. Of these, tliirteen or four- 
teen are known from Australia ; eight from New Zealand ; six or eight from 
Polynesia, from New Caledonia to the Fiji Islands, Taliiti, and the Sandwich 
Islands ; and one species extends as far north as Malaya. 

Plate •212. Gahnia procera, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. Towusoii in the vicinity of 
Westport. Fig. 1, spikelet (x2); 2, third glume (enlarged); 3, fourth or inner glume and style- 
branches, also the lower part of the filaments ( x 4) ; 4, anther (enlarged) ; 5, ovary and style-branches 
(enlarged) ; 6, ripe nut swinging from the spikelet by the entangled filaments (x 2) ; 7, section of nut ; 
8, the same with tlie seed removed ; 9, seed ; 10, section of seed ; 11, embryo. (All enlarged.) 



PlAte 213. 




WesL.NewmaJi imp 



UNCINIA CAESPITOSA, ^oozfz^. 



Plate 213.— UNCINIA C^SPITOSA. 

Family CYPERACE^.] [Genus UNCINIA, Pers. 

Uncinia caspitosa, Boott in Hook. j. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 287 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 801. 

Uncinia cwspitosa was gathered by Mr. Colenso in several localities in the middle 
and southern portions of the North Island during the years 1845 to 1850, as the 
Ruahine Range, the Wairarapa Valley, and Port Nicholson. I am not aware that 
it was observed by any other botanist until 1869, when Mr. Kirk collected it at the 
Thames goldfields. In 1871 I obtained it on the Waitakarei Ranges, and in sub- 
sequent years in other localities north of Auckland. The first record of its occur- 
rence in the South Island is that of Mr. A. Hamilton, who in 1877 collected it in the 
vicinity of Okarito, in southern Westland ; but it was soon found in other districts. 
Its range in the Dominion is now known to extend from Hokianga in the north to 
Stewart Island in the south ; but it is rare and local to the north of Lake Taupo. 
In the South Island it is common in montane districts, especially where wooded ; 
and it ascends to an elevation of at least 3,000 ft. 

As a species U. cwsfitosa is nearest to U. purpurata, from which it principally 
differs in the acuminate glumes, which but sUghtly exceed the utricles in length ; 
whereas in U. purpurata the glumes are obtuse, and are usually much shorter than 
the utricles. U. ccespitosa has often been confounded with small and slender states 
of U. australis ; but all such can be distinguished by the much longer spikelets and 
more brightly coloured glumes, to say nothing of other differences. 

The geographical distribution of Uncinia is interesting. Of the twenty-four 
species admitted by Kukenthal in his recent revision of the genus (" Das Pflanzen- 
reich," heft 38), thirteen are found in New Zealand. But one of these extends to 
Kerguelen Island, another to the Sandwich Islands, and a third to South America, 
while three stretch to Tasmania or Australia, one of them also advancing as far north 
as New Guinea. South America has twelve species, one of wliich is found as far north 
as Mexico and the West Indies, another occurs in the Falkland Islands and Tristan 
d'Acunha, and a third, as already mentioned, reaches New Zealand. The New 
Zealand species all belong to the section Stenandrm, in which the filaments are fiU- 
form ; but half of the American species constitute the section Platyandrce, which 
has the filaments linear and flattened. 

Plate 213. Uncinia cxvs-pitosa, drawn from specimens collected on the Mount Arthur Plateau, 
Nelson, at an elevation of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, glume of male flower (enlarged) ; 2, stamens (enlarged) ; 
3, glume of female flower (enlarged) ; 4, female flower (x 4) ; 5, utricle (x .5) ; 6, section of utricle 
(x 5) ; 7, nut and bristle (x 5). 




West, "Newman imp. 



CAREX TRACHYCARPA, Cheesem. 



Platk 2U.— CAREX TRACHYCARPA. 

Family CYPERACE^.] [Genus CAREX, Linn. 

Carex trachycarpa, ('heaseiii. in Tnni.s. X.Z. IihsL xxiv (1892), tlii ; Checsem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 812. 

Garex trachycarpa was first observed by myself in January, 1882, on the 
northern face of Mount Owen, Nelson, which I reached by following to its source 
the Rolling River, the chief tributary of the Wangapeka. It was gathered in damp 
places near the junction of the granitic rocks with the limestone which forms the 
greater portion of Moimt Owen, but did not appear to be at all plentiful. All 
my specimens were in an immature state, and in that condition presented such 
a close general resemblance to the northern C. muricata that I at first referred it 
to that species. In 1886, however, I gathered fully mature examples on Mount 
Arthur, when the distinctness of the two plants became perfectly obvious. 
Mr. Townson, in his exploration of the western portion of the Nelson Provincial 
District, gathered the plant on Mount Lyell and Mount Mantell, and also on Mount 
Faraday, one of the chief peaks of the Paparoa Range, so that it evidently has a 
tolerably wide distribution on the v.estern side of the South Island. So far it does 
not seem to have been gathered by any other botanists. Its altitudinal range is 
from 3,000 ft. to well over 4.500 ft. 

As a species C. trachycarpa is more nearly allied to some of the larger forms 
of C. Kirkii than to any other New Zealand species of the genus. But C. Kirkii 
is much smaller and much more slender, the leaves are almost filiform, and the 
utricles are longer and narrower, with a much longer beak. In both species they 
are strongly nerved, and minutely paj^illose all over. Kukenthal, in his recent 
revision of the genus, places C. trachycarpa in the section Bracteosw, while C. Kirkii 
and its allies are included in the subsection Australis of the section ArenaricB. But 
to my mind the two species should be placed in close juxtaposition. This was also 
the opinion of the late Mr. C. B. Clarke, as shown by his enumeration of the species 
printed in the Kew Bulletin (" Additional Series," viii, 139). 

Plate' 214. Carex trachycarpa, drawn from specimens collected on the Mount Arthur Plateau, 
Nelson, at an altitude of 4,500 ft. Fig. 1, male and female flowers (x 6) ; 2, male flowers (x6): 
3, glume of female flower (x 6) ; 4, utricle (x 8) ; 5, longitudinal section of utricle (x 8). 



PlAte 215 




West.KewmaJi imp. 



CAREX RAOULII, Boott. 



Pi.Aii: 215. CAREX KAOULII. 

Family ('Y1'EKACK^.| [Uexus CAREX. Linn. 

Carex Raoulii, Boull in Hook. j. Fl. Nor. Ze\. i, 283 ; Chaemm. Man. N.Z. Fl. 821. 

Dr. M. E. Raoul, the talented naturalist attached to the French frigate 
" L'Aube," was the first to collect the subject of this plate. " L'Aube " was 
stationed at Akaroa to watch over the fortunes of the infant French colony which 
it was hoped to found there, and during her stay of more than two years Raoul 
was able to make an extensive collection of the plants of the district, amongst which 
was the species now known as Carex Raoulii. Raoul does not appear to have 
recognized its specific distinctness, for no mention is made of it in his " Choix des 
Plantes de la Nouvelle Zelande," published in 1846 ; and it was first described by 
Boott in 18.53 in Hooker's " Flora Novae Zelandise." In 1861 Dr. Sinclair and Sir 
Julius von Haast collected it in the Rangitata Valley, Canterbury ; and shortly 
afterwards it was gathered near Lake Wanaka, Otago, by Mr. J. Buchanan. During 
the years 1881 to 1886 I found it not uncommon in many localities in the Nelson 
Provincial District ; and it is now known to extend throughout the whole length 
of the South Island, although I have seen no specimens collected on the western 
side of the Southern Alps. Its altitudinal range is from 200 ft. to 3,000 ft. 

Carex Raoulii is one of the most distinct species of the genus found in New 
Zealand, and can always be recognized at a glance. Its distinguishing characters 
are the loose and open habit of growth, the comparatively broad and coarse flat 
leaves, the terminal spikelet always partly female, and the elliptical strongly nerved 
and serrate utricles. Mr. C. B. Clarke informs me that Raoul's original specimens 
all have the utricles hairy on the upper half, as figured in this plate, but I have 
not myself seen specimens showing this peculiarity. 

C. Raoulii has no very close allies, but, on the whole, is best placed in 
the neighbourhood of C. dipsacea, C. testacea, and C. Wakatipu, which agree with 
it in the oval or elliptic unequally biconvex utricle, with an obviously 2-toothed 
beak ; and in the two stigmas. None of these plants, however, has the peculiar 
habit of C. Raoulii, or has its terminal spikelet composed of both male and female 
flowers. 

Plate 215. Carex Raoulii, drawa from specimens collected by the Graham River, Nelson. Fig. 1, 
a spikelet, female flowers above, male below (x 2) ; 2, glume of male flower (x 8) ; 3, stamen (x 8) ; 
i, glume oi female flower (x 8) , 5, utricle (x 8) ; 6, section of same, showing nut (x 8) ; 7, ripe uut 
removed from the utricle (x 10). 



PUte 216. 




West, Newman imp. 



CAREX DE C URTATA , Cheeserrb . 



Plate 216.— CAREX DECURTATA. 

Family CYPERACE^.] ^G^^^, CAREX, Linn. 

Carex decurtata, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiv (1892), 414 ; Chee.sem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 827. 

Carex decurtata was originally discovered by myself in January 1883 erowing 
on the dned-up margins of pools near Lake Tekapo, South Canterbury, at an altitude 
ot about 2,500 ft. I first described it under the name of C. cryptocarpa, from the 
tact that the leaves at all tunes considerably overtop and thus conceal the culms 
even when the latter are m fruit, but the name had been preoccupied by an Arctic 
species, and had to be abandoned. In 1897 I again gathered it in the same locality 
hnding It not uncommon all round the southern end of Lake Tekapo, and stretching 
along the western side of the lake, in low-lying places, as far as the valley of the 
Cass River. So far as I am aware, it has not been found in any other district. 

_ C. decurtata belongs to a singular group of small-sized species, seldom more then 
4 m. or 5 in. in height, in which the culms are concealed by the leaves, the spikelets 
being sessile and approximate at the tops of the culms. Two of the species 
(C. cirrhosa and C. ruhicunda) have two stigmas and a more or less plano-convex 
utricle ; while four others (C Berggreni C Hectori, C. uncifolia, and C. decurtata) 
have three stigmas and a trigonous utricle. Of these, G. Berggreni is the most 
interesting, on account of the flat leaves with remarkable obtuse tips. The whole 
group is confined to New Zealand, and has no near allies in any other country. 

C. decurtata is usually of a very peculiar glaucous green, and forms very' dense 
low tussocks, often of considerable diameter. These tussocks often die out in the 
centre in old age, leaving a hollow ring which grows on vigorously, thus presenting 
a decidedly curious appearance. 

Plate 216. Carex deon-tata, drawn from specimens collected near Lake Tekapo, South Canter- 
bury, at an altitude of 2,500 ft. Fig. 1, male and female spikelets (x 2) ; 2, glume from male flower 
and stamens (x 6) ; .3, anther (x 10) ; 4 and 5, glumes from female flowers (x 6) ; 6 utricle (face 
incorrectly represented as concave) (x 6) ; 7, section of utricle, showing nut (x 10) ; 8, nut (x 10) 



Plate 217. 




M. Smith del. 
J.N.Fitch lith. 



"West. Newman imp. 



CAREX LITOROSA, Bailey. 



Pj.ATE 217.— CAREX LITOROSA. 

Family CYPERACE^.] [Genus CAREX, Linn. 

Carex litorosa, Bailey ui Memoirs Torrey Club (1889), 72 ; Gheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 830. 

Carex litorosa appears to have been first collected by the late Mr. T. Kirk at 
the Onehunga Springs, close to the shore of the Manukau Harbour, where it grows 
in company with Mimulus repens and other brackish-water plants. It was shortly 
afterwards observed by myself in salt marshes at Whangarei, Kaipara, Thames, 
and Tauranga ; and by Mr. Petrie at Port Chalmers and on Stewart Island. It 
has since been found by many collectors on various portions of the coast-line, and 
is now known to be an abundant plant in brackish-water swamps from Whangarei 
and the Kaipara Harbour southwards to Stewart Island. It was first published 
by Mr. Petrie as C. littoralis ; but as tliat name had already been used for a North 
American plant, Mr. L. H. Bailey suggested that of C. litorosa in its place. 

As to its relationships, C. litorosa is closely allied to the Stewart Island 
G. longiculmis, also a brackish-water plant. But that species is much taller and 
stouter, with flatter leaves quite twice the breadth of those of C. litorosa, and the 
spikelets are much larger and stouter. In fact, C. longiculmis is conspicuously 
larger in all its parts. C. comans is also related to it, but is smaller and much more 
slender, and the habit is not nearly so strict. The utricles are also narrower, 
almost piano - convex, and the margins are sharply serrate above, whereas they 
are smooth in C. litorosa. 

Plate 217. Carex litorosa, drawn from specimens gathered at Onehxmga, near Auckland. Fig. 1, 
male and female spikelets (x 2) ; 2, tip of bract (x 2) ; 3, male flower and its glume (x 8) ; 4, anther 
(x 12) ; 5, female flower (utricle) and its glume (x 8) ; 6, glume from female flower (x 8) ; 7, longi- 
tudinal section of utricle, showmg nut ( x 8) ; 8, cross-section near tip of utricle, showing the thickened 
wall (enlarged). 



Plate 218. 




Weat.Kewman imp. 



IMPERATA CHEESEMANII, Hackel. 



Plate 218.— IMPERATA CHEESEMANIl. 

Family GRAMINBiE.] [Genus IMPERATA, Cyr. 

Imperata Cheesemanii, Hack, in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903), 378 ; Cheesein. Man. N.Z. Ft. 843. 

This liandsome grass was first discovered by myself in August, 1887, on Raoul 
or Sunday Island, the chief island of the Kermadec Group. At the time of my 
visit it was abundant, especially on clif?s and steep slopes on the northern side of 
the island. Mr. R. B. Oliver, who spent the greater portion of 1908 on Sunday 
Island for the purpose of examining its vegetation, also found it not uncommon. 
He records it from talus slopes on the cliffs and on the slopes leading down to the 
central crater, from sand-dunes (where it grows intermixed with Ifomcea hiloba), 
and from the gravel-flat in Denham Bay. I suspect, however, that with Imperata, 
as with several other Kermadec Islands plants, the great increase in the number 
of goats has reduced the area of distribution of the plant since the time of my visit. 

In my account of the " Flora of the Kermadec Islands " (Trans. N.Z. Inst. 
XX (1888), 175) I referred the species to the widely distributed /. arundinacea, Cvr. 
This, however, was a mistake, as was first pointed out by Professor Hackel, who 
described it under its present name. He remarks that it is much nearer to 
Z. exaltata, Brong., the typical form of which ranges from the Philippine Islands and 
the Malay Archipelago to the New Hebrides, and which in a slightly different form 
(var. caudata) stretches from Mexico and the West Indies to Argentina. Our plant 
is much smaller in all its parts. 

The genus Imperata is widely distributed in the tropical regions of both 
hemispheres, but the number of species probably does not exceed six or seven. 
/. arundinacea, which is the best-known member of the genus, has been collected 
near Kaitaia by the late Mr. R. H. Matthews, but there is a suspicion that 
it is naturalized only. 

Plate 218. Imperata Cheesemanii, drawn from specimens collected on seaclifis on Sunday, or 
Raoul, Island. Fig. 1, tip of leaf (enlarged) ; 2, ligule (enlarged) ; 3, two spikelets (x 8) ; 4, outer 
glume ; 5, same seen from the front ; 6, second glume ; 7, the same seen from the front ; 8, third glume ; 
9, palea ; 10, flovsering-glume (all enlarged) ; 11, ovary, style, and stamen removed from the spikelet 
(xlO). 



PUte 219. 




West,, Newman imp. 



EHRHARTA COLENSOI, Hook.f. 



Plate 219.— EHRHARTA COLENSOL 

Family GRAMINE^.] [Genus EHRHARTA, Thunb. 

Ehrharta Colensoi, Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 288 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 851. 

Ehrharta Colensoi was origiually discovered by Mr. Colenso in his first journey 
to the Ruahine Range, in February, 1845, when he found it growing in " cushion- 
like patches, or large tufts, scattered here and there," on the crest of the range. 
For many years very little attention was paid to the New Zealand grasses, and it 
was not until 1875 that the plant was again seen, when it was collected on the 
Tararua Mountains by Mr. H. H. Tr-avers. In 1880 I observed it on the mountains 
above Arthur's Pass, Canterbury ; and in tlie same year it was detected on Mount 
Arthur, Nelson, by Mr. McKay. It is now known to be fairly plentiful in mountain 
districts from the Ruahine Mountains to Lake Te Anau. Its altitudinal range 
is from 3,000 ft. to 5,500 ft. 

The genus Ehrharta has two species in New Zealand ; the second one 
[E. Thomsoni) being a much smaller plant than E. Colensoi, with a more southern 
distribution, its range extending from Mount Rochfort, near Westport, to the south- 
west of Otago, Stewart Island, and the Auckland Islands. Outside New Zealand, 
there are twenty-five species in South Africa, Arabia, and the Mauritius. Two of 
the African species have become natui-alized in Australia, and one in India. The 
genus is very close to the Australian and New Zealand Microlcena ; in fact, the 
two New Zealand species appear to me to be nearer to Microlcena than Ehrharta. 
Ehrharta usually has six stamens, but both E. Colensoi and E. Thomsoni have two 
only. In Microlcena the number of stamens is either two or four. 

Plate 219. Ehrharta Colensoi, drawn from specimens collected on the Momit Arthur Plateau, 
Nelson, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf ; 2, tip of leaf ; 3, spikelet ; 4, 5, and 6, the 
three lower glumes of the spikelet ; 7, upper or fourth glume, fiow.-ring-glume. and palea ; 8, upper 
glume seen separately ; 9, flowermg-glume ; 10, palea ; 11, lodicules ; 12, stamens, with ovaiy and 
styles ; 13, seed. (A.11 enlarged.) 




HIEROCHLOE ERASE RI, ^<?o^. / 



Plate 220.— HIEROCHLOE FRASERl. 

Family GRAMINE.E.] [Genus HIEROCHLOE, Gmel. 

Hierochloe Fraseri, Hook. j. Fl. Anlarct. i, 95 ; Oheenciit. Man. N.Z. Fl. 855. 

The first specimens of this handsome grass collected in New Zealand were 
obtained by Mr. Colenso during his first journey to the Ruahine Mountains in 1845. 
A few years later it was gathered by Sir D. Monro on the Nelson mountains ; and 
further research has shown that it is a common species in subalpine districts from 
the East Cape and Tongariro southwards to Stewart Island. In fact, there are few 
subalpine meadows in New Zealand where it is not an abundant and conspicuous 
species. In the North Island I have not seen it at a lower elevation than 2,500 ft., 
but it comes down to sea-level in the south of Otago and in Stewart Island. It 
has not yet been recorded from the Auckland or Campbell Islands, but I cannot 
doubt that it will eventually be found thereon. It also exists in mountain districts 
in Tasmania. 

There has been much misconception respecting the systematic position of 
H. Fraseri. Sir J. D. Hooker originally accepted it as a distinct species, but in the 
" Flora " he referred it to the Arctic H. horealis, and in the " Handbook " to 
H. alfina. Mr. Bentham, in the " Flora Australiensis," treated it as a variety 
of H. redolens, and no doubt the two species are more or less connected by inter- 
mediate forms. In the Manual I have followed Professor Hackel in keeping it as a 
separate species, confined to the Southern Hemisphere. 

H. Fraseri must be of some economic importance in the higher sheep-pastures 
of the South Island, although most runholders that I have spoken to on the subject 
say that it is not particularly relished by either sheep or cattle. I am inclined to 
think that it is not without value on wet peaty moorlands, on which there is often 
a difficulty in establishing imported grasses. 

Plate 220. Hierochloe Fraseri, drawn from specimens collected on the Momit Arthur Plateau, 
Nelson, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. ], ligule ; 2, spikelet ; 3 and 4, outer glumes ; 5, flowering- 
glume and palea ; 6, flowering-glume ; 7, palea ; 8, lodicules ; 9, stamen ; 10, ovary and styles ; 11 and 
12, palea of female flower ; 13, ovary and styles ; 14, terminal flower. (All enlarged.) 



PUte 221. 




SIMPLICIA LAXA, T.Rirk. 



Pj.ate 221.— SIMPLICIA LAXA. 

Family GRAMINBiE.] [Genus SIMPLICIA, T. Kirk. 

Simplicia laxa, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst xxix (1897), 197 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 861. 

The monotypic genus Simplicia possesses considerable interest to New Zealand 
botanists, on account of being the only genus of grasses that is peculiar to New- 
Zealand. It was one of the many discoveries of the late Mr. T. Kirk, and was first 
collected by him at the Dry River Station, Ruamahanga, Lower Wairarapa, in 
January, 1880. Shortly afterwards it was observed by Mr. Petrie at Waikouaiti 
and Deep Stream, Otago. No further localities have been discovered ; but it must 
be borne in miiid that the species is an inconspicuous one, which could liardly be 
recognized except in the short flowering season, and which even then could be 
easily overlooked. In all probability a special search would reveal several fresh 
stations for it. 

Simflicia is a somewhat isolated genus. Mr. Kirk, in describing it, quoted an 
opinion of Dr. Stapf's to the effect that it was pretty close to certain species of the 
North American genus Muhlenbergia, principally differing in the presence of a 
minutely produced rhachilla. Professor Hackel, who has done me the favour of 
examining a series of specimens, is inclined to the belief that it is intermediate 
between Sporobolus and Agrostis. It agrees with the first in the proportions of the 
outer glumes, but differs in the presence of the rhachilla ; and, on the whole, is 
nearest to the section Chcetotropis of Agrostis, which is often kept as a distinct genus. 

In the Manual I have described the number of stamens as one or two. I find, 
however, that it not infrequently has the full number of three, as shown in fig. 7 
of the accompanying plate. 

Plate 221. Simplicia laxa, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. Petrie at Waikouaiti, Otago. 
Fig. 1, ligule of leaf ; 2, spikelet ; 3 and 4, empty glumes ; 5, flowering-glume and palea ; 6, lodicules ; 
7, stamens, ovary, and styles. (All enlarged.) 



PUte 222. 




AGROSTIS DYERI, Fetrie. 



Weat, Newman imp. 



Plate 222.— AGROSTIS DYERI. 

Family GRAMINEvE.] [Genus AGROSTIS, Lixx. 

Agrostis Dyeri, Petrie in Trans. N .Z. Inst, xxii (1890), 141 ; Cheesem. Man. A'.Z. Fl. 864. 
A. canina, Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 296 {not. of Linn.). 

Dr. LyuU, the coadjutor of Sir J. D. Hooker in tiie botanictil exploration of tlie 
Auckland and Campbell Islands, and a diligent explorer of the botany of the south- 
western and southern coasts of the Soutli Island of New Zealand, appears to have 
been the first to collect this grass, having obtained specimens in Milford Sound. 
Sir Julius von Haast and Dr. Sinclair gathered it on the Southern Alps in 1861, and 
from that time onwards it has been noticed by every botanist who has examined 
the vegetation of the mountain districts of both the North and South Islands. From 
the East Cape, Tongariro, and Mount Egmont southwards to Stewart Island it is of 
universal occurrence on the high-lying meadows above the level of the bush-line, 
and often constitutes a considerable proportion of the subalpine vegetation. It is 
most abundant at elevations between 2,500 ft. and 4,000 ft., but ascends to fully 
5,000 ft., and descends to low levels in Southland and Stewart Island. 

Sir J. D. Hooker, in both the "Flora " and the "Handbook," referred our plant 
to the northern A. canina, and it was not until 1890 that it was first separated as 
a species by Mr. Petrie. I am much indebted to Professor Hackel for undertaking 
the examination of a large series of specimens from various portions of the 
Dominion, and for a very complete report thereon, in which he points out how the 
species differs from A. canina. For a synopsis of this the reader should refer to my 
" Manual of the New Zealand Flora." 

Although A. Dyeri is not a grass of the first quality, it is nevertheless of con- 
siderable economic importance on many of the sheep-pastures of the South Island. 
Like most of the Bent grasses, its foliage is short and somewhat sparse, and its total 
bulk of herbage comparatively small. But stock appear to like it, and it deserves 
to be experimented with in high cool localities. 

Plate 222. Agrostis Dyeri, drawn from specimens collected on the Mount Arthur Plateau, Nelson, 
at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, tip of leaf ; 2, ligule of leaf (both enlarged) ; 3, small portion of 
inflorescence (x6); 4 and 5, two outer glumes (xlO); 6, flowering-glume (xlO); 7, flower, with 
lodicules, stamens, ovary, and styles (x 15) ; 8, ovary (x 12). 



PUte 223. 




DEYEUXIA BILLARDIERI, K^j-nth. 



Plate 223.— DEYEUXIA BILLARDIERI. 

Family GRAMINEJ:.] [Genus DEYEUXIA, Clariox. 

Deyeuxia Billardieri, Kunth. Rev. Gram, i, 77 ; Hook. j. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 298 ; Cheesem. Man. 
N.Z. Fl. 869. 

Deyeuxia Billardieri was originally collected by Banks and Solander during 
Cook's first voyage, and is recorded in Dr. Solander's manuscript Flora from every 
locality in which Cook actually lauded. This is not altogether surprising ; for it is 
purely a coastal plant, found on sand-dunes, in brackish-water marshes, and on 
seacliffs, and would be certainly observed by a party of naturalists whose 
explorations would seldom extend far from the shore, and who in landing from 
their vessel and in rejoining their boat at night must necessarily spend a consider- 
able time on the actual shore. And, as with many other plants, it cannot be 
doubted that it would be more abundant before the introduction of domestic 
animals than now. All subsequent botanists have observed it, and it can be 
roundly stated to be generally distributed in coastal localities from the Three Kings 
Islands and the North Cape to Stewart Island. It has also been recorded from the 
Chatham Islands, and in Australia ranges from New South Wales to South 
Australia. 

Deyeuxia Billardieri is a handsome plant, and is well worth cultivation in 
gardens, from the large size of its fully developed panicle, with its spreading branches 
and slender almost capillary pedicels. The spikelets, too, are often of a rich 
purplish-brown. The late Mr. Buchanan considered it to be a grass of considerable 
value for pasturage, and he also stated that some varieties are perennial. But 
all the states that I have examined have proved to be annual ; and although early 
in spring the plant produces a fair amount of short broad leaves which are evidently 
relished by cattle, such are of short duration, and perish early in sumnier. 

The nearest ally of D. Billardieri is undoubtedly the mucli more widely spread 
D. Forsteri, from which, however, it can be readily distinguished by the shorter and 
stouter habit, broader leaves, much larger spikelets, and by the flowering-glume 
being silky at the base only. 

Plate 223. Deyeuxia Billardieri, drawu from specimens collected ou the Little Barrier Island. 
Fig. 1, ligule of leaf (x2i); 2, spikelet (x6); 3 and i, outer glumes (xG); 5, flower, showing 
flowering-glume, palea, and" rhachilla (x 6) ; 6, dorsal view of flowering-glume (x 6) ; 7 and 8, palea 
(x 6) ; 9, lodicules (x 8) ; 10, anther (x 8) ; 11, ovary, with styles (x 8) ; 12, fruit (enlarged). 



Plate 224. 




DESCHAMPSIA TENELLA. Fetrie, 



Platk 224.— DESCHAMPSIA TENELLA. 

Family GRAMINEiE.] [Genus DESCHAMPSIA, Beauv. 

Deschampsia tenella, Peirle in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii (1891), 402 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 878. 

The genus Deschampsia is represented in New Zealand by seven species ; but 
of these, only one, the widely distributed D. ccespitosa, belongs to the typical 
division of the genus. All the rest form a group distinguished by the awn being 
nearly terminal and very small, or else entirely absent. Although best placed in 
Deschampsia they have relationships with Catahrosa, in which genus one of them 
was placed by Hooker, and with the South American Achneria. All the species 
constituting the group are confined to New Zealand, and have a pre-eminently 
montane and southern distribution. One is restricted to Macquarie Island, and two 
others extend as far south as the Auckland and Campbell Islands. 

Deschampsia tenella, the species figured in the accompanying plate, was 
originally discovered by Mr. Colenso on the summit of the Ruahine Range, during 
his first journey thereto in 1845. Sir J. D. Hooker, in the " Flora Novse Zelandi«," 
considered it to be identical with a species which he had gathered in Campbell 
Island, and which he had described in the " Flora Antarctica " under the name of 
Catahrosa antarctica, and this view was accepted by Mr. Buchanan in his work 
on the New Zealand grasses. Mr. H. H. Travers collected the same plant on the 
Tararua Mountains, and a little later it was observed by Mr. McKay on Mount 
Arthur. In 1890 specimens obtained by Mr. Petrie in the Catlins River district 
were critically examined by Mr. N. E. Brown, of the Kew Herbarium, and were 
referred by him to the genus Deschampsia, a view which is also adopted by Professor 
Hackel. 

Deschampsia tenella is probably not uncommon in mountain districts in both 
the North and South Islands, altliough its recorded habitats at the present time 
are but few. In the North Island it is not known below an altitude of 4,000 ft., 
but in the South Island it descends to sea-level near Dunedin. The Campbell 
Island plant with which it was united by Hooker is now known to be distinct, and 
bears the name of Deschampsia Chapmani. 

Plate 224. Deschampsia tenella, dvawn from specbuens collected by Mr. Petrie m the Catlins 
Elver district, southern Otago. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf (enlarged) ; 2, spikelet (x '.)) ; 3 and 4, outer 
glumes {x 9) ; 5, the two flowers of the spikelet (x 9) ; 6, flowering-glume of lower flower (x 12) ; 
7, flowering-glume of upper flower (x 12) ; 8, palea (x 12) ; 9, lodicules, stamens, and ovary (x 12) ; 
10, lodicules (more enlarged). 



Plate 225. 




West, Newman imp. 



TRISETUM YOUNGII, Hook.f. 



Plate 225.— TRISETUM YOUNGII. 

Family GRAMINE^.] [Genus TRISETUM, Pers. 

Trisetum Youngii, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 335 ; Gheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 881. 

Trisetum Youngii was one of the many discoveries made by Sir Julius von Haast 
during his exploration of the Southern Alps of Canterbury, and was first collected 
m the valley of the Macaulay, the chief tributary of the Godley River, flowing into 
Lake Tekapo. It was named in honour of Mr. William Young, Haast's chief topo- 
graphical assistant, who paid special attention to the grasses of the district visited. 
It was subsequently gathered by Mr. Armstrong in several other localities in the 
Southern Alps ; and about 1878 was collected by Mr. H. H. Travers on the Tararua 
Mountains, in the North Island. In 1881 I found it to be abundant on the Mount 
Arthur Plateau, Nelson ; and about the same time it was collected by Mr. Petrie 
in several localities in the west of the Otago Provincial District. The most northern 
station that I am acquainted with is at the western base of Ruapehu, where I 
observed it a few years ago. It is probably not uncommon in mountain districts 
from thence southwards as far as the south-west of Otago, but apparently has not 
been noticed in Stewart Island. 

The nearest ally of T. Youngii is undoubtedly T. antarcticum, some forms of 
which approach it very closely. But it is usually a taller and much more pilose 
plant, with a narrower and more compact panicle, and the glumes are broader. Of 
the four species of Trisetum found in New Zealand three are endemic ; the fourth 
[T. suhsficatum) is found in Tasmania and Fuegia, and in Arctic Europe, Asia, 
and America. 

Plate 225. Trisetum, Youngii, drawn from specimens collected ou the Momit Arthur Plateau, 
Nelson, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, tip of leaf (x 4) ; 2, ligule of leaf (x 4) : 3, spikelet (x 8) ; 
4 aad 5, outer glumes ( x 8) ; 6, the two flowers of the spikelet ( x 8) ; 7 and 8, two views of palea 
(x 8) ; 9, lodicules and ovary (x 8) ; 10, anther (x 8). 



PUte 226. 




DANTKONIA RAOULII, Ste-uudi. 



Plate 226.— DANTHONIA RAOULII. 

Family GRAMINEiE.] [Genus DANTHONIA, D.C. 

Danthonia Raoulii, Sleud. Syii. PI. Gram. 216 ; Hook. j. Hmidh. N.Z. Fl. 332 : Cheesem. Man. 
N.Z. Fl. 88G. 

As its name indicates, this well-known species was first collected by Raoul 
during his exploration of Banks Peninsula made in the years 1840 to 1843. On his 
return to Europe he described it under the name of Danthonia rigida, a title which 
was afterwards changed by Steudel to DantJionia Raoulii. In 1845 it was observed 
by Colenso on the Ruahine Range, and since then no explorer of upland districts 
in the southern half of the North Island and throughout the whole of the South 
Island has failed to notice the plant. Its northern limit appears to be on the 
summit of Mount Hikurangi, in the East Cape district ; but it is abundant on the 
central volcanic plateau of the North Island, and from thence southwards on the 
Kaimanawa, Ruahine, and Tararua Mountains. In the South Island it is common 
throughout, and it also reappears in Stewart Island. 

Danthonia Raoulii, including in the term the variety flavescens, which some 
botanists prefer to regard as a distinct species, is one of the largest of the so-called 
"tussock " grasses, and occupies immense tracts of elevated country in the mountain 
districts of both the North and South Islands. In the early days of colonization 
it was usually called " snow-grass," doubtless from the fact that it is often the 
dominant species in high-lying country, covered with snow in winter-time. It now 
more generally bears the name of " red-tussock," and certainly has a reddish tinge 
when observed at close quarters, although the general colour of a Danthonia Raoulii 
meadow when seen from a little distance is a dreary and monotonous brown. The 
so-called " tussocks " are often of great size, frequently from 3 ft. to 4 ft., and when 
growing close together, and laden with a multitude of large oat-like spikelets, 
present an appearance not at all unlike a field of waving grain. 

D. Raoulii must be regarded as possessing considerable economic importance. 
No doubt the foliage is hard, coarse, and stringy, and is avoided by stock when 
more tender and nutritious species are present. But the fact remains that it does 
produce herbage that can be eaten, especially when the young spring growth com- 
mences ; and that, in addition, it provides shelter for the smaller and finer grases. 
Danthonia Raoulii usually occupies country which is not at all likely to be converted 
into meadows of imported English grasses, and which, in point of fact, from its 
poor soil and bleak wind-swept character is hardly adapted for the support of a 
vegetation economically better than the original indigenous covering. It is much 
to be regretted that the injudicious practice of indiscriminate burning, now so largely 
followed, is gradually destroying a really useful plant, without supplying its place 
with anything of equal value. 

Plate 226. Danthonia Raoulii, drawn from specimens collected by the Broken River, Canter- 
bury Alps, at an elevation of 3,000 ft. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf (x 3) ; 2 and 3, portions of leaf,' showing 
Its involute character (x 6) ; 4, spikelet (x4); 5, flowering-glume with its twisted awn, and palea 
{x7); 6, palea (x 8); 7, lodicule ; 8, anther ; 9, ovary and styles. (All enlarged.) 



Plate 22. 




DANTHONIA AUSTRALIS, B^^ch. 



West, Newman imp. 



Plate 227.— DANTHONIA AUSTKALJS. 

Family GRAMINE^.] [Genus DANTHONIA, D.C. 

Danthonia australis, Duch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 31 ; Gheeseiii. Man. N.Z. Fl. 888. 

So far as I am aware, the first botanist to collect Danthonia australis was 
Mr. J. Buchanan, who obtained it on the Kaikoura Mountains in 1867. In 1871 it 
was observed by Mr. H. H. Travers on the mountains above Lake Guyon, in southern 
Nelson ; and in the same year was described by Mr. Buchanan "as a variety of 
D. Raoulii (Trans. N.Z. Inst, iv (1872), 224). Additional specimens and informa- 
tion soon convinced Mr. Buchanan that it was deserving of recognition as a distinct 
species, and it was accordingly published in his " Grasses of New Zealand " under 
the name it now bears. 

The most northern habitat that I am acquainted with for I), australis is the 
Mount Arthur Plateau, Nelson, where I gathered it many years ago. I have also 
observed it in many other localities in the Nelson Provincial District, as the Dun 
Mountain Range, Mount Owen, the mountains flanking the Wairau Valley, and 
those overlooking the Clarence and Waiau Valleys. Mr. Townson found it an 
abundant grass on the higher slopes of the Paparoa Range, to the south of the 
Buller River, and I have seen specimens gathered on the Hurunui Mountains, in 
North Canterbury. Probably it extends still further south on the Canterbury 
mountains. It is most abundant between 3,000 ft. and 4,500 ft. altitude, but 
ascends to quite 6,000 ft. in several localities in Nelson. 

In the Nelson mountains D. australis has received the local names of " carpet- 
grass " or " hassock-grass." It often covers large areas on the steep slopes of the 
mountains at altitudes above 4,000 ft., forming a close and dense covering of 
compacted stems and leaves, which usually all point downhill, especially after the 
melting of the snow in early summer. Hence it is not easy to cross these slopes 
without the chance of a slide or tumble. According to Mr. Buchanan, the lower 
parts of the stems and leaves, which are blanched and succulent, are much relished 
as food by rats. 

Plate 227. Danthonia australis, drawn from specimens collected on the Mount Arthur Plateau, 
Nelson, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, tip of leaf (x 4) ; 2, ligule of leaf (x 4) ; 3, spikelet (x 3) ; 
4, outer glume (x 4) ; 5, a single flower removed from the spikelet (x 4) ; 7 and 8, difierent views of 
palea (x 4) ; 9, lodicule (x 4) ; 10, anther (x 4) ; 11, ovary and styles (x 4). 



PUte 228. 




West.Nevrmar. imp. 



KOELERIA KURTZII, I{ax:keL. 



Plate 228.- KCELERIA KIJRTZII. 

Family GRAMINE^E.] [Genus KCELERIA, Pees. 

Kceleria Kurtzii, Hack, in Bolel. Acad. Sc. de Cordoba, xvi (1900). 261 ; Cheesem. Man N Z 

Fl. 897. ' ' ' 

Kceleria Kurtzii, whicli in this work is taken to include the whole of the Kceleriw 
found in New Zeahmd, was first gathered by Sir David Munro on the " Aglionby 
Plains, near Nelson," about 1851. As the" interior of the South Island and its 
vegetation became gradually known to Europeans Kceleria was found to have a 
fairly general distribution, and it has been recorded from most districts between 
Collingwood in the north and Foveaux Strait in the south. It has also been 
recorded by Mr. Buchanan from Miramar (near Wellington), but as it has not been 
collected by any other botanist I fear some mistake was made in the identification. 
At the same time, it is highly probable that it occurs at high elevations on the 
Tararua or other of the higher mountain-ranges of the North Island. In a similar 
manner, I can hardly doubt that it will ultimately be found in Stewart Island. It 
is mostly seen in hilly and mountainous localities, where it ascends to 4,500 ft. 
altitude, but it descends to sea-level in many stations. 

In the "Flora," and again in the "Handbook," Sir .J. D. Hooker referred the 
New Zealand forms to the northern A', cristata. But Professor Hackel, who did me 
the favour of examining a full series, has informed me that our plant differs from 
K. cristata in the minutely 2-toothed tip of the flowering-glume with a short awn 
on the back below the sinus, and that in K. cristata the flowering-glume is entire 
and not awned. Professor Hackel further identified our plant with the South 
American K. Kurtzii, informing me that Argentine specimens of that plant were 
" quite identical with the New Zealand ones." I therefore adopted Hackel's views 
in the Manual. In Dr. Domin's recent monograph of Kceleria (" Bibliotheca 
Botanica," heft 65) the New Zealand forms are considered to form three distinct 
endemic species, mainly distinguished by minute differences in the size and position 
of the terminal awn of the flowering-glume. These are characters which have 
always appeared to me to be trivial and inconstant. 

Kceleria Kurtzii is not without economic value, although its peld of herbage 
is comparatively small. It is readily eaten by both cattle and sheep. 

Plate 228. Kceleria Kurtzii, drawn from specimens collected in the Hooker Valley, Jlonnt Cook 
district, at an altitude of 2,500 ft. Fig. 1, tip of leaf (x 8) ; 2, li!,'ule of leaf (x 8) ; 3, spikelct (x 6) ; 
4, flower, without any awn (x 8) ; 5, flowering-glume (x 8) ; 6, palea (x 8) ; 7, spikelet, \vith awned 
flowers ( X 8) ; 8, flowering-glume from same ( x 8) ; 9, lodicules, stamens, and ovaiy ( x 8) ; 
10, lodicules and ovary more highly magnified (x20). 



PlsLte 229. 




West. Newman amp. 



POA POLYPHYLliA, Hackel. 



Plate 229.— POA POLYPHYLLA. 

Family GRAMINE^.] [Genus POA, Linn. 

Poa polyphylla, Hack, in Trans. ^.Z. hut. xxxv (1903), 383 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 903. 

Poa polyphylla was originally discovered by myself in the Kermadec Islands in 
August, 1887, during an expedition made for the purpose of annexing the group to 
the Colony of New Zealand. I then found it to be abundant on cliffs on both 
Sunday Island and Macaulay Island ; but my visit was made too early in the season 
to allow me to obtain good flowering specimens, although one or two old panicles 
of the previous year's growth enabled me to refer it to the genus Poa. For many 
years no additional specimens were obtained, but in 1900, during one of the 
periodical visits made to the group by the Government steamer " Hinemoa," Miss 
Shakespear obtained an excellent series, which she kindly placed at my disposal. 
From this material Professor Hackel was able to describe the species under the 
name already quoted. In 1908 Mr. W. R. B. Oliver spent ten months on Sunday 
Island for the purpose of examining its vegetation, and found the Poa to be abund- 
ant. He records it from " Coastal and inland rocks and cliffs, landslip (Denham 
Bay), Sunday Island ; cliffs, Macaulay Island " (Trans. N.Z. Inst. vol. xlii (1910), 163). 

According to my own observations in 1887, Poa polyphylla often forms a con- 
spicuous portion of the vegetation on cliffs and rocky slopes on the northern side 
of Sunday Island, the slender drooping foliage being everywhere in evidence. The 
stems are often much branched, and are remarkable for the number of leaves, which 
are usually more or less distichously arranged. As for the relationships of the species. 
Professor Hackel considers it to be an ally of P. anceps, from which, however, it 
totally differs in habit. In the Manual I have placed it next to P. ramosissima. 

Plate 229. Poa polyphylla, drawu from specimens collected on seacliffs on Simday Island, 
Kermadec Group. Fig. 1, tip of leaf (x 8) ; 2, ligule of leaf (x 8) ; 3, four-flowered spikelet (x 6) ; 
4 and 5, empty glumes (x8); 6, three-flowered spikelet, with the empty glumes removed (x8); 
7, palea (x 8) • 8, lodicules, stamens, and ovary (x 8) ; 9, lodicule more highly magnified (x 20). 




POA BIFS ACE A, Fetrie. 



Plate 230.— POA DIPSACEA. 

Family GRAMINE^.J [Genus POA, Linn. 

Poa dipsacea, Pelrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvi (1894), 271 ; Chee-sem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 906. 

Mr. D. Petrie, who in 1893 collected specimens of this handsome grass near the 
sources of the Broken River, in tlie Canterbury Alps, was the first to recognize its 
distinctness as a species, and to describe it under the name which it still bears. Ten 
years before, however, it had been gathered in the same district by Mr. T. Kirk 
and Mr. J. D. Enys, and a few years later by myself. I have also observed it in 
ravines on the Raglaii Mountains, Nelson ; and Mr. Townson has sent me specimens 
collected on Boundary Peak, the northern termination of the Brunner Range, Buller 
Valley. Dr. Cockayne has also observed it on the Craigieburn Mountains and else- 
where in the Canterbury Alps. Probably it is not uncommon in moist ravines in 
the central chain of the Southern Alps from the Wairau Gorge southwards to the 
middle or south of Canterbury. Its altitudinal range is from 3,000 ft. to 5,000 ft. 

P. dipsacea is usually found in crevices of rock by the sides of streams, or occa- 
sionally in wet gravel in similar localities, but in all cases in situations where it can 
obtain a constant supply of moisture with free drainage. In such places it often 
exhibits much luxuriance of growth, producing great masses of soft pale-green 
foliage. I am not aware that it possesses any economic value ; but it is rarely seen 
in sufficient quantity to be of much importance. 

As a species Poa dipsacea is closely allied to Berggren's Poa pusilla, from which, 
however, it is readily separated by the larger size, flatter leaves, much larger spike- 
lets, and by the much more acute flowering-glumes, which have more scabrid nerves. 
It should be remarked that Berggren's P. pusilla was founded on depauperated 
specimens, and that the usual state of the species is larger than that described and 
figured by him. 

Plate 230. Poa dipsacea, drawn from specimens collected by the Broken River, Canterbury 
Alps, at an elevation of 3,500 ft. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf (x 4) ; 2, spikelet (x 4) ; 3, outer glume (x 6) ; 
4, inner glume (x 6) ; 5, flowering-glume and palea (x 6) ; 6, flowering-glume (x 6) ; 7, palea ( x 6) ; 
8, lodicules and ovary (x 6) ; 9, a single lodicule more highly magnified (x 12) ; 10, anther (x 6). 



PLa.te 231. 




West.Newman imp. 



POA CHEESEMANII, Hackel. 



Plate 231.— POA CHEESEMANll. 

Family GRAMINE^.] [Genus POA, Linn. 

Poa Cheesemanii, Hack, m Trans. N .Z. Inst, xxxv (1903), 383 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 906. 

Poa Cheesemanii was first collected by myself in January, 1893, at Lake Tenny- 
son, a picturesque sheet of water concealed in the heart of the Spenser Mountains, 
and the source of the well-known Clarence River. At the time of ray visit a con- 
siderable stretch of peaty and boggy soil near the lower end of the lake had been 
temporarily protected from stock through the construction of a rabbit-fence, and 
was occupied by an abundant growth of indigenous grasses, amongst which Hiero- 
chloe Fraseri, Agrostis Dijeri, Koeleria Kurtzii, Poa Kirkii, and the present species 
were conspicuous. But I did not notice the plant in any other locality in the district ; 
and, so far as I am aware, it has not been found elsewhere on the eastern side of the 
central chain of the Southern Alps. Mr. Townson, however, has supplied me with 
specimens collected on the pakihi country to the south of Westport ; and I can 
entertain no doubt that with proper search it will be observed in other stations on 
the mountains of Nelson and North Canterbury. 

P. Cheesemanii was first distinguished as a species by Professor Hackel in 1903. 
He compared it with the abundant and widely distributed P. anceps ; remarking, 
however, that it can be separated from all the forms of that plant by its stoloniferous 
rhizome, the rhizome of P. anceps being invariably tufted. P. Cheesemanii also 
differs widely in habit and appearance, so that there is no fear of the two plants 
being confounded. 

The general aspect of P. Cheesemanii leads \o the belief that it may possess 
some value as a pasture-grass, but I have no evidence as to how far it is relished 
by stock. 

Plate 231. Poa Cheesemanii, drawn from specimens collected at Lake Tennyson, Nelson, at an 
altitude of .3,500 ft. Fig. 1, ligiile of leaf (x 4) ; 2, spikelet (x 4) ; 3, outer glume ( x 6) ; 4, inner 
glume (x 6) ; 5, flowering-glume and palea ( x 6) ; 6, terminal flower of spikelet (x 6) ; 7, flowering- 
glume (x 6); 8, palea (x6); 9, lodicules (xl2); 10, anther (x6); 11, ovary and styles (x 6); 
12, grain (x 6). 



Pia,te 232. 




POA KIRKII, Buch. 



Plate 232.— PO A KIRKII. 

Family GRAMINE^.] ^^j^^^^^ PO^^ Linn. 

Poa Kirkii, Buck. N.Z. Grasses, t. 51b ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Ft. 910. 

P. Kirkii is so widely distributed in upland districts that it must have come 
under the observation of the early runholders in the mountainous centre of the South 
Island ; but it does not seem to have been noticed by any botanist until 187.5 when 
It was collected by Mr. T. Kirk in the upper part of the Clarence Valley, in southern 
Nelson. Mr. Kirk gave it the MS. name of Poa purpurea, but published no descrip- 
tion ; so that Mr. Buchanan, when figuring tlie plant in his " Grasses of New Zealand," 
substituted the name under which it is now known. Attention once having been 
called to the plant, it was soon observed in many localities in both the North and 
South Islands, and is now known to be abundant "in subalpine localities from Mount 
Egmont and the Tararua Mountains southwards to Foveaux Strait. It has not 
yet been recorded from Stewart Island, but it probably exists thereon. It is most 
plentiful at altitudes between 3,000 ft. and 4,000 ft., but ascends to 5,000 ft., and 
descends to 2,000 ft., or perhaps lower. 

P. Kirkii is an exceedingly variable plant, and variable in tlie true sense of 
the term, the varieties being connected by a regular chain of intermediate forms. 
In the Manual I have included within its circumscription the P. Mackayi of Buchanan, 
and the P. Gollinsii of Kirk. The first of these differs in its taller and stouter habit[ 
broader leaves, larger spikelets, and in the flowering-glumes often having crisped 
hairs at the base, whereas they are usually glabrous in typical P. Kirkii. But all 
these characters are inconstant ; and on the Mount Arthur Plateau, Nelson, I was 
able to trace a regular series of passage forms from the typical state of P. Mackayi 
into that of P. Kirkii. P. Gollinsii recedes in its taller and more slender habit, 
fewer stem-leaves, and in the longer and laxer panicle ; but it, too, is connected 
by intermediate states. 

P. Kirkii is generally admitted to be a grass of considerable economic import- 
ance, and is readily eaten by stock of all kinds. It is probably well suited for sowing 
in cool upland localities, and should receive an extended trial in the experimental 
agricultural stations of the Dominion. 

Plate 232. Poa Kirkii, drawn from specimens collected on the Mount Arthur Plateau, Nelson, 
at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf ( x 4) ; 2, spikelet ( x 4) ; 3, outer glume ( x 6) ; 4, inner 
glume ( X 6) ; 5, flowering-glume and palea ( x 6) ; 6, terminal flower ( x 6) ; 7, lodicules, stamens, 
and ovary ( x 8). 



PUte 233. 




West.Newrnan imp. 



PESTUCA OVINA, var. NOVAE- ZEALANDIAE, HacLeL 



Plate 233.— FESTUCA OVINA, vak. NOV.E-ZEALANDlyE. 

Family GRAMINE^.] [Genus FESTUCA, Linn. 

Festuca ovina, Linn., var. nov;o-zealandia), Hack, in Trans. N.Z. hist, xxxv (1903), 381 ; 
Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 917. 

In the " Flora Novae Zelandiaj," and again in the " Handbook," Sir .J. D. Hook(;r 
united under the name of Festuca duriuscula all the New Zealand Festucce which 
partook of the characters of F. ovina, F. duriuscula, and F. rubra, and for manv 
years this view was followed by New Zealand botanists. In 1903, however, the 
well-known agrostologist, Professor E. Hackel, after a careful study of a large series 
of specimens, came to the conclusion that the true F. duriuscula did not exist in 
an indigenous state in New Zealand, and that the majority of Hooker's Festucce 
were referable to F. rubra. Two varieties, however, he placed under F. ovina, one 
of them being the subject of this plate. 

F. ovina differs from F. rubra in not possessing creeping stolons, in the 
innovation-shoots being intravaginal, and in the ligules being biauricled. The 
variety novce-zealandiw, figured herewith, is separated from the type by the peculiar 
tussocky habit, more scabrid leaves, and by the rather larger spikelets. Professor 
Hackel states that its nearest ally is the European variety Beckeri, which is unknown 
to me. 

My specimens of var. novw-zealandice were gathered many years ago on Mount 
Torlesse, in Canterbury, where it was not uncommon at an elevation of about 
3,000 ft. I have also seen it in the Clarence Valley, and I have specimens collected 
by Mr. Petrie in several localities in Central Otago. It is quite possible that it may 
have a wide range in mountain districts, for it is by no means easy to distinguish 
it, without close examination, from tussocky forms of F. rubra. 

PixiTE 233. Festuca ovina, var. novw-zealandicB, drawn from specimeu.s collected on Mount Torlesse, 
Canterbury, at an altitude of 3,000 ft. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf ( x 4) ; 2, spikclet (x4); 3, spikelet 
spread out { x 4) ; 4, outer glume ( x 6) ; 5, inner glume ( x 6) ; 6, flower { x 6) ; 7, flowering-glume 
( X 6) ; 8, palea ( x 6) ; 9, lodicules ( x 8) ; 10, anther ( x 8) ; 11, ovary and styles ( x 8). 



Plate 234. 




AGROPYRUM ARISTATUM, Cheese 



West, Newman imp 



Plate 234— AGROPYRUM ARISTATUM. 

Family GRAMINE^.] [Genus AGROPYRUM, Gaertn. 

Agropyrum aristatum, Cheesem. 

A. Enysii, T. Kirlc in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895), 352 ; Vheesem. 3Ia„. N.Z. Fl 922 

Asperella anstata, I'etrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvi (1894), 272. 

Tins curious species of Agropyrum was originally discovered by Mr. J. D. Enys 
in the Broken River district, Canterbury Alps, in the year 187?"; and specimens 
were communicated to Mr. T. Kirk and myself. A few years later Mr. N. Y. 
Carrmgton collected it in some locality in the Upper Waimakariri district, and 
about the same time Mr. Kirk gathered it in the Bealey Gorge. In 1883, under 
the guidance of Mr. Enys, I observed it on the western slopes of Mount Torlesse, 
and in 1893 Mr. Petrie collected it in the same district. Finally, Dr. Cockayne 
obtained specimens' in the valley of the Poulter River in 1898. All the above 
localities lie in the middle and upper part of the basin of the Waimakariri River, 
and up to the present time the plant has not been found outside that district. Its 
altitudinal range is between 2,500 ft. and 4,500 ft. 

Agropyrum aristatum was first published by Mr. D. Petrie as a species of 
Asperella. No doubt he was influenced by the great resemblance which the plant 
bears to Asperella gracilis, but in all essential characters the plant is a true 
Agropyrum. Recognizing this fact, Mr. Kirk removed it to that genus ; and, 
desiring to commemorate the botanical services of its discoverer, proposed that it 
should bear the name of Agropyrum Enysii. This name I adopted in the Manual ; 
but, the Vienna Conference having made it obligatory to use the earliest specific 
name, I am now compelled to revert to the designation first given by Mr. Petrie. 

Agropyrum aristatum is a very distinct species, not at all closely allied to any 
other. It differs from all the- other New Zealand representatives of the genus in 
the few-flowered spikelets, to say nothing of the flat membranous leaves and slender 
spike. It is much too scarce and local to have any economic value. 

Plate 234. Agropyruin aristatum, drawn from specimens collected near the Broken River, Canter- 
bury Alps. Fig. 1, ligule of leaf (x 3) ; 2, a pair of spikelets (x 3) ; 3, outer glume (x 5) ; 4, flower 
(x5); 5, flowering-glume (x5); 6, palea ( x 5) ; 7, lodicules, stamens, and ovary (x7); 8, single 
lodicule (x 10) ; 9, ovary and styles (x 10). 



FLa,te 235. 




A. HYMENOPHYLLUM ATROVIRENS, Col. 1-4 

B. HYMENOPHYLLUM MALINGII, Metten. 6-10. 



West, Newman imp 



Plate 235.— HYMENOPHYLLUM aTROVIRENS and 
HYMENOPHYLLUM MALINGII. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus HYMENOPHYLLUM, Linn. 

Hymenophyllum atrovirens, Col. in Tasm. Journ. Nat. Set. (1846) 186 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 
933. 



Hymenophyllum Malingii, Metten. ex Hook, and Bak. Syn. Fil. 66 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 

938. 
Trichomanes Malingii, Hook. Garden Ferns, t. 64 ; Hook. j. Handh. N.Z. Fl. 357. 

Hymenophyllum atrovirens was first discovered by Mr. Colenso in December, 
1841, growing " on rocks and stones, in low places and watercourses, in wet woods, 
shores of Waikare Lake," and was published by him in 1846 in the " Tasmanian 
Journal of Natural Science," vol. 2. Sir J. D. Hooker, in the " Flora," referred it to 
the well-known H. crispatum (now known as H. australe), an identification which 
was accepted by most botanists. In 1877, however, Mr. Kirk, who does not appear 
to have been acquainted with the true H. atrovirens, described a form of it with 
toothed involucres, collected on the mountains at the head of Lake Wakatipu by 
Mrs. Mason, as a distinct species under the name of H. montanum. In 1885 
Mr. J. Stewart, C.E., collected the typical state of H. atrovirens in deep ravines near 
Mamaku, on the Rotorua Railway ; and about the same time it was observed at 
Waimate North by Miss Clarke, and by myself at Whangarei. It has also been 
gathered by Mr. Kingsley in north-west Nelson. 

H. atrovirens differs from H. australe in the much smaller and narrower frond, 
with much fewer divisions ; in the flat (not crisped) wings of the stipes and rhachis ; 
and in the narrower segments and smaller narrower involucres. Mr. Kirk's 
H. montanum only differs in the toothed involucres, and has no claim to specific rank. 

Hymenophyllum Malingii is one of the most peculiar species of the genus, 
and can always be recognized by the pale-brown or reddish-brown stellate indu- 
mentum, which covers all the parts of the plant. It was first found by Mr. Maling 
on the mountains of north-west Nelson, but has since been gatliered in subalpine 
forests in various parts of the Dominion, between Te Aroha Mountain in the North 
Island and the south of Otago. It is nowhere more plentiful than in the wooded 
portions of the volcanic plateau to the west of Tongarii-o and Ruapehu, where it 
is chiefly found on the trunks of dead trees of Libocedrus Bidwillii. In the South 
Island it is also found on Phyllodadus alpinus and Podocarpus Hallii. 

Plate 235a. Hymenophyllum atrovirens, drawn from specimen.s collected by Mr. J. Stewart in 
deep wooded ravines near Mamaku, Eotorua Railway. Fig. 1, portion of frond (x5); 2, another 
portion with numerous involucres (x5); 3, indusium laid open (xlO); 4, two sporangia (greatly 
enlarged). 

Plate 235b. Hymenophyllum Malingii, drawn from specimens gathered in the Waimarino Forest ; 
altitude 2,500 ft. Fig. 5, portion of frond ( x 5) ; 6, tip of pinnule, with indusium ( x 10) ; 7, the same 
with most of the stellate hairs removed ( x 10) ; 8, stellate hairs (greatly enlarged) ; 9, section of 
indusium (enlarged) ; 10, two sporangia (enlarged). 



Plate 236. 




M. SmitK del. 
J.N Pitch lith 



A. TRICHOMANES LYALLII. ^oo^fc I-4 
B. TRICHOMANES COLENSOI, Jlook.f. 5-7. 



Plate 236.— TRICHOMANES LYALLIl and TRICHOMANES 

COLENSOI. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus TRICHOMANES, Linn. 

Trichomanes Lyallii, Hook, nrui Bak. Syn. Fd. 77 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 943. 
Hymenophyllum Lyallii, Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zd. ii, 16. 



Trichomanes Colensoi, Hook. j. Ic. Plant, t. 979 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 945. 

The first of the two species figured on this plate is a delicately beautiful little 
plant, and is worthily named after its discoverer. Dr. Lyall, who did so much in 
the botanical exploration of the southern coasts of New Zealand. It was first 
collected in Thomson's Sound, on the south-west coast of Otago, but has since been 
found in dense moist forests in many localities between the Northern Wairoa and 
Whangarei southwards to Stewart Island. In many of the deep ravines of the Thames, 
Waitakarei, Hunua, and other hilly districts in the Auckland Province it covers 
the trunks of tree-ferns with sheets of pendulous diaphanous fronds, of a glistening 
pale-green colour. On the east coast of the South Island it is either rare or 
altogether absent ; but it is plentiful on the western side of the island from 
Collingwood southward. 

Trichomanes Lyallii was originally described as a Hymenophyllum, and it is really 
solely a matter of personal idiosyncrasy as to whether it should be referred to that 
genus or to Trichomanes, the structure of the involucre being quite intermediate. 

Trichomanes Colensoi, as its name indicates, was one of the many discoveries 
of Mr. Colenso, and was first gathered by him in January, 1842, in the dense forests 
surrounding Lake Waikare-moana. In 1860, or thereabouts, it was found by 
Mr. W. T. L. Travers in densely wooded ravines at Collingwood, Nelson ; and shortly 
afterwards by Sir Julius von Haast at Lake Wanaka. In 1885 it was discovered by 
Mr. J. Stewart in deep gorges near Mamaku, on the Rotorua Railway, the most 
northern locality yet recorded. It has since been noted in several other widely 
separated stations, but always in small quantity, and invariably in deep wooded 
ravines or gorges. On the whole, it must be regarded as a rare and local species. 
It is usually found pendulous from rocks or trees by the side of streams, or on wet 
rocks by waterfalls, and often grows mtermixed with mosses or Hepaticw. 

Plate 236a. Trichomanes Lyallii, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. W. T. Brame at Kumara, 
Westland. Fig. 1, fertile pinnule ( x 4) ; 2, tip of segment, with one face of the indusium removed, 
showing the sporangia ( x 6) ; 3, the same with the sporangia removed { x 6) ; 4, a single sporangium 
(enlarged). 

Plate 236b. Trichomanes Colensoi, drawn from specimens collected by Mr. J. Stewart in wooded 
ravines near Mamaku, Rotorua Railway. Fig. 5, segment of a pinnule, with an indusium at its base 
(x 6) ; 6, section of indusium (x 9) ; 7, two sporangia (enlarged). 



FlsLte 237. 




West. Newman i-mp 



DAVALLIA TASMANI, Cheesem. 



Plate 237.— DAVALLIA TASMANI. 

Familv FILICES.] ^(j,,^^ DAVALLIA, Smith. 

Davallia Tasmani, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii (1891), 41G ; Ckeese>n. Man. N.Z. Fl. 955. 

Davallm Tasmani has a very restricted geographical range, being confined to 

f'catrMtSf va "nt' ' '""VTP "'"^'^'^ abou? thirty-thfe; milef to the ^orth 
ot tape Maru van Diemen. In August, 1887, I gathered it on the Great Kins 

n'l889 /otl />'-^""P' '"'^"^^ '' '^""^^ '^^^^^^'^^ ■' '-d - - --'^d "1 male 
M ^f \\o^«^-^*^d It in even greater quantity on the seldoni visited Western King 
No doubt It also exists on the Eastern King, the summit <,f which is covered wUi 

ft h^^b ""'fT ^^"'^li^"' ^"\^^' ^^^^ ^^'^""^^^<i by any botanist; but so a 
luZ^r 1'7^ "^P«««^ble to scale the cliffs which every wliere surround the island. 
Its apparent absence from any part oi the North Cape Penhisula is somewhat curious • 
but it must be borne m mind that there are at least five other species which are 
endemic m the group-P*«c„por^.m Fairchildi, Alectryon grandis, Coprosma macrocarpa, 
Veromcamsulans,j,ixd Paratrophis Smithii. Their existence, together with othe^ 
peculiarities of the flora give rise to the belief, which is supported by evidence drawn 
trom the geological and physical structure of the islands, that the group has been 
isolated from New Zealand proper for a considerable period of time ; long enough 
m tact, to allow of the gradual development of endemic forms ' 

Davalha Tasmani is usually found in the shade of tlie Leptospermum or other 
scrub which covers the greater part of the islands, and is often mixed with 
Asplemum lucidum, Hypolepis tenuifolia, and Pteris comans, together with Poa ancevs 
Ophsmenus, and other grasses and sedges. In habit and general appearance it is 
widely different from any New Zealand fern ; but its stiff leathery fronds and stout 
chaffy rhizome are not unlike those of the Pol>Tiesian D. solida. According to 
Mr Eaker, its nearest relative is the Canary Island and Madeiran D. canariensis. 
Hut It IS much stouter than that plant, and much more finelv cut ; and must be 
regarded as a distinct species, with no very close allies. 

Plate 237. Davallia Tasmani, drawn from specimens gathered on the Three Kings Islands 
J^ig. 1, scale from the rhizome ; 2, tip of barren pinnule ; 3, tip of fertOe pinnule ; 4, tip of segment 
showmg a sorus and its mdusium ; 5, longitudinal section of the same ; 6, a single sporangium with 
nairs. (Ail enlarged.) o x- o 



PLsLte 238. 




LINDSAYA VIRIDIS, Col. 



P1.ATE 238.— LINDSAYA VllilDlS. 

Family FILICE8.] | Genus LINDSAYA, Dryander 

Lindsaya viridis, Col. in Tasm. Jouin. Nat. Sci. ii (1846), 174 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 959. 

Lindsaya viridis, which is a very beautiful and distinct species, was origin- 
ally discovered by Mr. Colenso in January, 1842, while journeying from 
Rotorua to Tauranga. It was gathered " on the stony banks of the Manga- 
rewa, a small river running in a deep ravine," and was at once recognized 
by him as a " truly elegant species, evidently possessing some affinity with 
L. trichomanoides, from which, however, it is very distinct." Mr. Colenso 
published the species in the " Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science"; but in 
the " Flora " Sir J. D. Hooker reduced it to L. trichomanoides, not even granting 
it varietal distinction. This is a good illustration of how difficult it is to deal 
with plants from dried specimens alone, for there can be no doubt whatever 
that if Hooker had seen the plant in the living state he would never have asso- 
ciated it with any other species. In the " Synopsis Filicum " Mr. Baker re- 
ferred it to the Australian L. microphylla, and no doubt that species is a much 
closer ally than L. trichomanoides, but even in that case the differences are 
too great to admit of specific union. In 1875 the late Mr. H. C. Field, well 
known from his valuable little book on New Zealand ferns, wrote to Mr. Baker 
forwarding specimens of the plant, and pointing out its distinctness. From 
this information Mr. Baker re-established C'olenso's species. 

L. viridis is far from common, although it has a fairly extensive range, 
being found from the Great and Little Barrier Islands southwards to the 
Sounds of south-west Otago. In the South Island, however, it is confined to 
the western side of the island. It is invariably found by the sides of streams, 
either pendulous from the wet rocks of waterfalls or dripping cliffs, or grow- 
ing erect on the mossy surface of shelving rocks flanking swiftly flowing 
streams, in either case its roots being provided with an ample supply of mois- 
ture. But, as Mr. Field has remarked, it often grows in situations where it 
is exposed to full sunshine for a large part of the day. When seen massed 
together in quantity its pale-green fronds and remarkably elegant mode of 
growth give it a very attractive appearance. 

Plate 238. Lindsaya viridis, drawn from specimens collected in the Waitakarei Ranges, near 
Auckland. Fig. 1, tip of a pinnule ; 2, tip of a single segment, showing a sorus with its indusium : 
3, the same with one face of the indusium removed ; 4, a single sporangium. (All enlarged.) 



Pla.ie 239. 




West,Newman imp. 



PTERIS SCABERULA, ^.^ic/i. 



PLATii 239.— PTEKib SOABEKLLA. 

Family FILIGES.J [Genus FTEKIS, Linn. 

Pteris scaberula, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zei. a2, t. 11 ; Cheasem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 971. 

The discovery ol' Ftens scaOerula dates liv>m Look's iiist visit to New Zea- 
land in 1769-70, when it was gatliered by Banks and Solander in Admiralty 
Bay, immediately tto the east of D'Urville Island, in Cook Strait. It was well 
described and hgured by Solander, but as liis name was never actually pub- 
lished there is no object in quoting it here. In 1820 it was collected by Allan 
Cunningham in "dry woods at Wliangaroa," and in the following year it was 
obtained by D'Urville, of the French exploring-shiij " L'Astrolabe," in some 
locality not specified. The collections made during this voyage were worked 
up by the eminent French botanist A. Richard in his " Flore de la Nouvelle 
Zelande," published in 1832, when our plant was described and hgured under 
the name it still bears. 

Since the time of Cunningham and D'Urville Pteris scaberula has been 
collected in almost all the forest districts of the Dominion, from the North 
Cape to Foveaux Strait and Stewart Island. It is also not uncommon on the 
Chatham Islands. In fact, it can be roundly said that there is no forest of 
any size, at a moderate elevation, where it does not occur. Under natural 
conditions it is a plant of dry banks and old land-slides, or of open sunny 
glades in the forest. But in the North Island it has spread of late years to a 
great extent along the sides of road-cuttings or in abandoned bush-clearings. 
When the Waitakarei district, near Auckland, was opened up for settlement 
many years ago every side-cutting along the roads was at once occupied by 
young plants of Pteris scaberula, although the species was by no means gene- 
rally distributed prior to the construction of the roads. The increase of certain 
ferns, or change in their habitats, due to man's interference with the original 
vegetation, has not had the attention given to it that it deserves. Putting 
on one side the well-known instance of the sj^read of Pteris esculenta, it is 
noticeable how readily Cyathea medullaris takes possession of steep slopes and 
gullies in partially denuded timber areas. Hypolepis tenuifolia often in- 
creases in abandoned bush-clearings, or by neglected bush-roads. Doodia 
media is becoming quite a common plant at the base of white-thorn hedges 
near Auckland. And Poly podium serpens may be seen in quantity on the rough 
stone walls so often built on the lava-streams of the Auckland Isthmus, and 
also grows in abundance on the oaks and pines and other trees of our plan- 
tations. 

Pteris scaberula is often placed in the genus Pcesia, a small group of seven 
species split off from the genus Pteris as understood by Sir ^^■. J. Hooker in 
the " Species Filicuin," and by Mr. Baker in the " Synopsis Filicum." But 
the classification of ferns is admittedly in a very unsettled state, and in this 
and other instances I prefer to wait until pteridologists generally have arrived 
at an agreement as to the limits and characters of the various genera consti- 
tuting the family. 

Plate 239. Pteris scaberula, drawn from specimens collected at Hunua, near Auckland. Fig. 1, 
portion of rhizome,Jwith scales ; 2. one of the scales or hairs ; 3, pinnule ; 4, barren segment ; 5, young 
fertile segment, the indiisium covering the sorus ; 6, mature fertile segment ; 7, section of fertile 
segment, with sorus and indusium ; 8, a single sporangium. (All enlarged.) 




West, Newman imp. 



LOMARIA DURA, Moore. 



Plate 240.— LOMARIA DURA. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus LOMARIA, Willd. 

Lomaria dura, Moore in Gard. Chron. (1866) 290 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 978. 

Loviarm dura was first described by Mr. Mooi'e in the " Gardeners' 
Chronicle " for 1866, his description (which I have not seen) being based on 
cultivated specimens originally obtained on the Chatham Islands. It does 
not seem to have been collected during Mr. H. H. Travers's first visit to the 
Chathams, made in 1863, but was gathered by him in 1871. I have also 
received specimens from the same locality collected by Miss Seddon and 
Mr. Chudleigh, both of whom informed me that the plant was abundant on 
cliffs. It was first recorded from the mainland of New Zealand by Mr. T. 
Kirk in 1878, who quoted the habitats of the Bluff Hill, Catlin's River, and the 
west coast Sounds. Since then it has been observed in many localities on 
the coast-line to the south of Banks Peninsula, and has been ascertained to 
be of frequent occurrence all round the shores of Stewart Island. Lastly, in 
1891 Mr. T. Kirk proved that it was abundant on the islands to the south of 
New Zealand, a discovery which makes it probable that the L. lanceolata 
of the " Flora Antarctica " was in reality identical with L. dura, in which case 
Sir J. D. Hooker must be counted as the original discoverer of the plant. 

L. dura is a purely maritime plant, and is never found far from the 
influence of the sea-spray. In this respect it agrees with its congener 
L. Banksii, which, however, has a much more northern distribution, advanc- 
ing as far as the North Cape, whereas L. dura has not been found to the north 
of Banks Peninsula. Both species prefer crevices in rocks or the faces of 
cliffs, but I have seen L. Banksii on peaty ledges only a few feet above the 
limit of the tide; and Mr. Kirk states that in Stewart Island L. dura "fre- 
quently forms a dense fringe just above high-water mark." L. dura can easily 
be distinguished from L. Banksii by the larger size, broader fronds, and much 
longer and proportionately narrower usually acute pinnae. Both species are 
endemic. 

Plate 240. Lomaria dura, drawn from specimens gathered by Miss Seddon on the Chatham 
Islands. Fig. 1, scales from the rhizome ; 2 and 3, front and back of the tip of a fertile pinna ; 4. cross- 
section of fertile pinna ; 5, a single sporangium. (All enlarged.) 



Plate 241. 




LOMARIA NIGRA, Col. 



Plate 241.— LOMAKlA xXlGliA. 

Familv FILICES.] I Genus LOMARIA, Willd. 

Lomaria nigra^ Col. in Tasm. Journ. Nat. Sci. (184C) 176; Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. li, 31 ; 
Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 982. ,01, 

Mr Colenso, in January, 1842, while travelling from Rolorua to Tau- 
ranga along the old Maori track connecting the two districts, and which then 
led through an almost continuous forest, was the first to collect this very 
curious and peculiar plant, which he found "in a low, wet, and dark spot" 
apparently not far from the Mangarewa River. After the lapse of seventy 
years it can still be seen in abundance in the same forest. It was next gathered 
by Dr. Sinclair in some locality in the Auckland Provincial District; and by 
Dr. Lyall in the Sounds of the south-west coast of Otago. Since then it has 
been observed in numerous localities between Kaitaia and Stewart Island but 
IS tar from being generally spread, and must not be counted as a common 
species. Mr. Colenso's remarks as to the nature of its habitat are exceedincrly 
apt for It IS most plentiful in dark and dank spots in dense forests, and espe- 
cially near the source of some mountain rivulet, where the shade is deep and 
the soil more or less springy or even boggy. It descends to sea-level, but is 
most plentiful between 500 ft, and 2,500 ft. elevation. 

Lomaria nigra is easily recognized by the blackish-green colour of the 
frond, which is unusually tender and brittle. Apart from those characters 
It can be distinguished by the broad terminal portion of the frond which is 
often very slightly lobed, giving the whole frond a lyrato-pinnatifi'd appear- 
ance. The surface of the frond is often covered with mosses or hepatic*, very 
much after the same fashion as Trichomanes elonaatum, and their presence 
often gives the plant an untidy and unhealthy appearance. L niara is endemic 
in New Zealand. 

Plate 241. Lomarin nigra, drawn from specimens rollectefl on Te Aroha Mountain Fig 1 a 
■single pinna of the frond (x.3): 2. tip of a fertile pinna (x.3): 3, .section of fertile pinna ( x 6)'- 
4, two sporangia (enlarged). ^ i ■ 



Pia.te 242. 




We3t,>rewina.n. imp. 



LOMARIA FRASERI, A.Cu,rvrv. 



Plate 242.— LOMAKIA FKA8EK1. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus LOMARIA, Willd. 

Lomaria Fraseri, A. Cunn. Frecur. n. 185 ; Oheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 984. 

According to Allan Cunningham, Lomaria Fraseri was lirst collected in 
1825 at the Bay of Islands by Mr. C. Fraser, then Superintendent of the Sydney 
Botanical Gardens. Shortly afterwards it was also gathered by both the Cun- 
ninghams, and by most of the botanists who in the hrst half of the nineteenth 
century investigated the flora of the northern portion of the North Island. 
It was first published by Allan Cunningham in his " Precursor," under the 
very appropriate name of its first discoverer. Its chief centre of distribu- 
tion is from the Waikato River northwards to the North Cape. Within this 
area it is plentiful in all forests of any size, especially where the soil is dry 
and the drainage good. It is particularly abundant in kauri forests, possibly 
from the reason that such forests are less encumbered with dense undergrowth 
than others, and consequently afford more room and rather more light, two 
conditions which are favourable for the growth of the plant. Proceeding 
south from Auckland it extends to the Bay of Plenty on the east coast and 
to Taranaki on the west. So far as I am aware, it has never been gathered 
in any part of the Hawke's Bay or Wellington Provincial Districts, but it 
reappears in the north-west of the South Island, extending from Collingwood 
and West Wanganui to Westport and Charleston, where it apparently attains 
its southern limit. 

Lomaria Fraseri has a very distinct habit and appearance, and in many 
northern districts affects the physiognomy of the forest vegetation to no small 
degree. It usually forms large patches, which in some cases may be as 
much as half an acre in extent, and its slender erect caudex or stem rises to 
a height varying from 1 ft. to 3 ft. or more. These stems are half an inch 
or thereabouts in diameter, covered at the base with the ragged bases of the 
old stipites, and bearing at the top a crown of stifl' dark-green fronds. A 
well - developed specimen thus presents the appearance of a miniature tree- 
fern, the resemblance being: so close that several of the earlier explorers (as, 
for instance, Dr. Brackenridge, one of the naturalists to the United States 
Exploring Expedition) often speak of it under that name. 

L. Fraseri occurs in the Philippine Islands, but so far has not been found 
in any intermediate locality. 

Plate 242. Lomaria Fraseri, drawn from specimen.s gathered in tho Waitakarei Ranges, near 
Auckland. Fig. 1, scale from the caudex ; 2, portion of pinna of sterile frond ; 3, upper .surface of 
portion of pinna from fertile frond ; 4, under-surface of same, showing the sori ; 5, cross-section of 
fertile segment ; 6, a single sporangium. (All enlarged.) 



Pla,te 243. 




West.Hewman imp. 



ASPLENIUM HOOKERIANUM, CoL. 



Plate 243.— ASPLENiUM HOOKEHIANUM. 

Family FILICES] [Genus ASFLENIUM, Linn. 

Asplenium Hookeriaiium, Cul. in Tu;sin. Jour. Aal. ^sct. (iCi-iOj 109 ; (Jluxsem. Man. A'.Z. Ft. 
992. 

The discovery of Asplenium Hoo/reria7ium is vividly recoiinled by 
Mr. Colenso in liis " Excursion made in the Nortliern Island of New Zea- 
land," published in 1S46 in tiie second volume of the " Tasmanian Journal of 
Natural Science." In this fascinating memoir he describes a three-months 
journey from the East Cape and Lake Waikare-moana to Kotorua and Tau- 
ranga, returning to the Bay of Islands via the Thames Valley, the Waikato 
River, and the Kaipara. Giving an account of his journey up the Thames 
Valley after leaving Matamata, he says, " We entered a romantic valley, called 
by the Maoris Hinuera. This valley has on either side high and perpendicular 
volcanic rocks, composed of a conglomerate of pumice, scoria, obsidian, &c. 
. . . At 2 p.m. we halted to dine under a large and pensile crag, which, 
jutting out from the rocks on the north side, overhung our path. Here 
beneath this rock I discovered an elegant Asplenium {A. Hookerianum, 
n. sp.). I did myself the honour and pleasure of naming this graceful fern 
in memorial of my much-respected and talented friend J. D. Hooker, Esq." 
The remarkable hat-bottomed valley mentioned by Mr. Colenso leads directly 
to the Thames River from the valley of the Waikato about eight miles above 
Cambridge, and is supposed by many geologists to indicate the bed of the Wai- 
kato when it discharged into the Hauraki Gulf instead of following its present 
course to the west side of the Island. 

Attention having once been directed to Asplenium Huoherianum it was 
soon found to have a fairly wide distribution, ranging from Kaitaia to the 
south of Otago, although it is sometimes absent from areas of considerable 
size. It is usually found on the faces of inland cliffs, or on steep shaded 
banks, and does not, as a rule, occur in dense forests. Like all its allies, 
it is exceedingly variable, and manv diverse views have been held as to its 
limits and systematic position. A finely cut variety with linear segments 
to the pinnae has been described by Sir J. D. Hooker as a distinct species 
under the name of A. Colensoi; but, as Mr. Field has pointed out ("New 
Zealand Ferns," p. 120), not onlv do the two varieties grow iutcrmixed, but 
sometimes fronds of both varieties occur on the same plant. 

According to Mr. Bentham, Aspleninm Hooherinnum is found in both 
New South Wales and Victoria as well as New Zealand. T have had no 
opportunity of examining Australian specimens. 

Plate 243. Asplenium Hookerianum, drawn from specimens collpcted in the Wangapeka Valley, 
Nelson. Fig. 1, under-surface of pinnule : 2, under-surface nf another pinnule ; 3, small portion of a 
pinnule, showing a sorus with its indusium ; 4, a single sporangium. (.\11 enlarged.) 



PUte 244. 




West, Newman amp. 



ASPIDIUM CYSTOSTEGIA, Hook. 



Plate 244.-ASP1D1UM CYST(3STEG1A. 

Family FILICES.] ^Gknus ASPIDIUM. Swartz 

Aspidium cystostegia, Hook. Sf. Fil. iv, 26. t. 227 ; Ckeese,». Man. N.Z. Fl. 1000. 

nr nSfT^/^ff'^'^/'' T^' ^''^ discovered on Mount Egmont in 1840 by 
Dr Dieffenbach the naturalist to the New Zealand Company. ThrouRh some 
mistake the locality was originally given as " Tongariro " but thisTs clearlv 
erroneous as Dieffenbach never ascended that mountain on alunt of ot'os - 
tion raised by the Maoris. It has, however, been since collected on both 
Tongariro and Ruapehu. About 1860 ,t was gathered bv Mr W T L 

NpW P°" •^^'' V'^'°^'-^ ^'^^^' W^^^" ^'^11^3'. in the southern part of' the 
Nelson Provincial District, and at the Wairau Gorge bv Dr. Sinclair Further 
investigation has proved that it is not uncommon on all the hi'- er mountain 
ranges of both the North and South Islands, from Mount Egn oft anTlong^^ 
riro southwards to Foveaux Strait. In 1890 Mr. Kirk cx.]]ectcd it on the 
Auckland Islands, and in 1907 it was detected bv Dr. Cockavne near he sum- 
T6%fK "^■^'"' ^''"''' ^'^''''^- ''' ^^l^itudina] range is from ToOO Tt. 

stonirl^h?/''''''''^'? ^-^ "f"'"^ ^,°""^ ^" '^"'^ ""^'^^ '"^"^ ^•«''"^^s amongst 
it nftL f 1 "" ^"^i^t^in-sloPfs above the forest-level. In such situations 

It often forms large clumps, easily distinguished bv the soft and tender pale- 
?hacH, °r'l ^' '/ remarkable for the extremely paleaceous stipes '^Jnd 
rhachis which are densely clothed with pale-brown scales up to the verv tip 
of the frond. The involucres are different from those of any other species^ 

vprv^t^?n'''''T'^ ^' i"" ^°°^ "1"'^'^ hemispherical, and at the' same time are 
very thin ancl membranous, thus having a bladdery appearance. Although 
falling into the same section of the genus as Aspidium vestitnm it differs 
greatly m habit and in the characters mentioned above Sir W J Hooker 
compared the ramification to that of A. mohrioides. 

Pace r^'^r ^^^' ,^*P'''^*«'" cystostegia, drawn from specimeiLs collected on the mountains above A.rthur'8 
Pas , Canterbury Alps, at an altitude of 4,000 ft. Fig. I, scale from the lower part of the sILs 2 a 
smgle pmnule, showmg son ; 3, mdusium ; 4, a single sporangium. (All enlarged.) ' 



Pla.te 245. 




NEPHRODIUM HISPIDUM. Hook. 



Plate 245. NEPHRODIUM HISPIDUM. 

Family FILICES] [Genus NEPHRODIUM, Rich. 

Nephrodium hispidum, Hook. Sji. Fil. iv, 150 ; Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 378 ; Cheesem. Man. 
jg N.Z. Fl. 1004. 

All travellers in the lowland forests of New Zealand are well acquainted 
with this beautiful fern, which at once attracts attention, wherever it may be 
seen, by its large finely cut fronds and the copious stifi' black hairs on the 
rhachis and stipes. As with most widely distributed lowland plants that 
reach the coast-line, it was originally collected by Banks and Solander during 
Cook's first voyage. Solander, in his manuscript " Flora of New Zealand," gave 
it the name of Polyvodmm setosum, and states that it was found " in sylvis 
Novas-Zealandias prope Tolaga, Opuragi, Totaranui." It was also gathered 
by Forster in Cook's second voyage, and in his " Prodromus " he retained 
Solander's most appropriate name. l-nfortunateiy, however, it had been 
previously applied by Thunberg to a Japanese plant, and Swartz, in 1800, 
consequently selected the almost equally characteristic name of Asjndium 
hispidum. Since then it has been placed by turns in the genera Lastrea, 
Nephrodium, and Polystichum, and its systematic position may still be looked 
upon as unsettled. 

The geographical range of Nephrodium hispidum stretches from the 
North Cape to the south of Stewart Island, and within those limits it is pre- 
sent in almost all forests of any size below an altitude of, say, 2,000 ft. It 
is most abundant on sloping hillsides on rather dry ground, and often covers 
considerable areas, its long- and stout wide-creeping rhizomes sending up 
numerous fronds. Unlike its allies yV. decompositum. and A', velutinum, which 
prefer light bush or the outskirts of forests, N. hispidum is evidently more at 
home in much denser and more deeply shaded tracts of woodland. Its dark 
olive-brown fronds are sometimes curiously (but slightly) mottled or varie- 
gated with lighter shades. It is easily cultivated, and does well in any 
shaded bush-house if care is taken to provide good drainage and plenty of 
room for its long running rhizomes. 

Plate 24.5. Nephrodium hispidum, drawn from specimens collected on the Waitakarei Ranges 
near Auckland. Fig. 1, portion of rhachis, showing the stiff bristles (x 3) ; 2, tip of pinnule, showing 
the sori ( x 6) ; 3, a single segment, with two sori ( x 8) ; 4, indusium (enlarged) ; 5, two sporangia 
(enlarged). 



fUte 246. 




POLYPODIUM DICTYOPTERIS, Mebb. 



Plate 240.— POL V PODIUM DJCTVOPTEKIS. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus POLYPODIUM, Linn. 

Polypodium Dictyopteris, Mett. in Ann. Sci. Nat. iv (1861), 15. 

P. Cunninghamii, Uouk. Garden Ferns ad t. 30 (1862) ; Cheesem. Man. S .Z. Ft. 1U12. 

This very distinct little plant was first gathered by D'Urville in 1827 
during the voyage of the French exploring-vessel " L'Astrolabe." D'Urville's 
collections were worked out by the eminent l)otanist A. Richard, and published 
in his " Essai d'une Flore de la Nouvelle Zelande." In this work he unfortu- 
nately confounded the species now figured with the Australian P. attenuatum 
(now known as P. Broivnii), and in this error he was followed by Allan 
Cunningham and Raoul. No locality was given by Richard for D'Urville's 
plant, but it was probably obtained at the Bay of Islands, or possibly in the 
Hauraki Gulf. According to Sir W. J. Hooker ('" Iconcs Plantarum," t. 409) 
it was next gathered by Allan Cunningham, although in the " Precursor " no 
reference is made to any collector besides D'Urville. Since that time it has 
been found to have a fairly general distribution in lowland districts in the 
North Island, from the North Cape to Cook Strait. In the South Island it 
is much more local. It has been gathered by myself near Nelson, Mr. Town- 
son has found it to be fairly plentiful in the lower part of the Buller Valley, 
Mr. Buchanan has recorded it from Marlborough, and Raoul collected it at 
Akaroa. In this last locality, however, it does not seem to have been noticed 
by any recent explorer. 

The very diverse views held by pteridologists as to the classification of 
ferns are responsible for the frequent changes of nomenclature that P. Dictyop- 
teris has suffered. Sir W. J. Hooker, in the " Genera Filicum," placed it, com- 
bined with the Australian P. attenuatum, in Presl's genus Dictyopteris, most 
of the species of which, however, belong to Aspidium. Mr. J. Smith appears 
to have been the first to recognize that the New Zealand plant differed from 
the Australian, and in 1846 placed the two species in a new genus which he 
called Dictymia, and this view was adopted by Sir J. D. Hooker in the 
"Flora Novas Zelandiae." In 1862 Sir W. J. Hooker, in his "Garden Ferns," 
reduced the species to Polypodium, and, as Smith's specific name of lanceolata 
was preoccupied, proposed that it should bear the title of P. Cunninghamii. 
A few months earlier, how-ever, it had been published by Mettenius under the 
name of P. Dictyopteris, which, under the law of priority of publication, 
must now take precedence. 

P. Dictyopteris is usually found on the trunks of forest-trees or on 
the faces of rocks, and has an altitudinal range from sea-level to 2,500 ft. 
According to Mr. Baker, a plant collected by Mr. Moore on the Island of 
Mallicola, New Hebrides, must be referred to the same species. 

Plate 246. Polypodium Dictyopteris, drawn from specimens collected at Mount Wellington, 
near Auckland. Fig. 1, portion from tlie middle of the frond, showing two sori ( x 3) ; 2, two sporangia, 
with the jointed hairs which usually accompany them (enlarged). 



PUte 247. 




POLYPODIUM NOVAE ZEALANDIAE, Ba.her. 



West, Newman imp. 



Plate 247.— POLYPODIUM NOV^-ZEALANDI^. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus POLYPODIUM, Linn. 

Polypodiutn novae-zealandiae, Bak. in Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 1074 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 1014. 

So far as is at present known, this handbt)me species has the most 
restricted range of any of the New Zealand Polypodia. It was first collected 
by myself in January, 1877, on Mount Pirongia, a picturesque extinct volcano 
densely wooded from base to summit, and situated a little to the west of the 
Township of Alexandra, in the Up|jer Waipa district. About the same time 
it was gathered by Mr. H. C. Field in the forest country to the west of 
Ruapehu. A little later I observed it on Mount Karioi, inmiediately to the 
south of Raglan Harbour; on Maungatautari Mountain, to the south of Cam- 
bridge; and also on Te Aroha Mountain, which appears to be its northern 
limit. Mr. Hamilton has gathered it at Lake Waikare-moana, and of late 
years it has been collected by myself and others in many localities in the high 
wooded country lying between the Wanganui River, Taupo, and Ruapehu. 
So far it has not been found to the east of Ruapehu, but I suspect that 
it occurs on the flanks of the Kaimanawa and Tararua Mountains. From the 
above it appears that the species is confined to the high forest country in the 
interior of the North Island. I have not myself seen it below 2,000 ft., but 
I believe that it descends to lower altitudes in the district between Ohakune 
and the Wanganui River. 

P. novcB'ZealandicB is closely allied to the widely spread P. Billardieri, 
but it can be readily distinguished from all the forms of that variable plant 
by the stouter rhizome, which is densely clothed with shaggy spreading scales 
widely different from the closely appressed squamse of P. Billardieri. It is 
also a much larger plant, the fronds being occasionally 4 ft. in length, and the 
segments are far more numerous and much longer and narrower. The tex- 
ture of the fronds is thinner and the sori smaller. In addition to the alx)ve, I 
have failed to observe any tendency to the polymorphism of the fronds so 
well marked in both P. Billardieri and P. ■pnstulatum, and I am not aware 
that simple fronds have ever been seen. 

Plate 247. Polypodinm novce-zealandice, drawn from .specimen.s collected on Te Aroha Mountain, 
at an altitude of 2,000 ft. Fig. 1, scales from the rhizome (x 3) ; 2, tip of fertile pinna, showing the 
venation and sori ( x 2) ; 3, portion of pinna from a sterile frond, showing venation ( x 2) : 
t, a sporangium and some jointed hairs (enlarged). 



Plate 248. 




West.Kewmfcn imp. 



LYGODIUM ARTICULATUM, A. Rich. 



Plate 248.— LYGODIUM ARTICULATUM. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus LYGODIUM, Swartz. 

Lygodium articulatum, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 96, t. 15 ; Hook. /. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, 47 • Cheeiem 
Man. N.Z. Fl. 1023. 

The genus Lygodium can be distin.ouished from all others by the tall 
climbing stems otten many feet in length, which wind round trees or shrubs, 
forming almost impenetrable touuh and wiry screens. Between twenty and 
twenty-hve species are known, of which the North American L. palmatum, the 
Japanese L. japonicum, and the New Zealand L. articulatum are the only 
ones which penetrate into temperate regions, the remaining species being 
strictly tiopical. 

As might be expected from its great abundance in the northern portion 
of the North Island, Lygodium articulatum was one of the plants collected 
during Cook's first voyage to New Zealand. In November, 1769, Banks and 
Solander gathered it at Mercury Bay, where they found it " volubilis circa 
ramos arborum in sylvis umbrosis." It was fully described (but not figured) 
in Solander's manuscripts, and was placed by him in the genus Ophioglossuiu. 
It was not met with again until 1827, w^hen D'Urville, of the French"^ explor- 
ing-vessel " LAstrolabe," obtained it in some locality in the North Island. 
After D'Urville's return to Europe it was published by A. Richard under the 
name it still bears From that time onwards it was noticed bv every botanist 
who examined the vegetation of the northern half of the North Island, and 
it is now known to be abundant in forest districts from the North Cape to 
the Bay of Plenty on the east coast, and to Kawhia on the west. Its distri- 
bution, in fact, is very similar to that of the kauri {Agathis avstralis), with 
which it is often associated. 

The tough twining stems of Lygodium articulatum were formerly twisted 
into ropes by the Maoris, and used for securing the thatch on the' roofs of 
their houses. They were also ingeniously woven into eel-traps called hinaki, 
great numbers of which \vere formerly made, although at the present time 
they have become comparatively rare. 

Plate 248. Lyqodium arliculalAim, drawn from .specimens collected by Mis.s Shakcspear on the 
Little Barrier Island. Fig. 1, base of a sterile pinnule; 2, portion of fertile pinnule: 3 and 4, two 
views of a portion of a fertile spikelet, showing two rows of sporangia, each enclosed in its indusium ; 
5, two sporangia ; 6, spores. (All enlarged.) 



Pla.te 249. 




Ai 



V 'I 



rS-w :■£ 











^4, 



#F/ii 



''W 



West.Ne 



TODEA SUPERBA. CoZ. 



Plate 249.— TOUEA SUPERBA. 

Family FILICES.] [Genus TODEA, Willd. 

Todea superba, Col. in Tasin. Jourii. Nal. Sci. (1846) 188 ; Cheesem. Man. N.Z. Fl. 1025. 

The specific epithet of superba niij^ht well be conferred on this plant, 
which is by far the most beautiful fern in New Zealand. When seen in full 
luxuriance, as in the soakin<>; rain-forests of Westland, or in the almost equally 
humid districts near the sources of the various branches of the Wanganui 
River, no description can gjive an adequate idea of its beauty and grace, or 
of the delicate lace-like tracery of its pellucid fronds. It was originally dis- 
covered by Mr. Colenso in IS-tl, in the dense primasval forests surrounding 
Lake Waikare-moana, which he was the first European to visit; but shortly 
afterwards it was collected by Lyall and other observers in several localities 
in both the North and South Islands. Its northern limit, so far as I am 
aware, is on Te Aroha Mountain, on the eastern side of the Island, and on 
the Pirongia Ranges on the west From these two localities it stretches south- 
wards in dense and cool humid forests to Cook Strait, and down the west 
coast of the South Island, where it is plentiful. On the eastern side it is 
rare and local. It reappears in Stewart Island, and it has also been recorded 
from the Auckland Islands, on the authority of General Bolton, but has not 
been noticed by any recent visitor to the group. 

When growing in cool moist forests at an elevation of 1,500 ft. to 2,000 ft. 
or more, Todea sirperha often covers extensive areas. Each plant is furnished 
with a stout conical caudex or stem, sometimes 3 ft. in height, which is coated 
with densely matted fibrous rootlets. Surmounting that is a spreading crown 
of fronds, numbering from 6 to 15, and which vary in length from 18 in, to 
3 ft. or even 4 ft. Both Mr. Colenso and Mr. Field have drawn attention to 
the charming contrast in colour presented in early summer by the outer droop- 
ing fronds of the previous year's growth, which are a dark semi-transparent 
green, and the almost erect younger fronds in the centre, which are a bright 
and delicate pale translucent y;reen. 

Todea, sitverha, together with the closely allied T. hymenofhylloides, the 
Australian and Polynesian T . Fraseri, and the Lord Howe Island T. Moorei, 
differ from the type of the genus in the thin and membranous fronds, which 
resemble in texture those of Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes, and constitute 
Presl's genus Levtovteris. Although the differences are not of a pronounced 
character, they are conspicuous and well marked, and many botanists now 
agree with this subdivision of the genus. 

Plate 249. Todea superba, dra\vii from specimens collected at Mamaku, on the Rotorua Railway, 
at an altitude of 2,000 ft. Fig. 1, a small portion of the frond, with three pinnules ; 2, the same more 
highly magnified ; 3, three pinnules from a fertile frond : 4, two segments from a pinnule, each with 
a sporangium at its base ; 5, two sporangia (all enlarged) ; 6, an entire plant (greatly reduced). 



Plate 250. 




"West,.Nev.ir.an imp- 



LYCOPODIUM RAMTJLOSUM, T.Kirk. 



Plate 250.— LYCOPODIUM RAMULOSUM. 

Family LYCOPODIACE^..] [Genus LYCOPODIUM, Linn. 

Lycopodium ramulosum, T. Kirk In Trans: N.Z. Inst, xi (1879), 450, t. l!)n : Clieesem Man 
N.Z. Fl. 1038. 

According to Mr. T. Kirk, Lijcofodium ramulosum was originally dis- 
covered by Mr. Tipler near Mokitiiva, and at a little later date by Mr. A. 
Hamilton at Okarito. Its distinctness as a species was first estalilishcd by 
Mr. Kirk in 1879, when he gave a full description of it under the name it still 
bears. In 1884 Mr. Kirk recorded its presence in Stewart Island, remarking 
that it was found chiefly " in o]ien peaty land and in swam|)y woods," and 
that in some localities it covered " acres of ground." Between 1885 and 1905 
it was collected in several localities in Wcstland l)y Mr. J. W. Brame and 
other observers, and in 1906 Mr. Townson extended its northern range by 
ascertaining that it is an abundant plant on several of the u])land " pakihis " 
near Westport. Lastly, in 1909, Dr. Cockayne, in his report on the vegetation 
of Stewart Island, states that it is extremely common in " Bog, openings in 
siibalpine scrub, and in subalpine meadow." From the above it is apparent 
that the plant is fairly plentiful in peaty moorlands from north-west Nelson 
to the south of Stewart Island. Its altitudinal range is from sea-level to 
2,500 ft. 

L. ramulosum is more closely allied to the Australian L. diffusum than 
to any other species, principally differing, as Mr. Baker has remarked, in its 
entirely terminal spikes, whereas in L. diffusum they are frequently lateral. 
The ordinary form of L. laterale can be distinguished at a glance by its erect 
sparingly branched stems, with purely lateral spikes. On the whole. Lycopo- 
dium ramulosum is well marked by its terminal spikes, compactly branched 
habit of growth, and by the procumbent or prostrate stems. 

Plate 250. Lycofodium ramulosum, drawn from specimens collected near Kumara. Westland, by 
Mr. Brame. Fig. 1, portion of a branchlet, with a spike (x 3) ; 2 and 3, leaves (x 6) : 4, dorsal view 
of bract ; 5, front view of bract, showing the sporangium : 6, sporangium : 7, spores. (All enlarged ) 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF XEW ZEALAND I'llAXEKOfi VMS WD kfrNS 
THAT HAVE APPEARED PRIOR TO THE PUBLICATION- OF TIIl's 
WORK. 

\i.\srscvLACEA':. 
Clen^atis ^^''7"- WiUc^Paxf . KL Oanl. i. .. 12 ; ftar.1. Chron. IS'.n, ii. ,. 54 : Umi. ,. ,. m- 1;..,0, 
n, t 47 ; IfotLy. Nat. M. X.Z. ,. | ; l-Vat.,,,. Arf All,. X.Z. Fl. ,. I ; Laing & Hlarkw. PI. N.Z. 

CTcwr,//.. /,«/,>/..„, Will.l. var. loh.ihfa, T. Kirk.— H„f. Ma-' t .|3')8 

Uem„l,s hr.,a,vpala. D.C'.-Hook. f. V\. Nov. Zol. i. t. I {C. Vnlemni) 

(Aevmlis Irrlidti. Ilaoiil— Choix, t. 22. 

Clematis parviflom. A. C'litm.— Laiiij< & Blackw. I'l. N.Z. t. 18 

Clematis ajoliafa, Bucli.— Cockayne, N.Z. PI. Ifil. 

Ranuncvlus Lyallii, ir„.,k. f.^Bot. Mag. t. 0888 : Ifctlev. Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. II ■ Foat..„ \r( \il, N Z 

i^l. t. 3 ; Laing & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 49. 
RammrulH, iv-mfvis. H,.„k. f.— Fl. Nov. Zcl. i, t. 2 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 4. 
Kwiiiivriilu, Moiinn, Hook, f.— Bucli. Trans. N.Z. Inst. x\k (1887). t. Hi (K Moelleri) 
RatiiiHciihis piiupiis, Hook, f.— Fl. Antaret. i, t. I. 
Ranunculus nivicula. Hook. — Ic. Plant, t. 571, 572. 
Ranunculus geraniijolius. Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 3. 

Ramnmihis Eih/^H, T. Kirk— (?) Bucli. Trans. N.Z. inst. .x.x (1888). t. 12 (/^ Inxns). 
Ranininiliis Hnyiiretu, Pctrie — Trans. N.Z. [n.st. .\.x.\i (181)9), t. 26 
Ranunenbis hirtus, Banks & Sol.— Featcn, Art. All). N.Z. Fl. t. 5, fig. 1 {R. j,lehei>is). 
Ranunculus lap-paceus. Smith— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zcl. i, t. 5 (R. mitUiscapus). 
Ranunculus Kirkii, Petrie— Trans. N.Z. Inst, x.xxi (I8!)il), t. 25. 
Ranunculus macropus, Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 634. 

Ranuuculns rivularis. Banks & Sol. var. major, Beiitii.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Z.-I. i. t. t (R. incisus). 
Ranunculus rivularis, Banks & Sol. var. inrnnspicuu.s. Bentli. — Hook. f. Fl. Tii.sm. i, t. 2b 

{R. iiKonspicuus) . 
Ranunculus acaulis, Banks & Sol. — Hook. f. Fl. Antaret. i, t. 2. 

Ranunculus crassipes, Hook, f.— Fl. Antaret. ii, t. 81 ; Wildem. Bot. Voy. Belg. t. 12, f. 12-22. 
Rammculus Limosella, F. MnelL— Ic. Plant, t. 1081 (R. limoselloides). 
Caltha nova^-zelamlirr, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. C ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 5, f. 2. 

MAG.\OUACE,^i. 

Drimys axillaris, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 42 ; Ic. Plant, t. 576 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 1 • Featon, Art 

Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 5, f. 3. 
Drimys colorata, Raoul— Choix, t. 23 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 2 {D. aj-illaris. var. rolorala). 
Drimys Traversii, T. Kirk— Buch. Trans. N.Z. In.st. xv (1883), t. 28. f. 1 (Hymptianlhera). 

CRfCIFER/E. 

Cardamine hirsuta, Linn. var. debilis. Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 58 (C. helerophylla) ; Featon. Art Alb. 

N.Z. Fl. t. 6, f. 1 
Cardamine hirsula, var. corymbosa. Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 686 (C corynibosa). 
Cardamine depressa, Hook. f. — Fl. Antaret. i, t. 3, 4b. 
Cardamine depressa, var. stellata. Hook. f. — Fl. Antaret. i, t. 4a (C. slellata). 
Cardamine ulylosa. D.C. — Ic. Plant, t. 259 {Arahis i/ignii/m). 

Cardaunne lustiijiaia, Hook. f. — Bnch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xix (1887), t. 14 {Pachycladon ehngala). 
Pachycludoii noow-zelandiw. Hook. f.—Ic Plant, t. 1009; Bnch. Trans. N.Z. In.st. xiv (1882). t. 24. 

f. 1, and f. 2 (/'. glnhrn) ; Featon. Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 6, f. 2. 
Lepidium Banksii, T. Kirk — A. Rich. Fl. Nonv. Zel. t. 35 (L. olerace.um). 
Notothlaspi rosulatum, Hook. f. — Buch. Trans. N.Z. In.st. xiv (1882). t. 25 (A'. nntabiU^) ; Featon. Art 

Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 6, f. 4 ; Cockayne. N.Z. PI. t. 46. 

ViOLAIE.t;. 

MeUcytus ramipnus. Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 62 : Kirk. Forest Fl. t. 3 : Featon. Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 7. 

f. 2, 3 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. .56. 
MeUcytus Innceolntus, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 8. 
Hymenanthera iiovw-zelaiidim. Henisl. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 7 (H. cra^sifolia) : Garri. Chron. 1875. 

i, t. 42 ; 1892, ii, t. 67 [H. crassifolia). 
Hymenanthera dentata, R. Br. var. nngustifoliu. Benth. — Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), 

t. 33, f 44-47 (seedling). 

i — Flora Notes, 



PlTTOSPORA('E.15. 

Piitosjmruiii leiuii/oliiuH, Bauks & .Sol. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 34 (Trichiliii niDiiophiilUi) : T. Kirk- 
Forest FL t. 46 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 8, f. 1 : Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 56. 

Pillos'porum ohcordatum, Raoul — Choix, t. 24. 

Pittospomm rigidnm, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 10 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 30, 
f. 4, and xxxiii (1901), t. 10, f. 1-3 (seedling). 

Pittosporum RaJphii, T. Kirk — Gard. Chron. 1899, ii, f. 72 (P. crassifolium) . 

Pittosportim crassifolium, A. Cunn.— Bot. Mag. t. 5978 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 14 ; Featon, Art Alb. 
N.Z. Fl. t. 8, f. 2. 

Pittosporum corni folium. A. Cunn.— Bot. Mag. t. 3161 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 10 ; Laing & Blackw. 
PI. N.Z. t. 57, 58. 

Pittosporum eugenioides, A. Cunn.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 49 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 9. 

Caryophyllace.e. 

Stellaria decipiens. Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 680. 

Stellaria Roughii, Hook, f.— Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 6, f. 5 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiii 

(1901), t. 10, f. 4 (seedling). 
Stellaria gracilenta, Hook. f. — Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 6, f. 5. 
Colobautlvifs fiiuftcoides. Hook. f. — Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, t. 17, f. F. 
Colohaiilhiis qiiilensis, Bartl.— Presl. Reliq. Haenk. ii, t. 49, f. 2. 
Colohuiithiis hirnisepalus, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895), t. 27e. 
Colobanthus suhulatus, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. ii, t. 93. 
Colohanthus acicnlaris. Hook. f. — Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 6, f. 7. 
Colobanthus Buchanani, T. Kirk — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895), t. 27d. 
Spergularia media, Presl. — Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 6, f. 8. 

PORTULACE^. 

Claytonia australasica, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 293 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 6. f. 9. 
Montia fontarut, Linn. — Cockayne, Rept. Tong. Nat. Park, t. 27. 

Hectorella cwspitosa. Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 1046 ; Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 26, f. 1, and 
xvi (1884), t. 35 (H. elongata). 

Malvace^. 

Plngiauthus divaricalus, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 43 ; Bot. Mag. t. 3271 ; Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi 
(1884), t. 34, f. 2; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 11, f. 1 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 80; 
Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 31, f. 9, 10, 11 (seedling). 

Plagianthus hetulinus, A. Cunn. — Poit. in Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. ii, viii, t. 3 (PhilippodetuLron regium) ; 
T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 103, 104 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiii (1901), t. 10, f. 11-15. 

Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn. var. vulgaris — Ic. Plant, t. 565, 566 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 53 ; Gard. 
Chron. 1901, ii, Nov. 23. 

Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn. var. lanceolata. Hook. f. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 54, 54a, 54b : Featon, 
Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 12 ; Gard. Chron. 1912, ii, f. 154. 

Hoheria populnea, A. Cunn. var. angustifolia. Hook. f. — Raoul. Choix, t. 26 (//. augustifoliu) ; T. Kirk- 
Forest Fl. t. 54, 55 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 79. 

Gaya Lyallii, J. E. Bak.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 11 (Hoheria Lyallii) ; Bot. Mag. t. 5935 (Plagi- 
anthus) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 134 (Plagianthus) ; Gard. Chron. 1888, ii, t. 24 ; 1907, i, f. 141 ; 
1911, ii, f. 27 (all Plagianthus) ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 34 (Plagianthus) : Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. 
Fl. t. 11, f. 2 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 81. 

Hibiscus trionum, Linn. — Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 11, f. 3. 

Hibiscus diver sifolius, Jacq. — Ic. Plant. Rar. t. 551 . 

Tiliace^. 
Entelea arborescens, R. Br.— Bot. Mag. t. 2480 ; A. Rich. Fl. Nonv. Zel. t. 34 (Apeiba australis) ; T. Kirk, 

Forest Fl. t. 33; Featon, Art. Alb.' N.Z. Fl. t. 13; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 74 ; Schum. in 

Engl. & Prantl. Pflanzenf. iii, abt. 6, t. 9. 
Aristotelia racemosa, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 601 (Friesia) ; Bot. Mag. t. 7868 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. 

t. 113 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 26 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 14 ; Lamg & Blackw. PI. N.Z. 

t. 75. 
Aristotelia fruticosa. Hook, f.— Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 31, f. 14-20, and t. 34, f. 73. 
ElcBocarpus dentatus, Vahl. — Forst. Char. Gen. t. 40 (Dicera) ; Ic. Plant, t. 602 (E. Hinau) ; T. Kirk, 

Forest Fl. t. 11 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 15, f. 1 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 76. 
Elwocarpus Hookerianus, Raoul — Choix, t. 25; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 12, 13; Laing & Blackw. PI. 

N.Z. t. 77. 

Linages. 
lAnum monogynum, Forst.— Bot. Mag. t. 3574 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 24 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. 

Fl. t. 15, f. 2. 



(JERANIArEiE. 

Gemniutii disseclum, Liiui. var. auslrale, BeiiUi. — Featoii, Art .\ll>. N'.Z. V\. I. 16. f. I. 

Geranium microphyUiiDi, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 5. 

Geranium sessilifloriiiti, (Jav. — Dui.s. I. 77, f. 2. 

Geranium. Traoersii, Hook. f. — Bucli. Trans. N.Z. In.st. vii (IK75), t. l.'i. f. 2 : llril.v . Nm. V\. S '/. i Id 

Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 16, f. 2. 
Pelargonium, auslrale, Jacq. — Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. I. Ki, f. 3. 
Oxalis corniculala, Linn. — Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 10. f. I. 
Oxalis iiiugelluiiica, Fonst. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. j.'i ; Ic. I'lnnl. I. IIH ((). mlnnuln) ; Kcalon. 

Art Alb. N.Z. Fl, t. 16, f. .'3. 

Mvvwv.jV.. 

Phebalium nudum, Hook. — Ic. Plant, t. 568 ; Hetley, Nal. Fl. N.Z. t. 32 ; Featon, Art Alb. N'.Z. Fl. 

t. 17, f. 1. 
Melicope ternala, Forst. — Char. Gen. t.l28 ; Gaertn. Fruct. i, t. 68 (EiUwjanum IrrmjaUim) : Ic. I'lant. 

t. 603 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 66 ; Featxtn, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 17. f. 2 ; Knfil. in Pflanzmf. ill . 

abt. 4, t. 64. 
Melicope ternala, Forst. var. Manlellii, T. Kirk — Fore.st Fl. t. 67. 
Melicope simplex, A. Cunii. — Ic. Plant, t. 50r) : T. Kirk. Forest Fl. I. 68; (J. M. Thonis. in Trans. 

N.Z. Inst, xxiv (1892), p. 417 (cleistogainic Howera) ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 66, 67. 

Mkliace/E. 

Dysoxylum spectahile. Hook. f. — -Ic. Plant, t. 615-16 (Hartighsea) ; 'I". Kirk. Forest Fl. t. 64, 65 : Hetley, 
Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 9 ; Featon. Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 18 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 68 ; Harms in 
Pflauzenf. iii, abt. 4, t. 161. 

Olacinace^. 

Pennantia corymhosa, Forst. — Char. Gen. t. 67 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 12 ; T. Kirk, Fore.sl Fl. 
t. 77, 78 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 19. 

lillAM.VAlK^. 

Pomaderris elliptim. Lab. — PI. Nov. Hull, i, t. 86; Bot. Mag. t. 1510; W'eberbaucr in Pflanzeuf. iii, 
abt. 5, t. 205 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 20 ; Ganl. Cliron. 1904, i. f. 148. 

Pomaderris apelala, Lab.— PL Nov. Holl. i, t. 87 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 8. 

Pomaderris Edgerleyi, Hook, f.— Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 21, f. 1. 

Discaria Toumatou. Raoul— Choix, t. 29 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 136 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 21, 
f. 3 ; Laiug & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 73 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xx.xii (1900), t. 9, f. 19-22. 

Sapindack.e. 

Dodonwa viscosa, Jacq.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 17 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 22. 
AlectryoH excehum. Gaertu.— Fruct. i, t. 46 ; Ic. Plant, t. 570 : T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 92, 93 ; Hadlkofer 
in Pflanzeuf. iii, abt. 5, t. 170 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 23. 

Anacakoiace.?:. 
Corynocarpiis Urvigata, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 16 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4379 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 88 ; Gard. 
Chrou. 1883, ii, f. 61 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 24. 

Coriariace^. 
Coriaria ruscifolia, Linn.— Bot. Mag. t. 2470 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 139 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. 
t. 25 ; Rowe, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xix (1897), t. 21 ; Labg & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 69. 

Legu.mixos^. 
Corallospartium crassicaule, Armstr.— Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxx (1899). (.31, f. 12, 13 (seedling). 
Carmichwlia Enysii, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884). t. 30 ; Cockaj-ne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, -xxxii 

(1900), t. 9, f. 16, 17. 
Carmichwlia Enysii, var. orhiculaUt, T. Kirk— Cockayne, Kept. Tong. Nat. Park, t. 20 ; N.Z. PI. i. 64. 
Carmichailia uriiflora, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884), t. 31. 
Carmicludia WiUiamsii, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884), t. 32 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. H. t. 26. 

f 3. (Flowers coloured yellow by error.) 
Carmichwlia anstralis, R. Br.— Bot. Reg. xi (1825), t. 912 ; Raoul, Choix, t. 28b (C. Cunmnghamii) ; 

Laiug & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 61, 62. 
Carmichwlia Petriei, T. Kirk, var. robusta, Cheesem.- Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), 

t. 30, f. 5, 5a, 9. and t. 33, f. 30. „ , „ >t r, , 

Carmichwlia odorala, Col.-Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 26, f. 1 ; Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi, 

(1899) t. 32, f. 24 (seedling). 



Carmicluvlia anqustata, T. Kirk — Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxii (1900), t. 8, f. 1, 2. 

Oarmicluelia flagelliformis, Col.— Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 26, f. 2. 

Carmichcelia flagelliforims, var. Hookeri, CJieesem. — Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (18U'J), t. 30, 

f. 6, 7, 8. 
Carmichcelia gracilis, Armstr. — Ic. Plant, t. 1332 (C. Kirkii) ', Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. lust, xxxi 

(1899), t. 30, f. 1, 2 (seedling). 
Notosparliiiiii Caniiicliceliw, Hook. f. — Kew Journ. Bot. ix, t. 3 ; Bot. Mag. t. 6741 ; Gard. Cliron. 

1883, ii, t. 26 ; 1907, ii, t. 60, 61 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 26, f. 4. 
Clianthas puniceits, Banks & Sol.— Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1775 : Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 27 ; 

Laing & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 63. 
Sophora lelrnpteni, Mill. var. (iraiuli flora, Hook. f. — Bot. Mag. t. 167 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 50 ; Featon, 

Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 28 ;' Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 34, f. 71, 72. 
Sophora telrapleru, var. iHicrophyUu. Hook. f. — Bot. Mag. t. 1442 (.S. niicrophylla), and t. 3735 (Edwardsia 

Maciabiana) ; Gard. Chron. 1878, i, f. 126 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 64, 65 ; T. Kirk, Forest 

Fl. t. 51 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 32, f. 25. 
Sophora letraptera, var. proslrata, T. Kirk — Bucli. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884), t. 36 ; T. Kirk, Forest 

Fl. t. 52. 

Rosacea. 
Ruhus aaslralis, Forst. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 14 (var. glaher) ; Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 

xxxi (1899), t. 32, i. 21, and t. 34, f. 67-68 (seedling). 
Rubus cissoides, A. Cunn. var. paaperatiis, T. Kirk — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 59 ; Cockayne. Trans. 

N.Z. Inst, xxxiii (1901), t. 12, f. 39, 40, 43-45 ; Kerner. Nat. Hist. PI. t. 158 {R. sqiiarrosus). 
Rubus parvus, Buck.— Trans. N.Z. Inst, vi (1874), t. 22, f. 2, 3 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 29, f. 3. 
Geum urbaniim, Linn. var. strictiun, Hook. f. — Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 29. f. 4. 
Geum albifloriiin, ClieeseniL. — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 7 (Sieversia alhiflora). 
Accena sanynisorbce, Vahl. — Forst. Char. Gen. t. 2 (Ancistruiii anseriiicpfoliniii) ; Hunib. & Jaeq. Voy. 

au Pole Sud, t. 24b ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 29, f. 5. 
Ariviin sdiiquisorbce, Vahl. var. pilosa, T. Kirk — Gaertn. Fruct. i, t. 32 (Aiwinlniui decnmbens). 
Aania ailsreiidens. Vahl- Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii, t. 96 ; Honib. & -lacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, t. 25, f. C. 
Ann,,, gl,ihm, Buch.— Trans. N.Z. Inst, iv (1872), t. 14. 

Saxifragac'e^. 
Donatia nooce-zealandicB, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 20 ; Engl, in Pilanzenl. iii, abt. 2, t. 31, D-F ; 

Milbraed in Engl. Pflanzenr. heft 35, t. 7, f. D-F. 
Quintinia serrata, A. Cunn.- Ic. Plant, t. 558 : T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 125 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 33 ; 

Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 30, f. 1, 2. 
Quintinia acutifolia, T. Kirk — Forest Fl. t. 125, f. 6, 7. 
Ixerba brexioides, A. Cunn. — Ic. Plant, t. 577-578; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 48; Engl, in Pflanzenf. iii, 

abt. 2, t. 44 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 30, f. 3 ; Laing & Blackw, PI. N.Z. t. 54. 
Carpodetiis serralus, Forst. — Char. Gen. t. 17 ; Ic. Plant, t. 564 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 47 ; Featon, 

Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 30, f. 3 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 55. 
Ackaina roscefolia, A. Cunn. — A. Gray, Bot. U.S. Expl. Exped. t. 84 {Weiiiiuunnia) ; T. Kirk, Forest 

Fl. t. 63. 
Weinmannia sylvicola, Soland.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 72 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 32, f. 1. 
Weinmannia racemosa, Linn, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 73 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 32, f. 2 ; 

Cockayne, Rept. Bot. Stew. Is. t. 10. 

Crassulal'E-?:. 

Tillwa moschala, D.C. — Ic. Plant, t. 535. 

Tillcea Sieberiana, Schultz — Ic. Plant, t. 295 {T. verliciUaris). 

Droserace.'E, 

Drosera stenopetala, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 9 ; Drude in Engl. Pflanzenf. iii, abt. 2, t. 159, f. A-C ; 

Diels in Pflanzenr. heft 26, t. 21, f. J-L. 
Drosera Arcluri, Hook. — Ic. Plant, t. 56 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 33, f. 1 ; Diels in Pflanzenr. 

heft 26, t. 21, f. A-F. 
Drosera pygmwa, D.C. — Diels in Pflanzenr. heft 26, t. 22. 
Drosera spalhulata, Lab.— PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 106, f. 1 ; Bot. Mag. t. 5240 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. 

t. 53 ; Diels in Pflanzenr. heft 26, t. 31, f. A-B. 
Drosera binata. Lab.— PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 105 ; Bot. Mag. t. 3082 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 33 

f. 2 ; Diels in Pflanzenr. heft 26, t. 34. 
Drosera auriculata, Backh.— Lab. PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 106 {D. pehala) ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 33, 

f. 3 ; Diels in Pflanzenr. heft 26, t. 36, £. D-G. 



HaLOKAGACE/E. 

Halomgu erecta, Sclun.U ~-l'llu.i/..ur. I,..|. 23, t. 14, f. A-I) ; Mu.r. in Vumm.Gntun^. hi, t. 1 {CercMa) 
Featoa, Art Alh. N.Z. 1<I. .. .j.'J, I, I (//. ulalu) ; IVtemon in Engl. I'ilanzL-iif. iii, abt. 7, t. 102 f \-C 
(a. alata). 

Haloragis iruxnui, VValj).— Schindl. in I'llanzt-nr. Iieft 23, t. !), f. U, E (//. mj(jrajuta) 

Haloragis depressa, Walp.— Biich. Trans. N.Z. Inst, iv (1872), t. 13 (//. ,uj<jreijutu). 

Halomgin dcpresm, vnv. uniflora, Checijcni.— Schindl. in I'flanzi'nr. Iicft 23. I. 1.3. f. li (//. u,„/l„ia) 

Halomips ,lei„rs.-<„, var. spicata, Scliindl.— IVtrir in TraiKs. N.Z. Inst. .\.\.\i (IH'.i'.i), t. 27 (// spimla) 

Halorwp.s ,„nnnal,a, R. Jir.— Bn.ng. in l)n]H'i-. V.,y. Coq. Bot. t. G8 (//. tenelUi); IVtewon in Enal. 
i flan/.onl. in, abt. 7, t. 102, f. D, E ; .Scliimll. in I'flanzenr. heft 23, t. 12, f. A D. 

Myriophyllum elatiiioides, Ganil.— Scliindl. in I'llanzcni-. lieft 23, I. 20, f. A- B. 

MyriophylhuH iiUeniicdium, D.C. — Ic. I'iant. I. 2Hii (.1/. rfirimlollinii). 

Myriophylliiw pednitcidalinii, Hook. i.— V\. Tasni. i, t. 28u. 

Gunnera w.omica, Rai)ul— Choix, t. 8 ; Potomon in Engl. l'Hunz»-i.f. iii. abi. 7, i. liMln. 

Guimem dciUaUt, T. Kirk— ('(.ckaync Tnins. N.Z. In.st. .\.\.\i (I8!)!»), t. 31. f. IH (scodling). 

.MVKTACE/K. 

Leptospermtt/w scopanwm, Forat.— Char. Gen. t. 36 ; T. Kirk, Forest Kl I 117- hVuton Vrt All) .\ Z 

Fl. t. 34 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 85, 86. , . . . 

Leplospermum ericoides, A. Rich.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. 69 : Lain;,' & Blackw. I'j. N.Z. I. 87. 
Metrosiderosjlorida,^m..—^ot.yi&g.tA^'\; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 15 ; T Kirk Fore.st Fl i 127- 

Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 16 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 35, f. 1. ' ■ • • 

Metrosideros Incida, A. Rich.— Cav. Ic. iv. t. 337 (M . n ndjellata) : Hoinb. & .lacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. 

Phan. t. 1 (AijuiiiiaiUhiis umhellulxs) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 58 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 6 ; Featon, 

Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 35, f. 2 ; Cockayne in Rept. Subantarct. Is. of N'Z. j). I'.Ct, f. 1. 
Metrosideros Parkiiisoni, Buch. — Trans. N.Z. Inst, .w (1883), t. 28, f. 2. 
Metrosideros albiflora, Sol. — Gaertn. Frucl. t. 34, I '. II : Ic. Plant. t.56i) (-1/. dif/'isa)- Hetley Nat PI 

N.Z. t. 18 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 35, f, .!. 
Metrosideros hypericifolia, A. Cunn. — Ho(dc. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 16 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 89. 
Metrosideros rohusta, A. Cunn. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 17 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4471 (A/, fiorid^i) ; T. Kirk, 

Forest Fl. t. 128 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 88, 90. 
Metrosideros tomenlosa, A. Rich. — Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 37 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4488 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 118; 

Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 29 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 37 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 91 ; 

Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 36. 
Metrosideros viUosa, Siii. — Gaud, hi Freyc. Voy. Bot. t. 85 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 1 19 (.1/. polymorpha). 
Metrosideros scatulens, Sol. — Gaertn. Fruct. i, 1. 34, f. 10 : Bot. Mag. t. 4515 {M. buxi/olia) ; Paxt. 

Fl. Gard. i, f. 56 {M. buxifolia) ; Lauig & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 92. 
Myrtus hullata, Sol.— Ic. Plant, t. 557 ; Bot. Mag. t. 4809 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 131 ; Featon, Art 

Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 38, f. 1, 2. 
Myrtus Ralphii, Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 91. 

Myrtus obcurdata, Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl, t. 70 : Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 38. f. 3. 
Myrtus pedunculala, Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 629 : T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 112 ; Featon, Art Alb. N.Z. 

Fl. t. 38, f. 4. 
Ewjenia Maire, A. Cunn.— T. Kirk. Forest Fl. t. 122 ; P'eaton, Art Alb. N.Z. Fl. t. 39. 

O.NAGRACK/K. 

EpilobiuiH pallidifioruin, Sol. — Ic. Plant, t. 297 (E. macranthum) . 

Epilobiuin chioiMiUhuin, Haussk. — Monog. E])ilob. t. 22, f. 92, A and u. 

Epilobium pubens, A. Rich. — Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 36. 

Epilobiuin confertijolium, Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 685. 

Epilobium conferlijolium, vai. lasinanicum, Vheesem. — Haussk. Monog. Epilob. t. 20. f.84 {E.idxwainciim). 

Epilobium tenuipes, Hook. f. — Hau.ssk. Monog. Epilob. t. 20, f. 83. 

Epilobium Heclori, Haussk.— Monog. Epilob. t. 19, f. 82, 82a. 

Epilobium alsiiioides, A. Cunn. — Haussk. Monog. Epilob. t. 23, f. 97. 

Epilobium chlorce folium, Haussk. — Monog. Epilob. t. 19, f. 81, 81a ; Cockayne. N.Z. PI. I. 63. 

Epilobium linruBoides, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t, 6. 

Epilobium nummularitolium, R. Cunn. — Haussk. Monog. Epilob. t. 22, f. 94. 

Epilobium nummnlarijolium, var. pedunculare, Hook. f. — Haussk. Monog. Epilob. I. 23. f. 96 ; l.c t 20, 

f. 85 (E. cwspitosum). 
Epilobium purpuratum. Hook. f. — Barbey, Gen. Epilob. t. 18, f. 2. 
Epilobium macropus, Hook.— Ic. Plant, t. 812; Haussk. Monog. Epilob. t. 21, f. 91, 91a, 1b; 

Cockayne, Rept. Toiig. Nat. Park, t. 23. 
Epilobium crassum, Hook, f.— Haussk. Monog. Epilob. t. 22, f. 93, 93a ; Barbey, Gen. Epilob i 18, 

f. 1. 
Epilobium brevipes. Hook, f.— Haussk. Monog. Epilob. t. 21, f. 89 ; Barbey, Gen. Epilob. t. 19. 
Epilobium pycnostachyum, Haussk. Monog. Epilob. t. 21. f. 88. 



Fypllohiiiiii melaiwciniloii, Hook.— Ic. Plant, t. 813. 

Epilobiimi iiiehiHOi-aiiJdii, var. pobjclonum, Cheesem. — Haussk. Moiiog. Epilob. t. 20, f. 87, 87a. 

EpilubiiuH inicrophylluin, A. Eicli.— Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 36 ; Haus.sk. Monog. Epilob. t. 18, f. 79. 

Epilobiuni Krulleanum, Haussk. — Monog. Epilob. t. 23, f. 95. 

Efilohium glabelliim, Forst. var. eruhescens, Haussk. — Monog. Epilob. t. 23, f. 98, 98a, 98b. 

EpilobiuiK novce-zelaiidirp, Haussk. — Monog. Epilob. t. 20, f. 86, 86a, 86b. 

Fuchsia excorticata, Linn. f. — Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 857 ; Forst. Char. Gen, t. 29 (Skinnera) ; T. Kirk, 

Forest Fl. t. 36, 36a : T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst, .xxv (1893), t. 19 ; Laing & Blackw. PL N.Z. 

t. 91. 
Fuchsia procumbem, R. Cunn. — Ic. Plant, t. 421 ; Gard. Chron. 1874, ii, t. 60 ; Ic. Plant, t. 1083 

{F. Kirkii) ; Bot. Mag. t. 6139 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 19. 

Passiplorac'b^. 

Passiflora telrandra, Banks & Sol. — Raoul, Cln)ix. t. 27 {TetrapathcEa austraUs) ; Laing & Blackw. PL 

N.Z. t. 83. 

Fk'oide.*. 
MesembryaHthenium auslrale, Sol. — Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 25. 

Umbellifer.4;. 
Hydrocotyle tripartita, R. Br. — A. Rich. Hydrocot. t. 61, f. 25, and t. 61, f. 27 (H . muscosa). 
Hydrocotyle pterocarpu, F. Muell. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i, t. 33, B, C. ; Di-ude in Engl. Pflanzenf. iii, abt.8, 

t. 47, F-H. 
Hydrocotyle asiatica, Linn. — Ic. Plant, t. 303 (H. cordifoUa) ; Drude in Ensjl. Pflanzenf iii, abt 8 

t. 47, J. 
Azorella Sela^go, Hook. f. — Fl. Autarct. ii, t. 99. 

Schizeilema exigiiuiii, Doniin. — Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 26, f. 2 (Azorelh exigua). 
Schizeileiiia renijorine, Domin. — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 11 [Pozoa renijonnis). 
Schizeilema trifoliolatum, Domin. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 18 {Pozoa trifolinlnla). 
Eryn^jium- vesiodosuni, Lab. — PL Nov. Holl. i, t. 98. 

Acliiio/iis iiorir-zelandia', Petrie — Hook. f. Fl. Tasni. i, t. 36a {Heiinp/iiies bellidioides, var. suffomta). 
Apniiii pins/rnhini. Lab.— PL Nov. Holl. i, t. 103 ; Ic. Plant, t. 305 (Petroselimmi). 
Apiuiii piosiiatuin, var. filifonne, Cheesem. — Ic. Plant, t. 819 {A. filijornie). 
Oreomyrrhis andicola, Endl. — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii, t. 101 (South American .specimen). 
Crantzia lineata, Nutt. — Hook. f. Fl. Aiitarct. ii, t. 100 (American specimen). 
Aciphylla Colensoi, Hook. f. — Lindsay, Contr. N.Z. Bot. t. 1 ; Laing & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 103. 
Aciphylla squarrosa, Forst. — Char. Gen. t. 68 ; Ic. Plant, t. 607-608 ; Gard. Chron. 1884, ii, t. 26, 

and 1911, ii, t. 52. 
Aciphylla Lyallii, Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 2556. 
Aciphylla Hectori, Buch. — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 27. 
Aciphylla Kirkii, Buch. — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xix (1887), t. 17. 
Aciphylla Monroi, Hook. f. — Lamg & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 104. 
Coxella Dieffetibachii, Cheesem. — Muell. Veg. Chath. Is. t. 1 (Giiigidium) ; Dorrieu-Smith in Kew Bull. 

1910, p. 124. 
LigusticuiJi latijolium. Hook. i. — Fl. .Vntarct. i, t. 8 (Anisotome) ; Cockayne in Rept. Subantarct. Is. 

N.Z. i, p. 197, f. 6 {Aciphylla). 
Ligusticum antipodum, Homb. & Jacq. — Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 3 ; Hook. f. FL Antarct. i, t. 9, 10 

{Anisotome). 
Ligusticum dissectum, T. Kirk — Aston, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xlii (1910), t. 5. 
Ligusticum filifolium, Hook. f. — Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiii (1901), t. 12, f. 38, 41. 
Ligusticum piliferum, Hook. f. — Laing & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 102. 
Angelica Gingidium, Hook. f. — Forst. Char. Gen. t. 21 {Gingidium, montanwm). 
Angelica genicidata, Hook, f . — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 19 {Eustylis) ; Spreng. Umbellif. t. 5 {Bowlesia). 
Angelica roswfolia. Hook. — Ic. Plant, t. 581. 
Daucus brachiatus, Sieb. — Lab. PL Nov. Holl. i, t. 102 {Scandix glochidiata). 

Araliace^. 
Utilbocarpa polaris, A. Gray — Homb. & Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 2 {Araliu) ; Ic. Plant, t. 747 ; 

T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. List, xvii (1885), t. 17 ; Laing & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 96 ; Kew Bull. 1908* 

p. 249 ; Cockayne in Rept. Subantarct. Is. N.Z. i, p. 189, f. 3. 
Stilbocarpa Lyallii, Armstr. — T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvii (1885), t. 17 {Aralia) ; Cockayne, Trans. 

N.Z. Inst, xxxvi (1904), t. 21 ; Rept. Bot. Stew. Is. t. 38. 
Panax simplex, Forst. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 31 ; Homb. & Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 30, f. B ; 

Hook, f . FL Antarct. i, t. 12 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 106, 107 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxvi 

(1904), t. 11. 



Panax Edqerhyl, Hook. f,--T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t . M, 45, ir,n ; Phillips Tumor. Rent. Wainmrino. p. 10. 

fanax anomahrm. Hook.— Loud. .Jouni. Bot. ii (1843), I 12 

Panar. Colensoi, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i. I. 21 ; LaiuK & Hlackw. PI. N.Z. t. '.I7 (Solh.ypnmx). 

I. anax arhoremn, Forst.— Hook. ir> I.mi.I. .lourr.. Hot. ii (I8i;j), t. 11 ; PhillipK Tumor. Kept. Wairuuriuo. 

p. 10. 
Meryta Sindairii, Seem.— T. Kirk, Fore.st Fl. t. 121 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. I. 25; Uma & Hlackw. 

11. N.Z. t. 100 ; Gard. Chron. 1903, vol. 34, f. 422, and I'.IOS, vol. 1, f. 2. 
Schefjlera digilata, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 23 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 22 (Ar,di<, MuHlem) : Laint A 

Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 101. ii i i- 

Pseudopanax Lessnnii, C. Koch— A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 32 (Cumovia). 
Psevdo'panax crassijolium, C. Koch— Ic. Plant, f. 583, 584 (Pttimx) ; liuch. Tran«. N.Z. Inst, ix (1877), 

t. 21 (Panax lomjissuiium.) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 38, 38a, 38h, 38c, 38i) ; Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. 

lust, xxxi (18itf)). t.32, f. 22. and t. 33, f. 31-35 (.levelopnient of seedlinK) I LaiuK k Hlackw. PI. 

N.Z. t. 98, 99 ; Phillips Turner. Rept. Wainiarino, p. 9. 
Pseudopanax ferux, T. Kirk— Bticli. Trans. N.Z. Inst, ix (1877), t. 20 (P. rrMsilnliMi,,) ; T. Kirk, Forest 

Fl. t. 23-26. 
Pseudopanax Chathawiruw, T. Kirk— Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxii (190(1). t. 9. f. 11 15 and 

23, 24 (development of seedling). 

COKNACK.'E. 

Corokia hxMleoides, A. Cunu. — Ic. Plant, t. 424. 

Gorokia macrocarpa, T. Kirk— Wangerin in Pflaiizeiir. heft 41, t. 21, f. A-C. 
Corokia Cotoneaster, Raoul— Choix, t. 20 ; Wangerin in Pflanzenr. heft. 41. I. 1) .1. 
Griselinia lucida, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 70 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 41. 
Griselinia Uttoralis, Raoul— Choix, t. 19; T. Kirk, Fnrc^st Fl. t. 42. 

Capri FOLiAf'Eiai. 

Alseuosmia macrophi/lla, A. Cunti.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 23 ; Bot. Mag. t. 6951 ; Hetlev, Nat. 

Fl. N.Z. t. 19. 
Alseuosmia Banksii, A. Cunn. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 24. 
Alseuosmia linariifolia, A. Ciinn. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 25. 

RriilACE.K. 

Coprosma lucida, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 69, f. H-K ; Laing & Blackw. t. 132; Greensill, Trans. N.Z. 

Inst, xxxv (1903), t. 41, f. 5. and t. 42, f. 6, 7, 9, 10, 11. 
Coprosma Baueri, Endl. — Iconog. t. Ill : T. Kirk. Forest Fl. t. 62 ; Barbier in Rev. Hort. Belg. iii 

(1877), t. 12 (C. Stocki) ; Greensill, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903), t. 41. f. 1 4. 
Coprosma Chathamica, Cockayne — Greensill, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903), t. 42, f. 13. and t.43, f. 10. 
Coprosma robusta, Raoul— Choix. t. 21 ; Greensill. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903). t. 44. f. 20. 25. 
Coprosma arborea, T. Kirk— Forest Fl. t. 132 ; Laing & Black^v. PI. N.Z. t. 1.33. 
Coprosma spathMata, A. Cunn. — Laing & Blackw. t. 134 (C. tenuicaulis). 
Coprosma rotundifolia, A. Cunn. — Greensill, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903), t. 44, f. 21, 20. 
Coprosma acerosa, A. Cunn, — Gard. Chron. 1909, ii, f. 1.50 : Cockavne. Trans. N.Z. Insl. xxxi (1899). 

t. 34, f. 69 (stipule) ; Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 31. 
Coprosma propinqua, A. Cunn. — Greensill, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903). t. 42, f. 8. and t. 44. f. 22. 
Coprosma Kirkii, Cheesem. — Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884), t. 34, f. 1 (Plagianthnx Unnriifolius). 
Coprosma linariifolia, Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 95 ; Greensill, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903), 

t. 43, f. 14, and t. 44, f. 23. 
Coprosma fcetidissima. Forst. — Char. Gen. t. 69, f. A-G ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 13. and t. 14 

(C. afpnis) ; Greensill, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxv (1903), t. 43, £. 15, and t. 44, f. 24. 
Coprosma cuneata, Hook. f. — Fl. -'Vntarct. i, t. 15. 
Coprosma repens, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 16. 
Nertera depressa, Banks & Sol.— Gaevtn. Fnirt. i. t. 26 : Hot. Mag. t. 4809 ; Schuni. in Engl. Ptianzei'f. 

iv, abt. 4, t. 42, A, B. 
Nerlera dichondrwfolia, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 28a : Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 1.35. 
Nertera setulosa, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 28b. 

CoMPOsiT.*;. 
Lagenophora pumila, Forst.— A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 30 (Microcalia anslrali-s). 
Brachycome Thomsoni, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884). t. 27. 
Olearia insignis, Hook, f.— Hetley. Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. .35 : Bot. Mag. t. 70.34 : Laing & Hlackw. PI. N.Z 

t. 137 ; Gard. Chron. 1908. i. t. 3. and 1911. i, t. 28. 
Olearia semidentata, Dene.— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, vii (1875). t. 14 : Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 2 ; Cockayne. 

Traus. N.Z. Inst, xxxiv (1902), t. 18: Kew Bull. 1910, p. 122, 123. and p. 125 (var. alhiflnra) : 

Gard. Chron. 1911. i,. Ian. 28. 



Olearia chathamicn, T. Kirk — Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, vii (1875), t. 15 (O. angustifolia, var.). 

Olearia angu.stifolia. Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 138; Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 34. 35; Cockayne, 

Kept. Bot. Stew. Is. t. 15. 
Olearia TraiUii, T. Kirk.— Fore.st Fl. t. 1 12. 

Olearia Colensoi, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 29 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 102. 
Olearia Lyallii, Hook. f. — Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvi (1904), t. 15 ; Cockayne, Subantarct. 

Repts. i, 208, f. 8. 
Olearia Traversii, Hook, f.— F. Muell. Veg. Chat. Is. t. 2 (EnryUn); T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 34; Gard. 

Chron. 1887, ii, t. 42. 
Olearia furfnracea, Hook. f. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 138. 

Olearia macrodonta, Baker— Gard. Chron. 1886, ii, t. 62 and 1911, i, t. 29 ; Bot. Mag. t. 7065. 
Olearia iUcifolia, Hook, f — Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 21 : Laing & Blackw. Pi. N.Z. t. 139. 
Olearia Ounninghainii, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 30 (Euryhia) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 114. 
Olearia Haastii, Hook, f.— Gard. Chron. 1872, p. 1195; Bot. Mag. t. 6592; Gard. Chron. 1896, ii, 

t. 96, and 1911, i, t. 27. 
Olearia numtmdarijoUa, Hook. f. — Lain^ & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 140 ; Cockayne, Kept. Tong. Nat. Park, 

t. 19 ; Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 23. 
Olearia avicennicefoUa, Hook. f. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 111. 
Olearia Forsteri, Hook. f. — Forst. Char. Gen. t. 48 {Shaivia paniciilata) ; Raoul, Choix, t. 13 (Shawia 

paniculata) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 137 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 142 ; Gard. Chron. 1897, ii, 

p. 381, and 1911, i, t. 26. 
Olearia odorata, Petrie — Coclcayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 33 (seedling). 
Olearia virgafa, Hook. f. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 141. 
Pleurophyllnm speciosuw. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 22, 23 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 143 ; 

Cockayne, Subantarct. Repts. i, 222, f. 14. 
Pleurophyllnm cnniferum, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 24, 25 ; Homb. & Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zei. t. 4 

(Alhinea orisegenesa) ; Cockayne, Subantarct. Repts. i, 222, f. 15. 
PleuTophyllum Hookeri, Buch.— T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiii (1891), t. 39, 40 {P. Hookeriannm) ; 

Cockayne, Subantarct. Repts. i, 221, f. 13. 
Gelmisia Walkeri, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, ix (1877), t. 30. 
Celmisia lateralis, Buch. — Trans. N.Z. Inst, iv (1872), t. 15. 
Celmisia holosericea, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 31. 
Gelmisia Dallii, Buch.— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 35. 
Celmisia hieracifolia, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 34b. 

Celmisia discolor, Hook. f. — Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvii (1885), t. 15 (Erigeroii novce-zealandioe) . 
Celmisia incana, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 34a ; Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xix (1887), t. 18 (C. rohusta). 
Celmisia Lindsayi, Hook. f. — Lindsay, Contr. N.Z. Bot. t. 3, f. 1 ; Bot. Mag. t. 7134. 
Celmisia cordatifolia, Buch. — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xi (1879), t. 18. 
Celmisia spectabilis, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 33 ; Bot. Mag. t. 6653 ; Gard. Chron. 1906, ii, t. 1. 

and 1909, i, t. i ; Cockayne, Rept. Tong. Nat. Park, t. 21. 
Celmisia Mackaiii, Raoul — Choix, t. 14. 
Cebnisia coriacea, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 32 ; Gard. Chron. 1902, ii, t. 65. and 1909! ii, t. 2 ; Laing & 

Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 144, 145. 
Celmisia Armstrongii, Petrie — Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 15 (C. Monroi). 
Celmisia Monroi, Hook. f. — Bot. Mag. t. 7496 (probably not the true plant). 
Celmisia longifolia, Cass.— Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 21 ;' Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 146. 
Celmisia linearis, Armstr. — Cockayne, Rept. Bot. Stew. Is. t. 9. 
Celmisia glandulosa. Hook, f.— Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 21 (?). 

Celmisia vernicosa. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 26, 27 ; Gard. Chron. 1891, i, t. 117. 
Celmisia Campbellensis, Chapm. — Gard. Chron. 1891, i, f. 146 (C. Chapmani). 

Haastia puhinaris. Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 1003 : Low. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxii (1900). t. 17-19, 19a. 
Haastia Sinclairii, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 1003. 
Gnaphalium trinerve, Forst. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 147. 
GnaphaUum Traversii, Hook, f, var. Markayi, T. Kirk — Buch. Trans. N.Z, Inst, xiv (1882), t. 34, f. 2 

(Raoidia Mackayi). 
Gnaphalium colUnum, Lab. — PI. Nov. HoU. ii, t. 189. 
Raoidia aiislralls. Hook, f.— Raoul, Choix, t. 15 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 148 ; Cockayne, Rept. 

Tong. Nat. Park, t. 3 ; Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 5 ; Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 220, fig. 4. 
Raoulia lutescens, Beauv. — Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 222, fig. 5. 
Raoulia tenuicaulis. Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 36a : Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 223, 

fig. 6. 
Raoulia Haastii, Hook, f.— Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 224, fig. 7. 
Raoulia Monroi, Hook, f.— Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1912), 54, fig. 14, 9-18. 
Raoidia Cheesemanii, Beauv. — Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1912), 54, fig. 14, 1-8. 
Raoidia glabra, Hook, f.— Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 225, fig. 8. 
Raoulia siibsericea. Hook. f.^Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 226, fig. 9. 
Raoulia Parkii, Buch.— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 34, f. 3, 



Raoulia subulatd. Hook, f.— Bcnuiv. Bull. Soc. Bol, (;<.i„-vu (l!t|0), 228, fi^'. 10 (Psi/rhrophi/lon). 

Ranidui Youiigil, Meauv.— Bull. Sf)c. Bot. Gciiova (1(»I0), 22!l, fi«. II (Psychropliylon). 

Ruonha esimiu. IJook. f.— I[,.tl.-y. Xat. Fl. N.Z. (.spc.ial i>laU-) : ('..ckayn.-, Trau8. N.Z. Iii.si. xxxii 

(1900), t. II and 12; Laiiin k Blackw . I'l. X.Z. i. Nil (U. wiimmill.nin) ; Cockayne. N.Z. I'l. 

t. 47 ; Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Genova (I".)l(i), 2:il, lig. 12 (l^sychroithijloti). 
Raonha grandifluru, Hook, f.— 1<'1. Nov. Zol. i, I. .'JTa : Beauv. Bull. Hoc. Bot. Geneva (l'.)IO), fi«. |:J 

{Psychrophyton). 
Raoulia Pclrieiisis. T. Kirk— Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Goucva (1912), 52, fig. 13. 

Raonlia iimwmillaris, Hook, f.— Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 233, fig. 11 (pHyrhrophytnn). 
Raoulia rnbni, Bucli.— Tran.s. N.Z. In.st. .\iv (1882), t. 30, f. 2. 
Raoulia Biichanani, T. Kii-k— Beauv. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1912), 50, (!«. 12. 
Helichrysum heUidioides, Wilkl.— Hctlov, Nat. V\. N.Z. t. 31 : Laing k Blackw. I'l. N.Z. t. 151 : 

Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 51. 
Helichrysum heUidioides, var. prostratuw. T. Kirk— Hook. f. Fl. .\iitarct. i, f. 21 (//. pmslralnw). 
Helichrysinii fdicaule, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 3(iB. 
Helichrysum jasricidatuiii, Bucli.— Tr.ans. N.Z. In.st. ix (1877). I. lit. 
Helichrysum Logaiiii. '1'. Kirk— Bucli. Tran.s. N.Z. In.st. xiv (1882). t. 30, f. 3 (Hnaslia). 
Helichrysum glomeriiliim, Bentli. & Hook, f.— Raoul. Choix, t. 16 (Sii'ummerdammia) ; Paxt. Fl. Gard. ii, 

fig. 185 (SmtviiHcrdammia). 
Helichrysum depressum.Hnith.k Honk. {. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 3')n (Ozolhainnus) ; Cockayne, 

Trans. N.Z. Inst, .xxxi (I89i)), t. 34, f. 50, 51 (seedling). 
Helichrysum micropkylluui, Beiitli. & Hook, f.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 35a (Ozotha minis). 
Lencogenes leontopodium, Beauv.— Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 242, fig. 18; Hook. f. Fl. Nov, 

Zel, i, 37b {Helichrysum) ■ Aston, Tran.s. N.Z. Inst, xlii (1910), t. (HfUrhrysum) : Cockavne, 

N.Z. PI. t. 50 (Helichrysum). 
Leucogenes grandiceps, Beauv.— Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneva (1910), 244, fig. 19; Ifetley. Nat. Fl. N.Z. 

t. 31 (Helichrysum) ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 152 (HeUrhrysum). 
Cassinia leptophylla, R. Br. — Paxt. Fl. Gard. iii, f. 227. 
Cassinia Vauvilliersii, Hook. f. — Honib. k .lacc). Bot. Voy. Astrol. el Zel. t. 5 (Oz»lh<iiiiiiiix) : Laing <S: 

Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 152. 
Craspedia uniflora, Forst. — Laing k Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 152. 

Cotidn coronopifolia, Linn. var. itdegri/olia. T. Kirk — Hook. f. Fl. Tmmm. i. I. ')iU'. {< ' . uilfiinfnliii). 
Colida <iustralis. Hook. f. — Fl. Ta.sm. i, t. 50a. 
Cotula plumosa, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 20 (Lepliiiella) . 
Cotula lanala. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 19 (Lepliiiella). 

Cotula Muelleri. T. Kirk — F. Muell. Veg. Chath. Is. t. 6 (Lepliiiella polenlillinn). 
Colula Featherstonii, F. Muell. — Veg. Chath. I.s. t. 5 (Leplinella) ; Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiv 

(1902), t. 16. 
AhroUntelhi .ipnlhulala, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 17 (Triiieuroii). 
AbroUiiirUu rosnJata, Hook, f.— Fl. Antarct. i, t. 18 (Ceratella). 

Abrotaiicllu Inwuris, Berggr.— Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund, viii (1877), t. 3. f. 28-38, 
Abrotanella inconspicim. Hook. f. — Buch. Tran.s. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 34. f. 1. 
Ahrotanella muscosa, T. Kirk — Trans. N.Z. Inst, x.xiv (1892), t. 36. 
Erechliles quadridenta, D.C. — Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. ii, t. 194 (Seiiecio). 
Brachyglotlis repaiida. Forst.— Char. Gen. t. ^6 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 40 (Seiiecio Fnrsteri) ; Gard. 

drou. 18it5, i, f. 110. and 1908. ii, f. 20, 21 ; Lamg k Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 154. 
Senecio lagopus. Raoul — Ann. Sci. Nat. .ser. iii, 2 (1844), t, 18 : and Choix. t. 17. 
Senecio saxifragoides, Hook. f. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 157. 
Senecio Lyallii. Hook. f. — Laing k Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 156. 

Senecio laulus, Forst. var. radiolatus. T. Kirk— F. .Muell. Veg. Chath. Ls. I. 4 (S. radinlalus). 
Senecio Heclori, Buch.— Trans. N.Z. Inst, vi (1871), t. 23 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 20. 
Senecio Kirkii, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 39 (S. glaMifolius) : Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 21 (S. glasti- 

f alius). 
Senecio myrianthos, Cheescni. — Ic. Plant, t. 1201 (S. Chee^rinnnii). 
Senecio sciadophilus, Raoul- — Choix, t. 18. 
Senecio perdidoides. Hook. f. — Hetley, Nat. PI. N.Z. t. 4. 
Senecio Huiilii. F. Muell.— Ves;. Chat^h. Is. t. 3 ; Hetlev, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 13. 
Senecio kxifolius. Buch.— Bot. Mag. t. 7398 ; Gard. Chron. 1894, ii, t. 43 (splial. N. Inlilnlius). 
Senecio Greyii, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 38. 
Senecio compaclus. T. Kirk — Ganl. Chron. 189G, ii, t. 53. 
Senecio rerolutus, T. Kirk— Buch. Trails. N.Z. Inst, vi (1871). t. 1. (.S. rnbuslus) ; Hetley, S»< . Fl \" 7. 

t. 20 (S. robuslu.s). 
Senecio cassinioides. Hook, f.— Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 155. 

Senecio elceagnijolins, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 41 (Bnwhyglotlis) : Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. l.j. 
Senecio rotundifolius. Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl, t. 116: Cockayne. Kept. Bot. Stew. Is. t. 14 ; 

Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 33. 
Senecio geminatus, T. Kirk- Ic. Plant, t. 1002 (Trarer.'<ia hacchaioides). 

ii— Flora Notes. 



Mir.roseris Forsteri, Hook. f. — Fl. Tasni. i. t. 66. 

Crepis novoB-zelandice , Hook. f. — Lindsay, Contr. N.Z. Bot. t. 3. 

Taraxacum magellanicmn, Comm. — Mazetti, Monog. Taraxac. t. 2, f. 7. 

Stylidiace^. 
Phyllachne clavigera, F. Muell.— Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 28 (Forsiera) ; Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. 

Astrol. et Zel. t. 16c (Forstera aretriastri folia) ; Laing in Rept. Subantarct. Is. N.Z. ii, p. 490, f. 2 ; 

Cockayne in Rept. Subantarct. Is. N.Z. i, p. 196, f. 5 ; Milbraed in Pflanzenr. heft 35, t. 8, f. F-G. 
Phyllachne Colensoi, Berggr.— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 31, f. 1 (P. Haastii) ; Milbraed in 

Pflanzenr. heft 35, t.9,, f. A-E. 
Phyllachne Colensoi, var. Haastii, Cheesem. — Berggr. in Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 3, 

f. 1-27 (P. Colensoi). 
Phyllachne rubra, Cheesem.— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 31, f. 2. 
Oreostylidium subulatnm, Berggr. — Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 1 ; Milbraed in Pflanzenr. 

heft 35, t. 9, f. A-E. 
Forstera sedifolia, Linn. f. — Berggr. Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 2, f. 20. 
Forsiera sedifolia, Linn. f. var. oculata, Cheesem. — Milbraed in Pflanzenr. heft 35, t. 8, f. H-K. 
Forstera Bidwillii. Hook, f.— Berggr. Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 2, f. 1-19 : Hetlev, 

Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 21. 
Forstera tenella. Hook, f.— Berggr. Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 2, f. 21-39 ; Milbraed in 

Pflanzenr. heft 35, t. 8, f. S-T. 

GOODENIACE^. 

Selliera radicans, Cav. — Ic. v. t. 474 : Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 76 (Goodenia re-pens) ; Laing & Blackw. 
PI. N.Z. t. 136 ; Schonland in Engl. Pflanzenf. iv, abt. 5, t. 46, f. A-D ; Krause in Pflanzenr. 
heft 54, t. 22, f. A-E. 

Campanulace^. 
Golensoa fhysaloides. Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 555-556 (Lobelia) : Bot. Mag. t. 6864 ; Ic. Plant, t. 1532 

(Pratia). 
Pratia arenaria. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 29. 
Lobelia anceps, Linn. f. — Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 72 (L. alata). 
Lobelia Roiighii, Hook, f.— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 28. 
Isotoma pAriatilis, F. Muell.— Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i, t. 70 (Lobelia). 
Wahlenbergia saxicola, A. D.C. — Ic. Plant, t. 818 (W. albomarginata) ; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. t. 71 ; Bot. 

Mag. t. 6613 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 31. 

Eeicace^. 
Gaultheria anlipoda, Forst. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 28. 
Gaultheria ncpestris, R. Br. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 27 (Andromeda) ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. 

i, t. 42 ; Laing & Blackw. PL N.Z. t. 106. 
Gaultheria oppositifolia. Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 43. 

EpACRIDACEjE. 

Pentachondra pumila, R. Br. — Forst. Char. Gen. t. 10, f. A-H (Epacris). 

Cyathodes acerosa. R. Br.— Forst. Char. Gen. t. 10, f. N. (Epacris) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 108 ; Laing & 

Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 109. 
Cyathodes robusta. Hook. f. — Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 58 (Styphelia). 
Cyathodes empetrifolia, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 30 (Androstoiiia). 
Leiicopogon fascicnlalus, A. Rich. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 105. 
Leucopogon Richei, R. Br. — Bot. Mag. t. 3251. 
Leucopogon Fraseri, A. Cunn. — Raoul, Choix, t. 12 (L. BelUgnianus) ; Drude in Engl. Pflanzenf. iv, 

t. 47, f. A-C (Styphelia). 
Epacris pauciflora, A. Rich.— Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 29 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 107. 
Dracophyllum lalifolium, A. Cunn.- — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 123. 
Dracophyllum Memiesii, Hook. f. — Cockayne, Rept. Bot. Stew. Is. t. 7. 
Dracophyllum longifolium, R. Br. — Forst. Char. Gen. t. 10, f . I-M (Epacris) ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. t. 31, 

32 ; Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. et Zel, t. 27. f. A. B (var. retortum) : T. Kirk, Forest 

Fl. t. 109. 
Dracophyllnin Urmlleanum, A. Rich. var. Lessonianiiin — Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 27. 

bis, f. B (D. Lessonianum). 
Dracophyllion scoparium. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 33. 
Dracophyllum scoparium. Hook. f. var. major. Cheesem. — Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiv (1902), 

t. 19 (D. arboreum). 



DracophyUum Kirkii, Berggr.-Minnc^k. Kisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. I, f. 1-1 1 (Z). utnfloru,,,) 

iJracophyllumii>uf!.or>n,,, Uook.l.—Liimiik liliickw.in.-SZ t \()8 

Dracophyllum r<>sn,an»,loU,n„, K. Br, va,-. poUl,n„, Clu.esem.-Coekavne, H.-pt. Bof. Stew. Ih t 13 

Dracophyllum muscuides, Hook, f.— Bucli. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 26, f. 3. 

Fki.mulace.e. 
Samolus repens, Fers.— Kor.st. Char. Gm. t. '.I (ShelJiehlm). 

Myrsinace^. 
Myrsine salicina, Hewaixl— Hook. f. Kl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 44 (Suttonia) ; T. Kirk Forest Fj t 15 
Myrsme Urvdle,, A. D.C.— A. Ricli. Kl. Nouv. Zel. t. 38 {Suttonia auslralu) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl t 16 
Myrsine chathaimm, K. Miiell.— Veg. Ciiath. Is. t. 7. 

Myrsine divaricala, A. Cunn.— Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 34 (Suttonia) ; Mez. in I'Hanzenr. Iiefl H t 56 
f. A, D (Suttonia). ' ' 

Myrsine nummularla. Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i. I. 4.'j (S"tlonia). 

lSAPOTACE.fi. 

Sideroxylon costatum, F. Muell.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 133. 

OLEAC'Ei*. 

Olea apetala, Vahl. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 27, 28. 

Olea Cunninghanni, Hook. f. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 5;t, 59a, 59b. 

Olea lanceolata, Hook. f. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 60, 61. 

Olea montana. Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 46 : T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 29, 30. 

-Vl'OCY.NACEyE. 

Parsonsia heterophylla, A. Cunn.— Paxt. Kl. Uard. i, f. 60 (e.xcellent representation of a young plant 

with heterophyllous foli<age flowering for the first tiiue). 
Parsonia capsularis, R. Br. — Raoul, Ohoix. t. 11 (P. rosea) : Laiiig & Blackw. I'l. X.Z. t. 113. 

LoGANIACE.^. 

Milrasacinc iimiitana, Hook. t. var. Uebnsii, T. Kirk^ — Trans. N.Z. Iiist. xxii (1890), t. 32. 
Geniostoma lujuMritoliuni, A. Cunn. — Ic. i'lanl. t. 430 ; Holereder in Engl. Pflanzenf. iv, aht. 2. t. 16, 
f. A ; Laiug & Blackw. t. 111. 

Gentianacea;. 
Gentiana lineata, T. Kirk — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895), t. 27. 
Gentiana Grisebachii, Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 636. 
Gentiana patula, Cheesem. — Laiiig & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 112 (6'. corymbifera) ; Hetley, Nat. Fl NZ 

t. 24 (?). 
Gentiana hellidijolia, Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 635 ; Cockayne, Kept. Tong. Nat. Park. t. 4 and 25 ; 

Cockayne. N.Z. PI. t. 68. 
Gentiana Spenceri, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895), t. 27, f. A, B. 

Gentianii saxosii. Forst. — Act. Holm (1777), t. 5 ; T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxvii (1895), t. 27c. 
Gentiana vcrina. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 36 ; Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. .\stroI. et Zel. t. 31c 

(G. Campbell i). 
Gentiaiui concinna, Hook. f. — Fl. .\jitarct. i, t. 35. 
LiparophyUunt Gaimii, Hook. f. — Fl. Tasm. i, t. 87. 

BoRAGINACEiE. 

Myosotis pulcinaris, Hook, f.— Bucli. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 33. f. 2. and t. 33. f. 3 {M. He,h.,,). 

Myosotis antarclica. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 38. 

Myosotis capitatu. Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. t. 37. 

Myosotis macranthu, Hook. f. — Bot. Mag. t. 7291 (Exarrhena). 

Myosotidium nohile, Hook.— Bot. Mag. t. 5137 ; Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, vii (1875), t. 12 ; (iurke in 

Engl. Pflauzenf. iv, abt. 3a. t. 42 ; Gard. Chron. 1886. i, f. 151. and 1908, ii, f. 5, 6 ; Cockavne. 

Trans. N.Z. List, xxxiv (1902), t. 17 ; N.Z. PI. t. 1. 
Tetrachondra Hamiltoni, Petrie— Ic. Plant, t. 2250 ; Petrie, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxv (1893), t. 30, f. 8-11. 



CuNVOLVULACE.K. 

Vali/sUyi'i iMiui-wnuH, K. Br. — Huok. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 47. 

('ah/slc(/ia soldandla, R. Bv.— Cock;iyne. N.Z. PI. t. 27. 

Calysti-qla inarrjinata, R. Br.— Hook. 1'. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 48. 

Conmh'idas cnibescens. Sims— Bot. Mag. t. 1067 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. lust, .\xxii (11)00), t. 8, 

£. 4-5 (seedlmg). 
Dichondra repeiis, Forst. — Char. Geii. t. 20. 

.SOLANACEiE. 

Solaituin auictdare, Forst. — Lamg & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 121. 

SCROPHULARIACE,^;. 

Calceolaria Sinclairii, Hook.— Ic. Plant, t. 5(31 ; Bot. Mag. t. 6597 ; Hetle.y, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 27 ; 

Kranzlin in Pflanzenr. heft 28_, t. 3, f. G-V (JoMlaiia). 
Cilrciiliind i-cpens, Hook. f. — Krauzlin in Pflanzenr. heft 28, t. 2, f. D-G (J ovellana) . 
Miiiiiihis rrpens, R. Br.— Bot. Mag. t. 5423. 
Mazus pumilio, R. Br. — Ic. Plant, t. 567. 
Mazus radicans, Cheesem.— Gard. Chron. 1883, ii, t. {Mimulus) ; Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xix (1887), 

t. 14 (Oiirisia montana). 
Veronica speciosa, R. Cunn.— Bot. Mag. t. 4067 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 122. 
Vero7iica Andersoni, Lindl. & Paxt. — Paxt. Fl. Gard. ii, t. 54 (hybrid between V. cUtptica and 

V. fialicifolia) . 
Veronica Dieffenbachii, Bentli.— Bot. Mag. t. 7656 ; Gard. Chron. 1898, ii. t. 41. 
Veronica macroura, Hook, f.— Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899). t. 33. f. 36-42 (seedling). 
Veronica macronra, var. Cookiana, Cheesem. — Gard. Chron. 1899, ii,'t. 100 (good). 
Veronica mlicifoUa, Forst.— Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 125 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi 

(1899), t. 30. f. 3, 3a, 3b (seedling). 
Veronica (iinubilis, Cheesem. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 120 (V . salicifolia, var. (jracilis). 
Veronica cJmlhawica, Buch.— Trans. N.Z. Inst, vii (1875), t. 13, f. 1 ; Gai-d. Chron. 1899, ii, t. 117. 
Veronica angustifolia, A. Rich.— Bot. Mag. t. 5965 {V . parviflora, var. ancjiiatijolin ; Cockayne. Trans. 

N.Z. Inst, xxxiii (1901), t. 11, f. 36-37, seedling (F. squalida). 
Veronica diosinwjolia, R. Cunn. — Bot. Mag. t. 7539 (F. diosmmjolia, var. Irisepala) ; Cockayne, Trans. 

N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 32, f. 26. 
Veronica elliptica. Forst. — Bot. Mag. t. 242 (F. decassata) ; Homb. & Jacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. 

t. 9, f. V (V ^ decussata) ; PaxtrFl. Gard. iii, t. 261 (F. decussata). 
Veronica Baljouriana, Hook. f. — Bot. Mag. t. 7556. 
Veronica Traversii, Hook, f.— Bot. Mag. t. 6390, 7296 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 126 ; Cockayne, 

Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 32, f. 27, 28, and t. 34, f. 62, 66. 
Veronica odora, Hook. f. — Fl. Antarct. i, t. 41. 

Veronica obovata, T. Kirk— Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 32, f. 23 (seedling). 
Veronica monticola, Armstr. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 127. 
Veronica buxifolia, Benth. var. patens, Cheesem. — Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxiii (1901), t. 10, 

f. 21, 22, 23, and t. II, f. 24. 25, 26 (F. odora). 
Veronica awowaia,' Armstr. — Bot. Mag. t. 7360. 
Veronica amplexicaulis, Armstr. — Bot. Mag. t. 7370. 

Veronica piiiguifolia. Hook. f. — Bot. Mag. t. 6147, and t. 6587 (F. carnosida) ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. 
' lust, xxxi (1899), t. 34, f. 61, 63, 64 (seedling). 

Veronica Gilliesiana, T. Kirk— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882). t. 29, f. 1 (Mitrasacme Hookeri). 
Veronica ietrasticha, Hook, f.— Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 34, f. 55-58 (seedling). 
Veronica quadrifarin, T. Kirk— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 29, f. 2 {Mitrasacme Cheeseii,anii). 
Veronici Irlmiiami, Hook.— Ic. Plant, t. 580, 548 ; Cockayne, Rept. Tong. Nat. Park, t. 18. 
Veronica lijrnpodioides, Hook, f.— Bot. Mag. t. 7338 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 128 ; Cockayne, 

Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxvi (1904), t. 22 ; N.Z. PI. t. 24. 
Veronica Hectori, Hook. f. — Bot. Mag. t. 7415. 

Veronica salicornioides, Hook. f. — N. E. Brown in Gard. Chron. 1888, i, t. 3. 
Veronica Arinstrongii, T. Kirk — Gard. Chron. 1899, ii, t. 50 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), 

t. 28, 29. and xxxiii (1901), t. 11, f. 31-35. 
Veronica propinqua, Cheesem. — N. E. Brown in Gard. Chron. 1881, i, t. 5 {Veronica oipressoides. var. 

variabilis). 
Veronica cupressoides. Hook, f.— Bot. Mag. t. 7348 ; N. E. Brown in Gard. Chron. 1888, i, t. 4, 6. 
Veronica epacridea. Hook. f. — Cockayne. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxi (1899), t. 34, f. 59, 60, 65 (seedling). 
Veronica Prtriei. T. Kirk— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 30, f. 1 {Mitrasacme Petriei). 
Veronini d<i.siipliiill<i. T. Kirk— Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 28, f. 2 {Logania tetragona). 
Verotiicd iiiiijtoni, T. Kirk — Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882), t. 28, f. 3 {Logania Arinstromjii). 
Veronica Benlhami, Hook, f.— Fl. Antarct. i, t. 39, 40 ; Homb. k .Tacq. Bot. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 9, 

f Y (F. jinauslrina) . 



yeronwa HulkeuHu, h\ Mu^:ll.~lio\. Miijr. t. -,.m : (;,i,,l. Clmm l')05 ii i <)| 
Veromca Hidkmna, F.Miieli. v>iv. Fair/ietdii. T. Kiik— Hot. Muk l 7a23(r Fairfieidn) 
Veronica Lamudiana,Riimil-V\Hnx,t.U); li.,t. Ma^. 1 • 7210 ; Ganl. Chrou 18!ll i t 154 
|/ero/nc«g^t</«»«m, Hook. f.&Benth.—Budi. Tnin«.N.Z. Inst, xiv (1882) 1 .Ti f ''> lPw,me„\ 
1/ erorttca r/jom»w((, Clieesem.—Bueli. Trans. N.Z. In.Ht .\iv (1882) I T' f -l ' ' ^ »-' '• 
Veronica cilioluki, Hook. f. & Bentl..-lc. Plant, t. It)l7 ; BucIk Tran«. N.Z. Insi. .viv (1882), 1. 'Xl, 

Veronica loganioides, Arnistr. — Bot. Mag. t. 7404. 

^'"'fc BlaS'pl N^z't^'m"'"'"'^"^' '^'™"'' ^'^' ^""' '''"'' ''^■'■''' '■ ■^'' '■ '^^^ ^^ ^''"'^"''"'J ' ^'""« 
Fe/o/(/«, ,v,/„yv„r/rr, Kor,st. var. diffusa. Hook. [.— Ic. Plant, t. 645 ( 1'. JUIusa). 
Veroniai Lijalln. Il,„,k. f.— Bot. Mag. t. 6456. 
Veronica BidwiUii, Hook. — Ic. Plant, t. 814. 
Veronica Hookeriana, Walp. — Ic. Plant, t. 640 (V . nivai). 

Veronica spathnlaia, Bentli.— Cockayne, Ropt. Toiig. Nat. Park, 1.5: X.Z. I'l i I!) 
Veronica Muelleri, Buch.— Tran.s. N.Z. Inst. .\iv (1882), t. 32. 
Veronica Cheesemanii, Benth.— Ic. Plant, t. 1366a. 
Veronica cunescois, T. Kirk— Trans. X.Z. Inst, ix (1877), t. 19. 

OMmta waerop%H«, Hook.— Ic. Plant. 54.5, .546 : Bot. Ma-, t. 82ii5 : Lain^- & Black« . PI NZ I ilKt 
Euphrasia cnneata. Forst.— Wcttst. Mono^r. Kuphr. t. 5, f. 369-374, and t. 14, f 1 
Euphrasia Monroi, Hook, f.— Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 27 (?) ; Wettst. Mono'". Enplir. t. 5, f 376-382 
and t. 14, [.2. r. i . . 

Eapltrasia roehnyniniia. Petrie— Wettst. Monoj;. l-lnplir. |). 266, li;;. 4. 5 (E. Benjqreni). 
Euphrasiii ■.r<iUii,dica. Wettst.— Monofj. Knplir. t. 6. f. 130-435. and t. 14. f. 10. ' 
Euphrasia Cliteseiiiuidi, Wettst.— OsteiT. Bot. Zeit. (1900). p. 381, f. 1-5. 
Euphrasia Dyeri, Wettst.- Monog. Euphr. ]). 267. fif;. 6. 7. 

Anagosperiiia dispermin,,, Wettst.— Ic. Plant, t. 1283 {Euphrasia) ; T. Kirk, Trans. N Z Inst xii (188f)) 
t. 14 (Euphrasia). 

(tKHSKRMH.K. 

Rhabduthuuniiis Salaudn. .\. I'uun.— C. B. Cii'rke in D.C. Monog. Piian. v. i. 17 ; Gaitl Clii-on 1905 
i, t. 59 ; LuiiiK ^- Blackw. PI. X.Z. i. 131. 



Myoporace^. 
Myoporum Icetum. Forst.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 124: Alexander. Trans. X.Z. Inst. .\ix (1887) t 2(1 
(oil-glands) : Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t . 119, 120. 

Verbenace^. 
Viler, lucens, T. Kirk— Ic. Plant, t. 419, 12(1 (F. lilloralis) : T. Kirk, Fore.st Fl. f. 105 (I', lillorali^) ■ 

Laing & Blackw. PI. X.Z. t. 114. 
Teucridiuiu purrifoliuw, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i. I. 49. 
Avicenniu ofjicinalis, Linn. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 130 : Laing & Blackw. PI. .\,Z. t. 1 15, 116. 117. 1 18. 

Pla-n'taginace-E. 
PlanUujo aucMamlicd. Hook. f. — Fl. Ajitarct. i, t. 42. 
PlantM/o Brov'iiii, Ra])iu. — Hook. f. Fl. .\ritarct. i. t. 43 (P. carnosa). 
PlanUuio triandra, Berggr. — Miiinesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 4. f. 12-33. 

NYnAGINA(.E.E. 

Pisuiiia BruiwntaiM, Eudl.— Hook. (. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. t. 50 {P. Siiirlaim) . T Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 140. 

Illecebrace.*;. 
Scleraiithus biflorus, Hook. f. — Foi-st. Char. Gen. t. 1 (Mniarum): Gaertu. Friict. ii, 1. 126 (Diloca 
muscosa). 

Che.nopodiace.i 
Atriplcc Bachuiuini, T. Kirk — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxii (1890). t. 32, t I {Cheiiopodium) 
Atriplex Billardieri, Hook. f. — Fl. Tasm. i, t. 95. 
Salicornia australis, Sol. — Cockaj'ue. N.Z. PI I 26 



POLYGONACE^. 

Rumex neglectus, T. Kirk — Ic. Plant, t. 1245. 

Muhlenbeckia complexa, Meissn. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 43. 

PlPEBACE^. 

Piper excdsum, Forst. — Laiug & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 36 (Macropiper). 

Chloranthace^. 
Ascarina lucida, Hook. f. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 129. 

MONIMIACE^. 

Hedycarya arborea, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 64 ; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 33 (Zanthoxylum novcB- 
zelaidia) ; Raoul, Clioix, t. 30 (H . denlata) ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 110 (H . dentata) ; Lamg & 
Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 50 ; Perk-ins & Gilg. m Pflanzenr. heft 4, t. 3, f. D-H. 

Laurelia novce-zdandice, A. Cunn.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 51 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 71 ; Perkins & 
Gilg. in Pflanzenr. heft 4, t. 21, f. L, M. 

I 

Laurace.^;. 
Beilschmiedia Tarairi, Benth. & Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 43 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 51. 
Beilschmiedia Tawa, Benth. & Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 126. 
LitscBa calicaris, Benth. & Hook, f.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 10. 

PROTEACEiE. 

Persoonia Tom, A. Cmiu. — T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 74. 

Knightia excelsa, R. Br. — Trans. Linn. Soc. x (1810), t. 2 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 35 ; Engl, in Pflanzeuf . iii, 
aht. i, t. 102 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 41. 

THYMELyEAOE^. 

Pimelea longifolia, Banks & Sol. — -Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 7. 

Pimilea Gnidia, Willd. — Forst. Char. Gen. t. 4, f. A-I (Banksia). 

Pimelea virgata, Vahl. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 84. 

Pimelea arenaria, A. Cunn. — Bot. Mag. t. 3270. 

Piwelea Icevigala, Gaertn.— Fruct. i, t. 39, f. 1 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 22 [P. proslrala). 

Drapetes Dieffenbachii, Hook. — Lond. Journ. Bot. ii (1843), t. 17 : Gilg. in Engl. Pflanzenf. iii, abt. 6a, 

t. 85, A, B. 
Drapetes villosa, Cheesem. — Berggr. in Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 5, f. 1-15 (Kelleria). 

LORANTHACE^. 

Elytranthe Colensoi, Engl.— Ic. Plant, t. 633 (Loranthus) ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 30. 

Ehjtranthe Adamsii, Engl. — Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 12 (Loranthus). 

Eli/lnnillir flavida, Engl.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 27 (Loranthus). 

Ti'iprlci aiilarctica, Cham. & Schl. ; Hook, f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 26 ; Engl. Pflanzenf. iii, abt. i, t. 130. 

Koitliiilselld salicornioides, Van. Tiegh. — Engl. Pflanzenf. iii, abt. 1, t. 133, f. F, G (Visciini). 

KorthnUeJUi Lindsayi, Engl. — Lindsay, Contr. N.Z. Bot. t. 2 (Viscum) ; Engl, in Pflanzenf. iii, abt. 1. 

t. 133, f. D, E (Viscum). 
Korthalsdla clavatum, Cheesem. — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxiv (1892), t. 37 (Viscum). 

Sawtal&cem. 

Fusanus Cunninghamii, Benth. & Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 563 (Santalum. Mida, var. f3), and t. 575 
(Santaluvi Mida) ; T. Kirk, Forest. Fl. t. 75-76 ; Lamg & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 110 (Olea Cunning- 
hamii). 

Exocarpus Bidtvillii, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 52 ; Hieiony. in Engl. Pflanzenf. iii, abt. 1, t. 138. 
f. A-C. 

Balanophoeace^. 
Daclylanthns Taylori, Hook, f.— Trans. Linn. Soc. xxii (1859), t. 75 ; Hill, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xli (1909), 
t. 30-32 ; Laiug & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 42. 



lOll'HOUUIACE^E. 

PoranUiera microphyUa, Brong.— Dup. Voy. Coq. Bot. t. 50b. 
Poranthera alpinn, ('lie(i8ein.— Ic. Plant, t. 1366n. 

Aleurites moluccana. Willd.— Forat. Char. Gen. t. Ofi (A. triloba) : Pa.x. in Eni-I. Pflaiizenf. iii, abt 5 
t. 44, A-F. 

Ubti(;ace^. 
Paratrophis heterophylla, BI.— Riu.iil, Clioi.x. t. i) (Epicarpurm micrnvhulhi.s) ; T Kirk Trans N Z 

Inst, .xxix (18!)7), i. 4.5. 
Paratrophis Banksii, Cheesem.— T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Insf. .xxix (1897), t. 40 (/'. heterophyUa, var. 

elhptica). 

CUPULIFER.'E. 

Fagus Menziesii, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 652; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 8!); Lainj; & Blackw. I'l. X.Z. 

t. 38 ; Cockayne. Rept. Tong. Nat. Park, t. 14 (Nothojaqnit). 
Fagus fusca, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 6.31 : T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 90; Cockarae, Kept. Toni;. Nat. 

Park, t. 12, 13 {Xn/holacpis). 
Fagus fusca, Hook. f.. var. Colensoi, Hook, f.— ic. Plant, t. (530 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl, i, 90, f, 2. 
Fagus npiculata, Col.— T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t, 135. 
Fagus apiculata, var. dubia, Cheesem,— T. Kirk. Forest Fl, t, 91, 

Fa^us Blairii, T, Kirk— Tran.s, N,Z, Inst, xvii (1885), t. 16 : T. Kirk, Fore.st Fl. t, 57. 
Fagus Solandri, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 639 ; T. Kirk. Forest Fl. t, 56. 
Fagus cliffortioidcs. Hook, f,— Ic, Plant, t, 673. 816b ; T. Kirk. Forest Fl, I, lol. IuIa, 



Conifer.?;. 
Agnthis auslralis, Salisb. — Lamb. Pinet. edit. 2, t. 44, and edit, 3. t, 55 (Dannnara) : l„f)ndon, .\rbor. 

Brit, iv, f, 2310-2311 {Dnnunara); Zucc. in Abhandl, Berlin Akad.iii. t, 1. f. 21, and t, 2, f, 16, 17 

(Dammara) ; Naiid, in Fl, des Serrps, xi, p. 75 (Dauimara) ; Gard, Chron, 1883, ii, t. 86 (Dammara) : 

T, Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 79, 80, 80a, 81 ; Laing & Blackw. PI, N,Z. t. 5, 6, 7 ; Cockayne, Rept, 

Waipoua Forest, numerous plates ; Cockayne. N.Z. PI. t. 14. 15, 16. 
Libocedrns Doniam., Endl, — Hook, Lond. Journ, Bot, i (1842), t, 17 (Thuja) ; Carr. Rev. Hort. (1866) 

p. 230 ; T, Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 82, 82a ; Eichler in Engl, Pflanzenf, ii, abt. 1, t. 54, D, E. 
Libocedrus Bidwillii, Hook, f,— T, Kirk, Forest Fl, t. 83, 82b. 
Podocarpus Totara, D. Don.— Hook. Lond. Jouni, Bot, i (1842). t, 19 ; T, Kirk, Forest Fl, t, 115 ; 

Eichler in Engl, Pflanzenf, ii, abt, 1, t. 63. 
Podocarpus Hallii, T. Kirk — Forest Fl, t, 9, 9a, 

Podocarpus acutijolms, T, Kirk— Trans, N,Z, Inst, xvi (1884), t, 26 : T, Kirk. Forest Fl, t, 39. 
Podocarpus nivalis. Hook,— Ic, Plant, t, 582 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 40. 
Podocarpus ferrugineus, D, Don, — Ic, Plant, t, 542 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 84 ; Pilger in Pflanzenr. 

heft 18, t. 12 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 8. 
Podocarpus spicatus, R, Br. — Lamb. Pinet. edit. 2, t. 7, f. 2 (Dacrydinm tuxijolium) ; Ic. Plant, t. 543 ; 

T, Kirk, Forest Fl, t. 4, 5 ; Eichler in Engl. Pflanzenf. ii, abt. 1, t. 64: Pilger in Pflanzenr. 

heftlS, t. 11. 
Podocarpus dacrydioides, A. Rich.— Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 39; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t. 31. 32; Eichler in 

Engl. Pflanzenf, ii. abt, 1. t. 65 : Pilger in Pflanzenr. heft 18. t, 7. f. A-D, 
Dacrydium Kirkii, F. Muell,— Ic. Plant, t, 1219 : T, Kirk. Trans. N.Z. Inst, x (1878), t. 19 ; Forest 

Fl. t. 97. 
Dacrydium biforiue, Pilger— Ic. Plant, t. 544 (Podocarpus) ; T, Kirk, Forest Fl, t, 96 (D. Colenwi). 
Dacrydium Bidwillii, Hook, f,— T, Kirk, Forest Fl, t, 37 ; Pilger in Pflanzenr. heft 18, t, 4. f, A-C 
Dacrydium cupressinum, Soland,— Lamb. Pinet. edit. 2, t. 41 ; A. Rich. Con. t. 2 ; T. Kirk, Forest 

Fl, t, 18-22 ; Eichler in Engl. Pflanzenf. ii, abt. 1, t, 66 ; Pilger in Pflanzenr. t. 6 ; Laing & Blackw. 

PL N,Z, t, 12, 
Dacrydium intermedium, T, Kirk— Trans, N,Z, Inst, x (1878), t. 20 ; Forest Fl. t. 86 ; Pilger m Pflanzenr. 

t. 5, f. C-D, 
Dacrydium Coleusoi, Hoi>k,— Ic, Plant, t, 548; T, Kirk, Trans, N.Z. Inst, x (1878), t. 18 (D. Hesl- 

landicum) : Ic, Plant, t, 1218 (D. Wextlnndicum) : T, Kirk, Forest Fl, t, 85 (D. Wesllandiruw). 
Dacrydium laxijolium, Hook, f.— Ic, Plant, t, 815 ; T, Kirk. Forest Fl. t. 87 : Pilger in Pflanzenr. 

heft 18, t. 5, f. B ; Cockavne, Rept, Toug. Nat, Park, t. 18 : N.Z. PI. t. 52. 
Phyllocladus trichomanoides, D. Don— Ic. Plant, t. 549, 550, 551 : T, Kirk, Forest Fl, t, 6. 7 : Eichler 

in Engl, Pflanzenf, ii. abt, 1. t, 67a ; Pilger in Pflanzenr. heft 18, t. 18, f, P-8, 
Phyllocladus glaucus, Carr,— T, Kirk. Forest Fl, t, 98, 99 ; PUger in Pflanzenr. heft 18, t, 18, f^ A-E 
Phyllocladus alpinus. Hook, f,-Fl, Nov, Zel. i, t. 53 ; T. Kirk, Forest Fl. t, 100 : Pilger m Pflanzenr. 

heft 18, t. 18, f. F-H. 



Ok(:hidace^. 

DendrohiuiH (Juniiiughamii, Lindl.— A. Rich. Fl. Noiiv. Zel. t. 26 (D. bifioniin) ; lletley, Nat. Fl. 
N.Z. t. 17 ; Kranzlin in Pflanzenr. lieft 45, I. 8, f. F-N ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 34. 

Earina mucronata, Lindl. — Ic. Plant, t. 431 ; Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 28. 

Earina suaveolens, Liudl. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 31, 33. 

Spiranthes australis, Lindl. — Bot. Reg. t. 823 ; Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, i, pt. 2. 

Thelymitra ixioides, Swz.— Vet. Akad. Handl. Stockh. (1800) t. 3 ; Hook. f. Fl. Ta.sm. ii. t. 103b ; 
Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, i, pt. 3. 

Thelymitra longifoUa, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 49 ; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 25, f. 2 (T . Forsteri) ; Fitz- 
gerald, Austral. Orchids, i, pt. 6 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 30. 

Thelymitra intermedia, Berggr. — Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 5, f. 21-24. 

Orthoceras strictiim, R. Br. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 25, f. 1 (Diiiris novre-zelandicr) ; Fitzgerald, 
Austral. Orchids, i, pt. 3. 

Microtis porrifolia. R. Br. — Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, ii, pt. 1 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 30. 

Prasophylliiii, pnlen.'t. R. Br.— Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. Ill ; Buch. Trans. N.Z. Inst, -xix (1887), t. 15 
(Go St rod ill Hecfiiri). 

PrasophylliDii riifinii, R. Br. — Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, ii, pt. 4. 

Caleana minor, R. Br. — Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, i, pt. 6. 

Pterostylis Banksii, R. Br.— Bot. Mag. t. 3172 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 32. 

Pterostylis trullifolia. Hook. f. — Cheesem. Trans. N.Z. Inst, v, t. 20. 

Pterostylis harhata, Lindl. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 116. 

Pterostylis iiiufira, R. Br.— Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 117a ; Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, i, pt. 2. 

Calochiliis niiiipcslris, R. Br. — Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, i, pt. 4. 

Calockihis pnhiiliniiis, R. Br. — Fitzgerald. Austral. Orchids, i. pt. 4. 

Caladenia minor, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 56b. 

Chiloglottis formicifern, Fitzgerald — Austral. Orchids, i. pt. 3. 

Adenochilns gracilis. Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, 56a. 

Corysanthes Cheeseiiinnii, Hook. f. — Ic. Plant, t. 1120. 

Corysanthes ohlonga. Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 57b (Nematoceras). 

Corysanthes macrnntha. Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 57a {Nematoceras) ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. 
• t. 35. 

Gastrodia sesamoides, R. Br.- — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 126 ; Fitzgerald, Austral. Orchids, ii, pt. 5. 

Gastrodia Cunninghamii, Hook. f. — Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxv (1893), t. 20, f. 1-4. 

Gastrodia minor, Petrie— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxv (1893), t. 20, f. 5-7. 

Iridace.e. 
Ldbertia ixioides. Sprang. — Hetley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 23. 
Lihertia grandiflora. Sweet. — Gard. Chron. 1908, i, f. 1. 

AMARYLLIDACEyE. 

Hypoxis pusillu. Hook, f.^ — Fl. Tasm. i, t. 130b. 

JjUAACTSM. 

Rhipogonum scandens, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 25 : Ic. Plant, t. 1395 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t; 20 ; 

Cockayne, N.Z. PL t. 11. 
Luzuriaga marginata. Lam.- — Gaertn. Fruct. i, t. 59 (Enargea) ; Ic. Plant, t. 632 {Calli.rene parriflora) : 

Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 22. 
Gordyline lerminalis, Kunth. — Jacq. Ic. Rar. t. 448 (Draciriia) ; Bot. Reg. t. 1749 (Dracipva) ; Bot. 

Mag. t. 2053 (Dracana jcrrea). 
Cordyline Banksii, Hook. f. — Regel in Gartenfl. t. 344 ; Gard. Chron. 1895, ii. t. 103. and 1906. ii 

t. 100. 
Gordyline australis. Hook, f.— Bot. Mag. t. 5636 ; 111. Hortie. xvii (1870), t. 35 (C. lentigiiiosa) ; T. Kirk. 

Forest Fl. t. 141 ; Gard. Chron. 1882, ii, t. 49. and 1898, i, t. 61 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 21 . 

23 ; Cockayne, Trans. N.Z. Inst, xli (1909). t. 29 (adventitious roots). 
Cordyline indivisa, Steud. — Cockayne. Rept. Tong. Nat. Park, t. 16 ; Cocktiyne. N.Z. PI. t. 61. 
Cordyline pumilio. Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 58 (C. stricfa). 
Ast lia Cunninghamii, Hook. f. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 24, excl. fig. C. D. (Hamelinin reratroides) ; 

Bot. Mag. t. 5175 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 24. 
Astelia Banksii, A. Cunn.- — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 26. 
Astelia trinervia, T. Kirk — Cockayne, Rept. Waipoua Forest, t. 8, 9. 

Astelia Solandri, A. Cunn.— Bot. Mag. t. 5503 ; Cockaj'ue. Rept. Waipoua Forest, t. 5, 6 ; N.Z. PI. t. 9. 
Astelia nervosa. Banks & Sol. — Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 25. 
Phormium tenax, Forst.— Char. Gen. t. 24 ; Redoute Lil. t. 448-449 ; Bot. Mag. t. 3199 ; Hutton 

Trans. N.Z. Inst, ii, t. 7 (structure of leaf) ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 28. 
Phormium CooManum, Le Jolis — Bot. Mag. t. 6973 (P. Hookeri). 



XVll 



t";Zl't"''''"'1-!^'''''' o ®';-^"*- '^'"«- *• ^•■'•'«- B<'f- R-^^K- t- 70!.; Gurd. Cliroi., 187). .. .. 1:57. 
Arthropodium catuhdum., Raoul— Choix t i; 

Herfolinon rnvw-zeUndio', Hook. f.-Fl. Tas.n. ii. t. I.Tin (//. l.,xnm,ri,r) ■ Laing & lila.kw. PI. N.Z. 

JuNCACEiE. 

Roxthovia nrnqellanica, Ho<,k. f.-])c.sv, .l,„.i„, Bot. i (1808), t. 12, f. 2 [R. spl.^rrorarm.) ■ H.u-hen 

Monog. Juncac. t. 7. and t, 2, f. 4 ; Bucliwi. in Pfianzenr. heft 2.5 I ."Jl 
RoHkoma gracili,. Hook. f.-Fi. Antarct. i, t. 47 ; IJuch. Tran.s. X.Z. Inst, iv (1871). t IC (/^ ,».,.«- 

zelamhrp) ■ Huelien. in Pflanzeiir. Imft 25, t. :« (MarsivpoHpermuw). 
Jniiois pallHlns. R. Br.— Buehen. in Pflanzeiir. lieft 25, t. 72 
■hmcus v,„in,„h,s. R. Bi.-Hook. f. Fl. Tasin. ii, t. 131 (J. aMslmlU). 
J uncus plauifubus, U. Bi-.— Buehen. in Pflanzenr. heft 25, t. 117. 
Juncus antarcliom. Hook, f.— Fl. Antarct. i, t. 10. 
./uncus prismatomrpu.,, R. Br.— Buehen. in Pflanzenr. heft 25, t. 89. 
Juncus scheuchzRHnidea, Gaud.— Buehen. in Pflanzenr. lieft 25, t. 86. 

Luzula micmnlha, Buehen. var. crenulala. Oiieesein.- Buclien. in Pflanzenr. heft 25. t. 56 (L. rrr„uhln). 
Luzula Cheesenuum, Buehen.— Pflanzenr. iieffc 25, t. 57. 

Luzula campestris, D.C. var. picta, Hook, f.— Buehen. in Pflanzenr. heft 25, t. 52. 
Luzula campeslris, var. Banksiana, Buclieu.- Pflanzenr. heft 25, t. 53. 
Luzula campeslris, var. crinita, Buehen.— Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 48 (L. crinita). 

Palmace^. 
Rhopalostylis mpida, Wendl. & Drude.— Bot. Mag. t. 5139 {Arecn) ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 59. 60 
(Areca) ; Het^ley, Nat. Fl. N.Z. t. 8 (Areca) ; Percy Smith, Trans. N.Z. Inst, .v (1878). t. la (branched 
specimen) : Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 15-19; Cheesem. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxxix (1907). t. II. 

and xlii (1910). t. 2(5-27 (branched specimens). 
Rhopalostylis Baueri, Wendl. & Drude— Bot. Mag. t. .5735 {Areca). 



Pandanace^. 

Fieycinetia Banksii, A. Cunn.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 54, 55 ; Bot. Mag. t. 6028 : Hetley. Nat. 
Fl. N.Z. t. .36 ; Laing & Blackw. PI. N.Z. t. 13, 14. 



Typhace^. 
Sparganium antipodum, Graebner — Pflanzenr. heft 2, t. 4, f. B. 



Naiadace^. 
Triglochin striatum, Ruiz & Pav. var. filijolium, Buehen. — Ic. Plant, t. 579 (T. /ililoliinn). 
Potamogeton natans, Linn. — Graebner in Pflanze'ir. lieft 31. t. 13. 
Potamogeton polygonifolius. Pourr. — Graebner in Pflanzenr. heft 31, t. 16, f. .\-l). 
Potamogeton ochreatus, Raoul— Choix. t. 7. 

Polainogcfon pectinatus, Linn. — Graebner in Pflanzenr. heft 31, t. 28, f. A-B. 
Rupplu niarilima, Linn. — Graebner in Pflanzenr. heft 31, t. .30. 
Zannichellia palustris, Linn. — Graebner in Pflanzenr. heft 31, t. 34. 



CentrolepidacejE. 
Gentrolepis pallida, Cheesem. — Hook. i. Fl. Nov. Zel. t. 62c {Alepijrum pallidum). 



Restiace.t,. 
Leptocarpus simplex, A. Rich. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 61. 
Hypolmna lateriflora, Benth— Labill. PI. Nov. IIoll. ii, t. 228 (Calorophus elongatus). 

iii — Flora Notes. 



CYPERACEiE. 

Kyllinga brevifolia, Rottb.— Descr. et Ic. t. 4, f. 3 ; C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 1, f. 1-4. 

Mariscm ustitlatus, C. B. Clarke — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 17 (Gyperus). 

Eleocharis sphacehta, R. Br. — C. B. Clarki', 111. Cyp. t. 34, f. 1-6. 

Eleocharis neo-zelandica, C. B. Clarke — 111. Cyp. t. 36, f. 10-14. 

Scirfus lenticiilaris, Poir. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 145d (Isolepis). 

Scirpiis basilaris, C. B. Clarke — ^111. Cj^). t. 47, f. 3, 4. 

Scirpiis aucklandicus, Boeck.— Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 50 (Isolepis). 

Scirpiis aucklandicus, Boeck. var. subcucullata, Berggr. — Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 5, 

f. 16-20 (Isolepis subcucullata). 
Scirpus cernuus, Vahl. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 145c (Isolepis riparia). 
Scirpus antarcticus, Linn. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 145 (Isolepis cartikujvnen). 
Scirpus inundatus, Poir. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 144 (Isolepis prolifera). 
Scirpus prolifer, Rottb. — Descr. et Ic. t. 17, f. 2. 

Scirpris nodosus, Rottb.^Descr. et Ic. t. 8, f. 3 ; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 18 (Isolepis). 
Scirpus frondosus. Banks & Sol. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 19 (Isolepis spiralis) ; C. B. Clarke, 111. 

Cyp. t. 53, f. 1-3. 
Carpka alpina, R. Br.— Ic. Plant, t. 1216 ; C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 76. f. 1-4. 
Schwnus pauciflorus, Hook. f. — -C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 79, f. 8-9. 
Schcenus axillaris, Poir.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 62a (Chcetospora) ; C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 80, 

f. 1-2. 
Schcenus nitens, Poir. var. conciunus, Cheesem. — -Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 62b. 
Cladium Sinclairii, Hook. f. — ^C. B. Clarke. 111. Cyp. t. 84. 

Cladium complanalum , Berggr. — Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 6, f. 1-5. 
Cladium Gunnii, Hook. f. — Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 148b ; Berggr. Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 6. 

f. 6-11. 
Cladium Vauthiera, C. B. Clarke — ^A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 20 (Vauthiera auslralis). 
Cladiu)n eapillaceuin, C. B. Clarke — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 141a {Chcetospora capillacea). 
Lepidosperma laternle. R. Br. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 146b (L. concavum) ; C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp 

t. 86, f. 4-5. 
Lepidosperma filiforme, Labill.- — -PI. Nov. HoU. i, t. 15. 
Gahnia setifolia. Hook, f.— C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 98, f. 1-7. 
Gahnia pauciflora, T. Kirk— C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 97, f. 6. 
Gahnia xanthocarpa. Hook. f. — Card. Chron. 1873, t. 333. 
Gahnia procera, Forst. — Char. Gen. t. 26. 
Gahnia Gaudichaudi, Steud. — Brong. in Dup. Voy. Coq. Bot. t. 29 (Lampocarya afjinis) ; Gaud, in 

Frey. Vov. Bot. t. 28 (Morelotia gahniceformisj ; C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 96, f. .5-6. 
Oreobolus pumilio, R. Br.— C. B. Clarke, 111. Cyp. t. 102, f. 1-5. 

Oreoholus pumilio, R. Br. var. pectinatus, C. B. Clarke — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 49 (0. pcctinatus). 
Oreobolus strictus, Berggr.— Minnesk, Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 6, f. 12-24. 
Uncinia tenella, R. Br.— Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 152. 
Uncinia compacta, R. Br. — Hook, f . Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 153b. 
Uncinia purpurala, Petrie — Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 14c. 
Uncinia auslralis, Pers. var. ferruqiiiea. ('. B. Clarke — Boott. in Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 64b 

(U. ferruz/inea). 
Uncinia leptostachya, Raoul — -Choix, t. 5b ; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 13n. 
Uncinia riparia, R. Br. — Boott. in Ho >k. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 152b. 

Uncinia riparia, R. Br. var. Hookeri. Kukenth. — Boott. in Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 51 (U. Hookeri). 
Uncinia riparia, R. Br. var. Banksii. C. B. Clarke — Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 13. K-M. 
Uncinia rubra, Boott. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 64a. 
Uncinia rupestris, Raoul — Choix, t. 5a. 

Carex pyrenaica, Wahl.— Bojtt. 111. Car. iv, t. 475, 476 ; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 21, L-M. 
Carex acicularis. Boott.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 63c ; Boott. 111. Car. iv, t. 508, f. 2 : Hook. f. Fl. 

Tasm. ii, t. 150 (C. Archeri) ; Boott. 111. Car. iv, t. 508, f. 3 (C. Archeri). 
Carex kaloides, Petrie — ^Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 23, G-H. 

Carex appressa, R. Br.— Boott. 111. Car. i. t. 119, 120 ; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 29, f. E-J. 
Carex virgata, Sol.— Boott. 111. Car. i, t. 121, 122. 
Carex secta, Boott.— 111. Car. i, t. 123, 124. 

Carex inversa, R. Br.— Boott. 111. Car. iv, t. 488 ; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38. t. 31, f. A-C. 
Carex Colensoi, Boott. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 63b. 
Carex stellulata. Good. — Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 37, f. C-D. 
Carex lagopina, Wahl. — Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 35, f. A-B. 
Carex Gaudichaudiana, Kunth. — Boott. in Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 151a ; Boott. 111. Car. iv, t. 567 

(C. vulgaris, var. Gaudichaudiana). 
Carex ternaria, Forst.— A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 21 (C. polystachya) ; Boott. 111. Car. iv, t 596, 598 ; 

Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 59. 
Carex Darwinii, Boott. — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii, t. 144 ; Boott. 111. Car. iv, t. 504, 505. 



Carex Raoulii, Boott. — 111. Car. iii, t. 333. 

Carex dipsacea, Berggr.— Miniiesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 7, f. 8-14. 

Carex lestacea, Sol. — Kukenth. in Pflaiizeiir. heff 38, t. 1 18, f. A-E. 

Carex lucida, Boott. — III. Car. i, t. 173. 

Carex Buchanani, Berggr. — Minnesk. Fisiog. Hallsk. Lmid. (1877) t. 7, f. 1-7 (C. letiaj:). 

Carex cirrkosa, Berggr.— Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Liind. (1877) t. 7, f. 27 31 ■ Kuk.'nili in I'Han/.enr 

lieft 38, t. 117, f. A F. 
Carex Benjgreni, Petrie — Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. lieft 38, t. 117, f. li K. 
Carejc comans, Berggr. — Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 7, f. 15-l!i. 
Carex comans, Benjcjr. var. pulchella, C. B. Clarke— Berggr. in Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t 7 

f. 20-26 (C. pulchelki). 
Carex litorosa, Bailey — Kukentli. in I'llanzonr. heft .'58, t. 118, f. F-U. 
Carex dissila, Sol. — Boott. 111. Car. i, t. 170. 

Carex dissita, Sol. var. Lumbertiana, Clieeseni. — Boott. 111. Car. i, t. 177 (('. Ijunhertiana). 
Carex Solandri, Boott. — 111. Car. i, t. 175. 
Carex trifida, Cav.— Ic. v, t. 465 ; Boott. 111. Car. iv, t. 114 ; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t, 125. 

f. A-C. 
Carex breviculm is, R. Br. — Boott. in Hook. f. Fl. N.Z. i, t. 63a. 
Carex pumila, 'I'luuib. — Kukenth. in PHanzeur. neft 38, t. 126. 

Carex BrOwiiii, Tucker — Boott. 111. Car. iv, t. 532 ; Kukenth. in Pflanzenr. heft 38, t. 101, f. A-U. 
Carex flam, Linn. var. cataractce, Kukenth. — Boott. in Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 151 (('. caUiracUe). 
Carex Forsleri, Wahl. — A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 21 (C. punctiilata) ; Boott. 111. Car. i, t. 137. 
Carex pseudo-cyperus, Linn. var. fascicularis, Boott. — 111. Car. t. 139, 140 (C. jascioilaris). 



(rn.\M]KK;F.. 

Imperala arundinacea, Cyr. — PI. Rar. Ic. ii, t. 11. 

Zoysia pungens, Willd. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 13a. 

Paspalitiii scrohiodatum, Linu. — -Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. IOa. 

Paspalmii disfic/ium, Linn. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. IOb. 

Isac/nic ati/flralis, R. Br. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 12. 

OpUsmenus undulatifolius, Beauv. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 1 1 (Fanicum imbecille). 

Cenehrus calyculatus, Cav. — Ic. v, t. 463 : Labill. Sert. Austr. Caled. t. 19 (C. avomoplexis). 

Spinifex. hirsiitus, Labill— PL Nov. HoU. ii, t. 230, 231 ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 8, 9. 

Ehrharta Colensoi, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 65a ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 1. 

Ehrharta Thoinsotri, Petrie— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xii (1880), t. 10. 

MicrolcBiia siipoides, R. Br. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 2. 

Microlama avenacea. Hook. f. — Raoul. Choix, t. 3 (Diplax) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 3. 

MicrolcBiia polyiwda, Hook. f. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 4. 

Hierochloe redolens, R. Br. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 6, and t. 35 (Danthonia Buchanani). 

Hierocldoe Fraseri, Hook. f. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 7 (H. alpina). 

HieroMoe Brimoiiis, Hook. f. — Fl. Autarct. i, t. 52. 

Siipa anindiimcea, Benth. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 67 (Apera) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 17 (Apera). 

Stipa teretifolia, Steud. — Hook. f. Fl. N.Z. i, t. 66 (Dichelachne stipoides) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 14 

(Dichelachne siipoides). 
Stipa setacea, R. Br.— Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 157b ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 17, ii (S. Petriei). 
Echinopogon ovalus, Beauv. — Agrost. t. 9 ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 13b. 
Alopenirus geniculatus, Linn. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 5. 
Sporobohis indicus, R. Br. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 18 (S. eloigatm). 
Simplicia laxa, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xxix (1897), t. 44. 
Agrostis magellanica, Lam. — Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii, t. 132 {A. antarctica) ; Wild. Bot. Voy. Belgica. 

t. 16, f. I-Y. 
Agrostis iiuiscosa, T. Kirk— Berggr. Minnesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 7, f. 41-47 {A. wmula, var. 

spathacea) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 20b (A. canina, var. gelida). 
Agrostis sabulata, Hook, f.— Fl. Antarct. i, t. 53. 

Agrostis Dyeri, Petrie— Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 19 {A. canina). and t. 20a (A. parnflora). 
Deyeuxia Forsleri, Kunth.— Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 21 (Agrostis amula). 
Deyeuxia Forsleri, Kunth. var. pilosa, Cheesem.— A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 23 (Agrostis pilosa) ; Burh. 

N.Z. Gra.sses, t. 22 (Agrostis pilosa). 
Deyeuxia Billardieri, Kunth.— Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 23 (Agrostis). 

Deyeuxia setifolia. Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 65b ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 24b (Agrostis). 
Deyeuxia avenoides, Buch.— N.Z. Grasses, t. 24a (Agrostis). 
Deyeuxia Youngii, Buch.— N.Z. Grasses, t. 25 (Agrostis). 
Deyeuxia quadriseta, Benth.— Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 32 (Avena) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 26a. and 

26b (Agrostis). 
Deyeuxia Petriei, Hackel— Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 26.\ (D. scabra). 



XX 

Dichelachne crinita, Hook. f. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 15. 
Diclielachne sciurea, Hook. f. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 16. 
Deschuiii'psia cwspiiosa, Beaiiv. — Agrost. t. 18, f. 3 ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarot. ii, t. 135 {Aira Kivrjii) ; 

Buck. N.Z. Grasses, t. 37. 
Deschainpsia Chapmani, Petrie — Hook. f. Fl. Autarct. i t. 56 {Catabrosa antarctica). 
Deschampsia tenella, Petrie — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 4:1b [Catahrosa antarctica). 
Tfisetmn antarcticum, Trin. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 68b ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 39. 
Trisefinii Youngii, Hook. f. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 40p.. 
TrisclKiii xiibspicMum, Beauv.- — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 40a. 
Aiirpliihrniiitis fliiitans, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884), t. 28. 

Dinilhoiiia Cuiiiimghainii, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 69a (D. rigida) ; Bucli. N.Z. Gra.sses, t, 29. 
Daiil/iuiiia ooala, Buch. — N.Z. Grasses, t. 29, ii. 
Daii/lioiiia bromoides, Hook, f.- — Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. (SHa ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i, t. 54 {Bromus 

aiilarcticus). 
Daiii/ionia Raoulii, Steud. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 30 ; Phillips Turner, Rept. Waimariuo District, 

p. 4. 
Daiit/ioHia Raoulii, Steud. var. flavesceiis. Hack.- — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 30 (Z>. flavesceiis). 
Daiilhoiiia. anstralis, Buch.- — N.Z. Grasses, t. 31. 
Daiithonia pilosa, R. Br. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 33, and 33, iiA. 
Daiitlionia pilosa, R. Br. var. racemosa, Buch. — N.Z. Grasses, t. 33, iis. 
Daiilhoiiia .lemiantiularis, R. Br. — ^Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. t. 69b (7>. gracilis) ; Raoul, Choix, t. 3 

{D. aiKiredc) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 34, and t. 34, iiB. 
DaiUhoiiid xciiiidiniidaris, R. Br. var. setifolia. Hook. f. — ^Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 34, iiA (var. alpina). 
Danthoiiia jiuila, Hook. f. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 36a. and t. 36, ii {D. Thomsoni). 
Eleusine iiidica, Gaertn. — -Trin. Sp. Gram. Ic. t. 71. 

Aruinlo compicm, Forst. — Bot. Mag. t. 6232 ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 27. 
Arundu fulvida. Buch. — N.Z. Grasses, t. 28. 

Triodiii t'xigiia, T. Kirk. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 36b (Danthonia pauciflora). 
Kuieriu Knrlzii. Hackel. — Buch. N.Z. Gras.ses, t. 38 (A', criitata): Domin. Mouog. Kcelcria, t. 7, f. 9-11 

(A'. Hovo-zelu'itdica). and t. 7, f. 12 (A. Gintlii). 
Poa foliosa. Hook, f.^ — Fl. Antarct. i. t. 55 (Festuca) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 42. 
Poa ii.ovce-zelandiw, Hackel — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 43, A, B (P. foliosa. var. /S). 
Poa Astoni. Petrie — Bucli. N.Z. Grasses, t. 55a {Festuca scoparia). 
Poa ramosissima, Hook. f. — Cockayne in Repts. Subantarct. Is. N.Z. i, p. 212, f. 9. 
Poa anceps, Forst. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 44, A. B. 

Poa seliculmis, Petrie. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 46e {P. anceps. var. debilis). 
Poa pu&illa, Berggr.— Mimiesk. Fisiog. Sallsk. Lund. (1877) t. 7, f. 35-40 ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 46f 

[P. anceps, var. minima). 
Poa cmspitosa, Forst.- — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 4 (P. australis. var. kevis). 
Poa litorosa, Cheesem. — Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, t. 8a {Festttca scoparia) ; Kew'Bull. 1908, 

p. 237 ; (reproduced in Cockayne, N.Z. PI. frontispiece, and Repts. Subantarct. Is. N.Z. i, p. 187, 

f. I). 
Poa Colensoi, Buch. — N.Z. Grasses, t. 48b. 

Poa Golensoi, var. intermedia, Cheesem.^ — -Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 48a (P. intermedia). 
Poa acicularifolia, Buch. — N.Z. Grasses, t. 49a. 
Poa pygmcea, Buch. — N.Z. Grasses, t. 50a. 
Poa Kirkii, Buch. — N.Z. Gra.sses, t. 51b. 

Poa Kirkii, Buch. var. Mackayi, Hackel. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 51a (P. Mackayi). 
Poa Lindsayi, Hook. f. — Lindsay, Contr. N.Z. Bot. t. 4 ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 52. 
Poa exigua, Hackel — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 50b. 
Poa .•,clerophylla, Berggr. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 50c (P. albida). 
Poa iinbecilla, Forst. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 53a (P. breviglumis), 53b. 

Alropis stricta, Hackel. — Hook. f. Fl Tasm. ii, t. 162b (Glyceria) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 41a (Glyceiia). 
Festuca littoralis, Labill. — PL Nov. Holl. i, t. 27 ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 54. 
Festuca rubra, Linn. — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 55b {F. duriuscula). 
Brontus arenarius, Labill. — PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 28 ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 56a. 
Agropyrum multiflorum, T. Kirk — Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 56b (Trilicum). 
Agropyrum scabrum, Beauv.- — Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. i, t. 26 (FeUuca) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, 

t. 57 (Triticum). 
Asperella gracilis, T. Kirk — -Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i, t. 70 {Gymnostichum) ; Buch. N.Z. Grasses, t. 58 



FiLICES. 

Hymenophyllum rarum, R. Br. — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 5, f. 5. 

Hymenophyllum polyanlhos, Swartz, var. sanguinoleniuni. Hook. — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 28, f. 7. 

Hymenophyllum villosum, Col. — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 19, f. 7 (H. polyanlhos, var. villosum). 



ttymeiinphylliini. niistrale. VVilld. — Field, N.Z. FeriiH, t. If), f. 4 {H. janannicnm). 

Hi/iiiciHip/n/lhiiii tilroviri'ii.s. Col. — T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst, x (1878), t. 211) (W. nioiiliiiui,,,) . Field, 

N.Z. Ferns, t. 28, f. 1 {H. moidanum). 
Hytneiiophi/llum j)idchenimum, Col. — Hook. f. Fl. No\ . Zel. ii, t. 74; Hook Kp. Fil. i. I. 'M \ ; Field, 

N.Z. Ferns, t. 20, f. 6. 
HymenophyUum dilaUUnm, Swartz — Hook. & Gri v. ic. Fil. t. 60 ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. l.j, f. 1. 
Hymenopkyllum. demissiini, Swartz — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 18, f. 1. 

HymcHophiilhnii .snihnnii. A. Ricli.— Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 14, f. 1 ; Field. N.Z. Kerns, I. 17, f. I. 
Hyin,-iH,plniU,n„ jliilirllal,,,,,. L.ihill.— PI. Nov. Moll, ii, t. 2.50; F'ield. N.Z. Ferns, t. ]'.), f. (i. 
Hymeiiopliylhnii rn/rsm,.':. T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, xi (18711), t. I'.U : Field. N.Z. Feniv i 1.^, f. C. 
Hymenopliylliiiii cilidiinii. Suartz— Hook. H\). Fil. i, t. .'ilc (H. Baryamnn). 
Hymenophyllinii .•nihlilixsuinnii. Kunze — Field. N.Z. Ferns, t 15, f. 2. 
Hi/me>iopliyUi(iii MnUmiii. Metten.— Hook. (laideii Ferns. 1. (11 (Trirlioiiiaiii'.\) ; Kn-ld. N.Z. Feins, 

t. 7, f'. 2. 
Hymeiiophylhini ('liecieinanii, JJak.- -Ic. Plant, t. Il.'i2 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, I. '}. I. '.i. 
Hymenophyllvni Oheeseinanii, var. ArmHiomjii. T. Kirk — Trans. N.Z. Inst, x (1878), Ai>|). 43, I. 21a 

(H.-Armslrongii) ; Ic. Plant, t. 1614. 
HymenophyUtim ininimnm, A. Rich. — Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 14, f. 2 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. Hi, f. .5 (Imd). 
Hymenophyllinii TiiHhrldqeiise, Bniith- — -Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 14, f. 7. 
HynieHophylhim niulaterale. Willd.— Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 14. f. 8. 

Hywciiopli'ylhnii iiinlli/idam, Swartz— Hook. &: (4rev Ic. Fil. t. 167 : Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. l!). f. 8. 
Hyiimiopliylhnii bivulve, Swartz — Hook. S|). Fil. i. I. 35u : Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 17. f. 3. 
Trichomanes reuiforMe. Forst. — Hook. Kxot. Ferns, t. 2; Hook. & Grev. le. Fil. t ."H : Field. N.Z. 

Ferns, t. 2, f. 3. 
Trichomanes Lyallii. Hook. & Bak.— le. Plant. 1616 : Field, N.Z. P'eriis, t. 5, f. 4. 
Trichomanes hnmile Forst.— Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 35 ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 5, f. 8. 
Trichomanes veno.sinii. R. Rr.— Hook. & Grev. le. Fil. t. 78; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 14, f. 4. and t. 18, 

f. 3 (T. veniistuliim). 
Trichomanes Coleiisoi. Hook, f.— le. Plant, t. ii79 ; Field. N.Z. P'erns, t. 22, f. 3. 
Trichomanes slriclnm. Menz.— Hook. & (4rev. le. Fil. t. 122 ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 28, f. 3 {T.rigiduui, 

var slriclum). 
Trichomiiiics rlonc/atum, A. Cunn.— Ic. Plant, t. 701 ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 16, f. 2 {T. rigidum, var. 

eloiHin/iim). 
Loxioma diniiitiighamii, R. Br.— A. Cunn. Preeur. t. 31 ; Hook. Gen. Fil. t. 15; Hook. Garden Ferns, 

t. 31 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 12, f. 1. 
Cyathea dealhata. Swartz— A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 10; Field, N.Z Ferns, t. 10, f. 2: Phillips Turner. 

Rept. Waimarino Forest, p. 4. 
Cyathea 'medidlaris, Swartz— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 9, f. 3, and t. 2!t, f. 1 (young) ; Phillips Turner, 

Rept. Waimarino Forest, p. 2. 
Cyathea Cmniimihamii, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 985 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 9, f. 1, 2. 
Hemitelia Smilhii, Hook.— Hook. f. Fl. N.Z. ii, t. 72 {Cyathea); Bueh. Trans. N.Z. Inst, xix (1887). 

t. 12, 13 (branched specimen); Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 9. f . 4, 5 ; Phillips Turner. Rept. Waimanno 

Forest, p. 3. 
AlsophiU Colensoi, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, t. 73 . Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 3, f. 4. 
Dicksonia squarrosa, Forst.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 10. f. 6. and t. 25. f. (! (juvenile); Phillips lurner, 

Rept. Waimarino Forest, p. 2. ,„,,,,••,, 

Dicksonia fibrosa. Col.— Hook. Sp. Fil. i, t. 23b . Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 1.!, f. o, and t. 25, f. I (juvenile) : 

Phillips Turner. Rept. Waimarino Forest, p. 3. 
Dicksonia lanata, Col.-Hook. Sp. Fil. i, t. 23.' ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 11 f. 1. U, 1b. 
Damllia Tasmani, Cheesem.— Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 24, f. 5. 
Davallia novai-zelandice, Col.-Hook. Sp. Fil. i, t. 51b; Hook. Garden Ferns, t. 51 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, 

Cystlfteris fra^ilis, Bernh.-Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii. t. 166 ; le. Plant, t. 959 (f. tasmanica) ; Field, N.Z. 

Ferns, t. 18, f. 5a. 
Lindsaya linearis, Swartz— Syn. Fil. 1.3; Field, N.Z. Ferns (19. f. 4, 4a. 

LiWsa«a<nc/w«fly(o/:ffe, Dryand.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 19. i 1. d . . .,- r o 

Lindsay,, Irichomammhs, Dryand. var. Lessonh, Hook, f.— Bory. in Duj). \ oy. ( oc,. Bot. t. .{,, 1. J, 

Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 19, f. 3. 
Lindsaya viridis. Col— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 19, f. 2 .^. ,j ., „ „ . ,- r , 

Adiantum wthiopicum, Linn.-Hook. Sp. F.l. n. t. 77c ; Field N^Z Ferns, t. !<, f- !■ 
Adianti^m diapLurm. Blume-Hook. Sp. Fil. ii, t. 80r ; Field, N.Z. Ferns^t^l.l^ f. o 
Addantran Mspiddam^ Swartz-Schkuhr Fi . t. 116 (^. P^^^^^'^f)' ^'^Id, |N-f/ems, .. 13, f. 1. 
Adiantum formosum. R. Br.-Hook. Sp. Fil. >>, t. 86b ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. If f- 6^ 
Adiantum affine, Willd.-Hook. Sp. Fil. u. t. 86a {A. Cwminghavm) ; F'eld, N^Z. Ferns, t. 6, f. 1. 
idiantim lilvum. Raoul-Hook. Sp. Fil. a, t. 85a ; Field, N.Z. Ferns t^6. *• *• , ^ , 
ffto S- '--•'"''«' Bernh.-Hook. Sp.Fil. li, fc. «9c90a Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 24, f. 3. 
Hypolepi» millefolium, Hook.-Sp. Fil. ii, t. 95b ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 3. f. 2. 



Hypolepis distans. Hook.— Sp. Fil. ii, t. 95c , Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 28. f. 6. 

Cheilanlhes lewiifolia, SwarU— Hook. Sp. Fil. ii, t. 87(^ ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 28, f. 2. 

Cheilanlheb Skberi, Kunze— Hook. Sp. Fil. ii. t. 97b ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 21, f. 1. 

Pellcea falcala, Fee— Hook. Sp. Fil. ii, t. 111b ; Ic. Plant, t. 207 (P. selicaulis) : Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 18, 

f. 4. 
PMcea rotHHdifolia, Hook.— Fil. Exot. t. 48 ; Ic. Plant, t. 422 (Pteris) : Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 14, f. 2. 
Pferis aquiUna, Linn. var. exculenia, Hook. f. — Hook. Sp. Fil. ii, t. 141 ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 14, f. 1. 1a. 
Pteris scaberula, A. Rick.— Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. II ; Hook. Sp. Fil. ii, t. 93a ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 19, 

f. 5. 
Pteris tremula, R. Br.— Hook. Sp. Fil. ii, t 120b ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 23, f. 2. 
Pterin coman% Forst.— Ic. Plant, t. 973 (P. Endlicheriana) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 24, f. I. 
Pteris macilenta, A. Rich.— Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 11 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 7, f. 1. 

Pteris incisa. Thunb.— Labill. PL Nov. Holl. ii, t. 245 {P. vespertiUonis) , Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 8, f. 4. 
Lomaria Putersoni, Spreng. var. elonqata. Hook. & Bak. — Hook. Sp. Fil. iii, t. 143 (L. elongata) ; Ic. 

Plant, t. 627, 628 (L. Colensoi) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 11, f. 3, 3a, 3b. 
Lomaria disoolor, Willd.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 4, f. 2, 2a. 

Lomaria vulcanica, Bliime— Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 969 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 27, i. 5, 5a. 
Lomaria lanceolata, Spreng.— Ic. Plant. 429 , Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 11, f. 2, 2a, and t. 7, 7a {L. aggregata). 
Lomaria dura. Moore— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 10, f. 4, 4a. 

Lomaria Banksii, Hook, f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, t. 76 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 26. f. 2. 
Lomaria aljmia, Spreng. — Hook. f. Fil. Exot. t. 32 ; Fl. Antarct. ii, t. 150 ; Raoul, Choix. t. 2a 

{L. pumila.) , Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 17, f. 5, 5a. 
Lomaria capenuls, Willd.— Ic. Plant, t. 427, 428 (L. procera) ; Hook. Garden Ferus, t. 53 (L. procera) ; 

Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud. Crypt, t. 2, f. E, E' {L. procera) ; A. Rick. Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 13 

(Stegania procera) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 2, f. 1, 1a. 
Lomaria capensib, Willd. var. minor. Hook f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, t, 75 {L. procera, var. minor) ; Field, 

N.Z. Ferns, t. 12, f. 4, 4a, 4b (L. procera, var. minor). 
Lomaria fHiformis. A. Cunn.— Hook. Sp. Fil. iii, t. 149 ; Field, N.Z. Ferus, t. 10, f. 3. 3a, 3b ; 

Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 10. 
Lomaria nigra. Col.— Ic. Plant, t. 960 : Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 26, f. 3, 3a. 

Lomaria fluviatilis, Spreng.— Raoul, Choix, t. 2a (£. rotundifolia) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 27, f. 2, 2a. 
Lomaria membranacea, Col.— Hook. Sp. Fil. iii, t. 145 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 5, f. 6, 6a. 
Lomaria Fiaseri, A. Cunn.— Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 185 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 24, f. 4, 4a. 
Doodla media. R. Br.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 20, f. 1. 
Doodia nindala, R. Br.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 20, f. 4, 4a. 

Aspknium flabellifolium, Cav.— Hook. Exot. Fil. t. 208 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 6, f. 6. 
Asplenium Trichomanes, Linn. — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 28, f. 8. 
Asplenium jalcatum, Lam.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 21, f. 5. 
Asplenium obtusatum, Forst.— Homb, & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt. 1. 1, f. B ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 23, 

f. 3. 
Asplenium lucidum, Forst. — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 13, f. 6. 
Asplenium lucidum, Forst. var. obliquum, Moore— Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt, t. 1a 

(A. apice-dentatum). 
Asplenium lucidum, Forst. var. scleroprium., Moore — Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt, t. Id 

{A. scleroprium). 
Asplenium hwidum, Forst. var. Lyallii, Hook. f. — Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, t. 77. 
Asplenium Hookerianum, Col. — Raoul, Choix. t. 1 (A. adiantoides) ; Ic. Plant, t. 983 (A. adiantoides, 

var. minus) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 16, f. 4. 
Asplenium Hookerianum, var. Colensoi, Moore. — Ic. Plant, t. 984 {A. adiantoides, var. Colensoi). 
Asplenium bvlUferum, Forst.— Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 423 ; Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt. 

t. 3, f. 1 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 6, f. 5. 
Asplenium bulbiferum, Forst. var. laxum. Hook, f.— Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt, t. 3, f. J 

[A. laxum). 
Asplenium bulbiferum., Forst. var. trifinnatum. Hook, f.— Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt. 

t. 3, bis (A. tremulum) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 23, f. 6. 
Asplenium Rickardi, Hook, f.— Ic. Plant, t. 977 {A. adiantoides, var. Richardi) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 28, 

f. 5. 
Aspknium fla-cidum., Forst.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 12, f. 2. 

Asplenium umbrosum, J. Sm.— Ic. Plant, t. 978 (A. Brownii) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 5, f. 2. 
Asplenium japonicum, Thunb.— Brack. Fil. U.S. Expl. Exped. t. 18 {Diplazium congruum). 
Aspidium aculeatum, Swartz, var. veslitum, Hook, f.— Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt, t. 4. 
f. S (Polystichum. vestitum), and t. 5, f. N (P. venustum) ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t, 8, f. 2 ; Cockayne. 
N.Z. PI. t. 19 (Polystichum vestitum). 
Aspidium aculeatum., Swartz, var. sylvaticum. — Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. t. 8] (Polypodiuni sylvaticum). 
Aspidium mohrioides, Bory.— Dup. Voy. Coq. Bot. Crypt, t. 35 ; Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. ii, t. 149. 
Aspidium Richardi, Hook.— Sp. Fil. iv, t. 222 ; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, t. 78 [Polystichum aristatum). 
Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 13, f. 4. 



Aspiddinn ociilnliiw. ITdoIv. — R]), Fil. iv, t. 228. 

Aspidium cystostegia, Hook. — Sp. Fil. iv, t. 227 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, (. 8, f. 3. 

Aspidmtn capen/te, Willd. — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 6, f. 2. 

Nephrodium Thdypterifi, IJesv. viu-. squamulosum, Schlecht. — Fil. Cap. t. 11 ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 13, 

f. 3. 
Nephrnillinii <l (oiiipos-lhnii, R, Br.— Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. t. 79 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 5, f. 7. 
NcphrdiHiiiii iiltihclhiiii, A. Cnnn. — Field. N.Z Fern.s, t. 6. f. 3. 

Nephrndnnn rrh,f,ui»n,. Hook f.— Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, t. 80 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 20, f. 2. 
Nephrodium seligerum, Bak. — Hook. Sp. Fil. iv, t. 269 (Nephrodium lenericaulf). 
Nephrodivm hinpidum. Hook. — Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 3, f. 3. 
Nephrodiiiw. mnlum, R. Br.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 23. f. 1. 
Nefhi-n,li,nii iiiuUp. Dohv.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 23. f. 5. 
Nepkrolcpis vordijolia, Presl.— Field, N.Z. Fern.s, t. 20. f. 3. 
Polypodium punetatum, Thuiib. — Labill. i'l. Nov, Holl. ii, t. 211 (P. rugulosum) : Field, N.Z. Ferns, 

t. 15, f. 3. 
Polypodium pennigerum, Forst.- — Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 25. f. 3, .uul t. 26, f. 4. 
Polypodium australr, Mett.— Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Crypt, t. 2, f. G {GrammUis). and 

t. 2, f. F, H (Gmmmitis rlgida aiul G. humilia) : Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 22. f. 1, and t. 15. f. 1 

(P. pumihim). 
Polypodium grammiiidis. R. Br.— Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. ii, t. 239 (G. heUrofh,llu) : Field, N.Z. Ferns, 

■ t. 14, f. 3. 
Polypodium tenelluiii. Forst.- Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii, t. 82 {Arlhroplerie tenella) : Field, N.Z. Ferns. 

t. 4, f. 4. 
Polypodium serpens, Forst.— Hook. & (irev. Ic. Fil. t. 93 {Niphobolus nipcslris) and t. 14 {Niphnbolux 

hicolor) : Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 5, f. 9. 
Polypodium Dictyopteris, Mett.- Ic. Plant, t. 409 (P. atleniiatum) : Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 15. f. 5 

(P. Cunninghamii). 
Polypodium pustulatum, Forst. — Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 17, f. 2. 
Polypodium Billardieri. R. Br.- Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 2, f. 4. 

Polypodium novcr-zplnndi(v, Bak.— Ic. Plart. t. 1674 ; Field. N.Z. Ferns, t. 27, f. 3. 
NothocMwna distnm. R. Br.— Ic. Plant, t. 900 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 16, f. 3. 
Gymnogrammr nilo'lolia. Hook. & Grev.— Ic. Fil. t. 90 ; Hook. Fil. Exot. t. 5 : Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 10, 

f. 1 {G. Pozoi. var. rutcefolia). 
Oymnogramme leptophylla, Desv.— Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 25 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 16, f. 6. 
Gleichenia oircinata. Swartz— Labill. Sert. Nov. Cal. t. 11 (G. semiveshta) : Hook. Sp. *il. i. t. 2a 

(G. iemivestita) ; Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 2, f. 2. „ ,^ i • , . „ » p- ij 

Gleichenia dicarpa, R. Br. var. hecistophylh. Hook. f.-Hook. Sp. F.l. i, t. 2b (G. hecutophylla) ; Field, 

N.Z. Ferns, t. 3, f. I (G. dicarpa). „ r, i d . n . 

Gleichenia dicarpa, R. Br. var. alpina, Hook. {.-Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. t. o8 : Cockayne. Rept. Bot. 

Stew. Is. t. 36. ^^ , , T,, »T r, , •■ . -1 c<- 1 1 

Gleichenia Cunninghamii, Heward.-Hook. Sp. Fil. i, t. 6b; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. n. t. .1 ; tieid, 

N.Z. Ferns, t. 7, f. 3 : Cockayne, N.Z. PI. t. 66. 
Gleichenia flahellala, R. Br.- Hook. Fil. E.xot. t. 71 : Field, N.Z Ferns, t. 8, f. 1. 
Gleichenia dichoioma. Hook.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 4, f. 1. ,,. r 

ScM^^a M«iosa. Labill.-Pl. Nov. Holl. ii, t. 250 ; Field, N.Z Ferns, t. 14, L o. 
SchizcBa fistidosa, Labill. var. amtralis, Hook. f.-Homb. & Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud. Cr>pt. t. 4. f. . 

(jS. pahn.ata). 
Schizcea bifida. Swartz— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 12, f. 3. ^. , , ^, „ „ , oa ( o 

Schizwa dichoioma, Swartz-Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 1. : Fjeld N.Z. Ferns, t 24, f. 2. 
Lygodium articulatum. A. Rich.-Fl. Nouv. Zel. t. 15 ; Field, N.Z. Ferns t. 22, f. 4. 
Tode-a harbara, Moor.e-Bot. Mag. t 5954 : Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. u. t 178 (T. afncana) , I'.eld, N.Z. 

TodI^li^noph!fllides. A. Ricb.-Fl. Nouv. 7^1. t. 16 : Hook. Garden Ferns, t. 46b : Ic. Plant, t. 8 

Tod^;^b::'^'S'^S::^U^'^^s) . Fi^i, N.Z. Ferns, t. 21. f. 4 ; Ganl. Cliron. .895. .. 

t 107 (Kood) : Phillips Turner. Rept. W'aimarnio Forest, p. b. „ , t, „ x- 7 In«t viii 

'• f"' Vr.' > "/ ' 1 , .A . rf\,.\A \j 7, Fpvns t 25 f 5; Buch. Trans. ^. A. Inst. Mil 

Marattia fraxmea, Sm.— Ic. Lied. t. 48 , Meld. JN-^- i-ems, r. -->, i. .» , 

(1876), t. 18 (stnicture of rhizome). ^ ^ .71 f - 

Ophioglossuw InsitanicMm, Linn.— Field. N.Z. l*"'-''""**' t- -J' i- '• 
Ophioglossum mdgatum. Linn.— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 21 f. b. 
Botrychium Innaria, Swartz— Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 21, f. 8. 

Botryctem tern^tom, Swartz-Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 20, L 5 5A. , n f 9 2^ 

Botrychium lermlum, Swartz, var. dissectun,, Hook. f.-Field, N.Z. Ferns, t. 13. t. -, -a. 

Marsileace^. 
Pilularia nov.r-zdamluv . T Ki.k-Traus. N.Z. Inst, ix (1877), t. 29. 



LwoPoinxfEJE. 

PhyUoglossum Drummondii, Kunze — Ic. Plant, t. 908. 

Lycopodiuin Selae/o, Linn. — Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 170a. 

Lycofodiuiii varii/iii, R. Br. — Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 112 : Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. ii, t. 170b. 

Lycopodimn Billardieri, Spring, var. gracile, T. Kirk — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xvi (1884), t. 29 {C. varium, 

var. gracile). 
Lycopodium densum, Labill. — PI. Nov. HoU. ii, t. 251 ; Cockayne, Eept. Waipoxia Forest, t. 17. 
Lycopodiuin ramulosum, T. Kirk — Trans. N.Z. Inst, xi (1879), t. 19b. 
Lycopodium scariosum, Forst. — Ic. Plant, t. 966. 
Lycopodium voluhile, Forst. — Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 170. 

Tmesipteris tannensis, Bernh. — Labill. PI. Nov. Holl. ii, t. 252 : Hook. & Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 86. 
Psilotum, triquetrum, Swartz — Hook. & Bauer. Gen. Fil. t. 87 ; Hook. Fil. Exot. t. 63. 

ISOETACE^. 

Isoetes Kirkii, A. Braun— T. Kirk, Trans. N.Z. Inst, ii (1870), t. 7. 
Isoetes alpinus, T. Kirk— Trans. N.Z. Inst, vii (1875), t, 25. 



I NDEXES. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX TO THE PLATES. 



Ranijnculace^. 

1. Clematis indivisa, Willd. 

2. Clematis parviflora. A. Ckhh. 

3. Ranunculus Lyallii, Hnok. j. 

4. Rannnoulus nivicola, Hook. 

5. Ranunculus Enysii, T. Kirk. 

6. Ranunculus Sf^ricopUyllus. //oo/,-. /. 

7. Ranunculus aucklaiidicus, .1. ^'/'"//. 

Macnoijack.*;. 

8. Drimys Travcrsii, T. Kirk. 

CRlTriFER.B. 

9. Nasturtium latesiliqua, ChecKPiii. 

10. Lepidium oleraceum, For.'il. 

11. Lepidium sisymljrioides, Hcak. f. 

12. Notdthlaspi australe, Hnnk. j. 

ViOI.ACE.l!. 

13. M<ilicytiis ramifiorus. For.^i. 

14. Hymenanthera novm-zelandin'. Ucind. 

PlTTO.SrORArE.15. 

15. Pittosporum (^llipticum, T. Kirk. 

16. Pittosporum crassifolium. A. Ckiui. 

17. Pittosporum Kirkii, Hook. j. 

Caryophyllace.e. 

18. Stellaria Roughii, Hook. j. 

19. Stellaria graciJentii, Hook. f. 
(Colobanthus acicularis, Hook. /. 
I Colobanthus canaliculatus, T. Kirk. 



20. 



Malvace^. 

21. Plagianthus cymosus, T. Kirk. 

Tiliace.*;. 

22. Entolea arborescens, R. Br. 

23. Aristotolia racemosa, Hook. f. 

24. Elseocarpu; dentatus, Vahl. 

Geraniace/E. 

25. Geranium Traversii, Hook. /. 

iv — Flora Notes. 



RuTACEiE. 

2G. Phehalium nudum, Hook. 
27. M<(licopo t(!rnafci, Fnrsl. 

Riiamnack.e. 
•28. Poni:idcni.'< Edgerleyi, Hook. /. 

.AnA(AKI>1A<E/E. 

29. Coryiiociirpus liBvigatii. Fomt. 

CORIARIACE.'E. 

30. Coriaria ruscifolia, Liini. 

Le(jumi.vos.«. 

31. Corallospartium crassicaule, Armslr. 
31a. Cliordo3])artium Sti:vensoni, Clieeiem. 

32. Carmickselia Williamsii, T. Kirk. 

33. CarmichsBJia grandiflora. Hook. j. 

34. Carmichaelia odorata, Col. 

35. Carmichaelia gracilis. Armstr. 

36. Notospartiuni Carmicliajliif. Hook. /. 

Rosaie.t;. 

37. Rubus parvus. Buch. 

38. Gffium uniflorum, Buch. 

39. Acsena novse-zelandiae. T. Kirk. 

Sa.xifragace.«. 

40. Ixerba brexioides, A. Ciniv. 

41. Carpodetus sorratus, Forsl. 

42. Ackama rosaefojia. A. Ciinii. 

43. Weinmannia racemosa, Linv. /. 



44. 



45. 



CBASSUI-ArEiE. 

[Tillaea moschata, B.C. 
[Tilhea Sieberiana, Schiltz. 

Drosera<-e^. 
(Drosera Arcturi, Hook. 
(DroSera pygmaea. B.C. 



Hai.oragace.?:. 
46. Myriophyl]\im robustimi. Hook. f. 



^IVRTACK.K. 

47. Leptuspurnuun Sinclairii. T. Kirk. 

48. Metrogid<;ros difiusa, l^mitli. 

49. Metrosiiloros Parkinsonii, BkcIi. 

50. Mftro.sid(ir(>,s albiflora, Sulanil. 

Onagr.\ce.e. 

51. Epilobium pallidifloriim, Soland. 

52. Epilobium rotundifolium. Forsl. 

53. Epilobium brevipes, Hook. j. 

54. Epilobium luelaiiocaulon. Hook. 

55. Epilobium glabellum, Forsl. 

56. Fuchsia procumben&, B. Cunn. 

FifOIDE.*. 

57. TetTagonia trigvua. Banks rf' Sol. 

lJUTiKhl.lVF.RAi. 

58. Hvdrocotyle eloiigata, .-(. C'limi. 

59. Azorella Haastii, Bentli. if- Hook. /. 

60. Azorella Roughii, BeiitJi. d- Hook. j. 

61. Aciphylla Hookeri, T. Kirk. 

62. Aciphylla Townsouii, Cheesem. 

63. Aciphylla Moiiroi, Hook. f. 

64. Coxolla Dieffenbachii, Cfiee.seiii. 

65. Ligusticuni Haastii, F. Mi/elJ. 

66. Ligusticum carnosulum, Hook. j. 

67. Ligusticum piliferum, Hook. j. 

68. Angelica Gingidiuni, Hook. f. 

69. Angelica ro.'^sefoiia, Hook. 

Akaliace^. 

70. Stilbocarpa Lyallii, T. Kirk. 

71. Panax lineare, Hook. j. 

72. Panax anomalum, Hook. 

73. Merj'ta Sinclairii, Heeoi. 

74. Pseudopanax discolor, Harms. 

75. Pseudopanax ohathamicum, T. Kirk. 

CORNACE/E. 

76. Corokia buddleoid(S, A. Viinn. 
11. GriSeliiiia lucida, Forst. 

Caprifoliace^e. 

78. Alseuosmia macrophylla, A. Cnini. 

RUBIACE^. 

79. Coprosma lucida, Forst. 

80. Coprosma serrulata, Hook. f. 

81. Coprosma areolata, Cheesem. 

82 Coprosma rhamnoidos, A. Cunn. 

83. Coprosma foetidissima, Forst. 

84. Coprosma acerosa, A. Cinin, 



85. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 

102. 

103. 

104. 

105. 
106. 
107. 

108. 

109. 

110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 
115. 
116. 



CoMi'osnvE. 
Olearia in.>iignis, Hook. /. 
Olearia semidentata, Decne. 
Olearia chathamica, T. Kirk. 
Olearia nitida. Hook. f. 
Olearia lacunosa, Hook. /. 
Olearia moschaUi, Hook. j. 
Olearia virgata. Hook. j. 
Pleurophyllum Hookeri, Buch. 
Celmisia laterali.s, Biich. 
Celmisia Haastii, Hook. j. 
Celmisia Traversii, Hook. /. 
Celmisia jDotiolata, Hook. j. 
Celmisia viscosa. Hook. f. 
Celmisia Hectori, Hook. j. 
Celmisia glandulosa. Hook. /. 
Haastia Sinclairii, Hook. j. 
Gnaphalium subrigidum. Col. 

Raoulia Monroi, Hook. j. 

Raoulia subsericea, Hook j. 
Raoulia eximia, Hook. /. 
(Raoulia Hectori, Hook. j. 
(Raoulia Petriensis, T. Kirk. 
Helichrysum grandicc;p,s. Hook. f. 
Cotula atrata. Hook. f. 
Cassinia amceiia, Cheesem.. 
Cotula pyrethrifolia, Hook. f. 
(Abrotanella linearis, Berggr. 
|Abrotanclla pusilla, Hook. f. 
Erechtites glabrescens, T. Kirk. 
Senecio Lyallii, Hook. j. 
Senecio Hectori, Buch. 
Senecio cassinioidis. Hook. j. 
Senecio Bidwillii, Hook. j. 
Senecio geminatus, T. Kirk. 
Sonchus grandifoliuR, T. Kirk 



StYLIDIACEvE 

117. Forstera tenella. Hook. /. 

G00DENIAOE.S:. 

118. Soaevola gracilis, Hook. j. 



Campanulaoe^. 
119. Pratia physaloidt:s, Henisl. 

(Pratia macrodon, Hook. j. 

(Lobelia Roughii, Hook. /. 
121 Wahlenbergia saxicola, A. D.C. 



Ericace^. 

122. Gaultheria perplexa, T. Kirk. 

123. Gaultheria oppositifolia, Hook. 



Xxvii 



fiPAC^RIDACE^. 

12'!. Cyathodes acerosa, li. Hi. 
126. Cyathodes Colensoi, IIdoI;. j. 

126. Leucopogoii faseiculatiiN, .(. liiJi. 

127. Epacris alpina, Hook. j. 

128. Aroluuia racemosa, HooL-. /. 

129. Dracophyllum latifoliuiu, A. Cuna. 

130. Draoopliyilum Townaoiii, Vhtvsiuii,. 
131 Dracophyllum recurvum, Hook. j. 

132. Dracophyllum subuJatuiu, Hook. j. 

Sapotace.-e. 

133. Sideroxylon cufitatiim. F. Murll, 

Oleace.'E. 

134. Olea lancnolata, Hook. j. 

Apocynace^. 

135. Parsousia heterophylla, A. Cunn. 

LOGANIACE^. 

136. GreuioStoma ligustrifolium, A. Cunn. 

Gentianace^. 

137. Geutiaiia gracilifolia, Cheeseiii. 

138. Gentiaua chathamica, Cheesein. 

139. G«ntiana Townsoni, Cheei^n. 

140. Gentiana bellidifolia. Hook. f. 

141. G«ntiaua Speuceri, T. Kirk. 

Boraginace^e. 

142. Myosotis Forsteri, Lehiii,. 

143. Myosotis explaiiata, Cheesem. 

144. Myosotis Moiuoi, Cheesem. 

145. Myosotis conciima, Cheesem. 

146. Myosotidium uobile. Hook. 

SCROPHULARIACE.E. 

147. Calceolaria Sinclairii, Hook. f. 

148. Veronica divergens, Cheesem. 

149. Veronica leiophylla, Cfieesem. 

150. Veronica rigidula, Che-esem. 

151. Veronica Matthewsii, Cheesem. 

152. Veronica Gibbsii, T. Kirk. 

153. Veronica tetragona, Hook. 

154. Veronica cupressoides. Hook. j. 

155. Veronica epacridea, Hook. /. 

156. Veronica macrantha. Hook. j. 

157. Veronica BidwilJii, Hook. /. 

158. Ourisia sessilifoUa, Hook. /. 



159. 



LeNTIBULARI A< 'E.B. 

( Utricularia novse-zealandife. Hook. j. 
I Utricularia delicatula, Cheesem. 



G E.S.N ERA! 'E*. 
Mid. Kii.ibili.thaniuii.s fvdaiidii, .1. Citim. 

Vekhk.na<I';.e. 
Kil. \\UMi iucins, T Kirk. 

Lauiat.k. 
102. ■Sciit«^ilJaria novie-ztilaiidiaj, Hook. /. 

PLA.\TAGI.NArE/E. 

163. Plantiigo Kaoulii, Deciir. 

(JHE.NOPODlAtEiE. 

164. CUonopodium triandrum, Forsl. 

POLYGONAI E.E. 

165. Muehlenbeckia axillaris, IValp. 

Chloranthace.'E. 

166. iVscariiia hicida, Hook. j. 

M(JM.MIAt'E.«. 

167. Hedycarj'a arborea, Forsl. 

Lal'race^. 

168. Beilschuiiedia Tarairi. Benlh. d- Hook. /. 

169. LitssGa calicaris, Benlh. (t Hook. /. 

Proteace.*. 

170. Persooiiia Toru, A. Cunn. 

171. Knightia oxcelaa, R. Br. 

Thy.mel.eace.e. 

172. Pimclua lougifolia, Banks (t Sol. 

173. Pimeloa buxifolia, Hook. j. 

174. Pimclea aronaria, A. Cunn. 

175. Pimelea Suteri, T. Kirk. 

LoRA.NTHAl E^. 

17G. El}trautlio Adamsii, Engl. 

Santalace.*;. 

177. Fusanus Cunninghaniii. Hook. j. 

Balanophorace/E. 

178. Dactylauthus Taylori, Hook. j. 

EUPHORBIACE.*. 

179. Hunuilauthus polyaudrus, Cheesem. 

UrTICACE/E. 

180. Paratrophis het<'rophylla, Blume. 

181. Boehmeria dealbata, Cheesem. 



CUPULIPER^. 

182. Fagus apiculata, Col. 

183. Fagus clifEoitioides, Ho<ik. /. 

CONIFER/i;. 

184. Agathis australis, Slciid. 

Taxac^e^. 

185. Podocarpus Totara, D. Don. 

186. Podocarpus nivalis, Hook. 

187. Dacrydium Bidwillii, Hook. j. 

188. Dacrydium intermodium, T. Kirk. 

189. Dacrydium laxLfolium, Hook. f. 

190. Phyllocladus tricUomauoidcs, D. Don 

BURMANNIAC'E^. 

191. Bagiiisia Hillii, Cheeseiit. 



191. 
192. 

193. 

194. 

196. 
196. 

197. 
198. 
199. 



Orohidace/e. 
Buibophyllum tuberculatum. Col. 
(Thelymitra longifolia, Forsl. 
JThelymitra pulchella. Hook. /. 
[Thelymitra uuiflora, Hook. f. 
J Prasophyllum Colcnsoi, Hook. j. 
( Prasophyllum pumilum, Hook. /. 
(Pterostylis trullifolia, Hook. j. 
Pterostyli.s Banksii, R. Br. 
Pterostylis foliata, Hook. j. 
j Lyperantlius antarcticus, Hook. /. 
ICaladeiiia bifolia, Hook. /. 
fCliiloglottis cornuta, Hook. f. 
iTownsonia deflexa, Cheescm. 
(Corysantbes Mattbewsii, Cheescm. 
I Corysantlies obloiiga, Hook. /. 



LlLIAUE^. 

200. Eliipogonum scandeiis, Ford. 

201. Luzuriaga marginata, Bentli. (i Hook. j. 

202. Bulbinella Hookeri, Benth. & Hook. j. 

JUNCACE,E. 

203. Rostkovia gracilis, Hook. f. 
I'Luzula Colensoi, Hook. j. 



204. 



[Luzula Clieesemanii, Bache 



Sl'ARGANIAC'E^. 

205. Spargauium autiiiodum, Graeb. 

NAIADA(_'E.?i. 

206. Potaniogetoii Cheesemauii, A. Bciui. 

207. Potamogetoii ochreatus, liauul. 



CYPERAOEii;. 

209. Schceiuis Oarsei, CheeJii'in. 

210. Cladium complaiiatum. Benii/r. 

211. Cladium Sinclairii, Hook. j. 

212. G-abuia procera, Forst. 

213. Diicinia ceespitosa, Booll. 

214. Carex trachycarpa, CIkvuvih.. 

215. Carex Raoulii, Boott. 

216. Carex decurtata, ChecsruK 

217. Carex litorosa, Bailei/. 

Gramine^. 

218. Imperata Cheeseinarii, H<u'k. 

219. Ehrharta Colenuoi, Hook. j. 

220. Hierocbloe Fraseri. Hook. j. 

221. Simplicia laxa, T. Kirk. 

222. Agrostis Dyeri, Pelrie. 

223. Deyeuxia Billardiori, Kiuilli. 

224. Deschampsia teiicUa. Pelrie. 

225. Trisetum Youngii, Hook. /. 

226. Dantbouia Raoulii, Sleiid. 

227. Dantbonia australis. Bncli. 

228. Kceleria Kurtzii, Hack. 

229. Poa polypbylla, Hack. 

230. Poa dipsacea, Petrie. 

231. Poa Cbeesemanii, Hack. 

232. Poa Kirkii, Buck 

233. Festuca ovina, Linn., var. novae-zelandise. 

Hack. 

234. Agropyrum aristatum, C/wesein. 



235. 

236. 

237. 
238. 
239. 
240. 
241. 
242. 
243. 
244. 
245. 
246. 
247. 
248. 
249. 



Filices. 

(Hymenophylluni atrovirons. Col. 

(Hymeuopbyllum Malingii, Melt. 

(Tricbomanes Lyallii, Hook. <& Bak. 

iTrichomanos Colcnsoi, Hook. j. 
Davallia Tasmani, Cheesem. 
Liadsaya viridis, Col. 
Pteris Scaberula, A. Rich. 
Lomaria dura, Moore. 
Lomaria nigra. Col. 
Lomaria Fraseri, A. Caiiii. 
Asplenium Hookerianum, Col. 
Aspidium cystostegia, Hook. 
Nepbrodium bispidum, Hook. 
Polypodium dictyoptcrig, Melt. 
Polypodium novre-zelandise. Baker. 
Lygodium articidatum, A. Rich. 
Todea superba, Col. 



ReSTIACEjE. 

208. Lepyrodia Traversii, F. Muell. 



Lycopodiac^e.?;. 
250. Lycopodium ramulosum, T. Kirk. 



GENERAL INDEX. 

(.S|piou's Hgiirid ill llii~ wink in oapilnl'-; spvuirs cuhuuIIv iiiiiitiniicil in iinimii ty|H'. On Hicoiiiit uI cljlliiiillii'h 
ill uiinscciilivcly niiiniH-riiig llic pages of the IcttiiinesH, the sju'cIok an- iiulcxcd in ufcortlanc"' with llie niiniloT of tin- 
plate under which they fire referred to. It httt not been thiiug)it necxMiiiry to index the Bpecien uii-nliuiii-d in ihi- lint 
of plants figured in other iiuhlieations.) 



Abrotanella i.inkaei.s, lienjyr. 
Abrotanem-a pusii.la. Hook. f. 
AcBNA nov.^zklandia;, T. Kirk- 
Acsena sanguisorhae, Volil. 
Achras novo-zelandieuni, F. Mtiell. 
Acianthus viridis. Hook. f. 
Aeiphylla Uieffenhachii, 7'. Kirk 
AcirHYi.i.A HooKKRi, 7'. A'(>/- . . 
Aeiphylla Lyallii, Hook. f. 
AciPUYLi.A IVIoNRoi, Hook. f. . . 
AciPHYU.A TowNSONi. Cheeaem. 
ACKAMA R(1S.«F()UA. .1. Ciinu. 
Aokama Nynianii. A'. Svhum. . . 
Agathis austbalis, Sleud. 
Agropybum aristatum. Cliec-iein. 
Agropyruni Enysii. 7'. Kirk 
Agrostis Dyebi, Petrie 
Agrostis eaiilna, Linn. 
Alectryon tiraiidis. Cliee.iew. 

ALSEUOSMI V MMRUPUYIXA. .-Ji. ('«««. 2t 

Aramopliilii aruudinaeea. Host. . . 
Anagospernia disperminn, WetUI. 
Anemone japoniea, Sieb. tfc Zurr. 
Angelica geniciJata, Hook. f. 
Angelica ({ingidium. Hook. f. 
Angelica ros-efolh. Hook. 
Apium australe, Thoucim 
Alalia Lyallii, T. Kirk 
Alalia polaris, Homb. rf- J(U-q. 
Archebia racemosa. Hook. f. . ■ 
Abistotelia racemosa, Hook. /. 
Ai'Uiido conspicua, For.il. 
Ascarina alticola. Schlechlcr 
Ascarina laneeolata. Hook. /. 

ASCABINA LUCIDA, Hook. f. 

Ascarma polystachya, A'or.v/. 
Ascarina ruluiraulis. .S'o/mv. 
Ascarina .Solnisiaiia, S.hlr.-hlcr .. 
Asperella aristata. /''''_';■ 
Asperella gracilis, T. Kirk 

ASPIDIUM CYSTOSTEGIA. Hook. . . 

Aspidium mohrioides. Bory. 

Aspidium vestituro. Swarlz 
Asplenium Golensoi, Hook. f. . . 

ASPLENTUM HOOKEBIANUM, Col. 

Asplenium lucidura, Forsl. 

Astelia linearis, Hook. f. 

Astelia trinervia, T. Kirk .. 2t, 

AZOEELLA Haastii. Hcnih. d,- Hook.f. 

Azorella Jliicllcri. Beiijli. 

Azorella jiallida, T. Kirk 

Azorella reniformis, A. Grmj 

Azorella Roughii, Benlli. d.- Hook.f. 

Azorella .Selago, Hook. f. 

Baonisia HiLLn, Cheesem. .. 
Beilschmiedia Tabaibi. Benlh. <fc Hook. 
Bcehraeria australis, Endl. 
Bcehmeria ealophleba, ('. Moore 
BfEHMERiA dealbata. Clieesem. 
Braehvcome Sinclairii. Hook. f. 
Bclbinella Hookebi. nenth. d- Hook.f 
Bulbinella Rossii. Bentli. <fc Hook.f. 
Bulbophvllum pygmffium. Lmdl. 
Bclbophyllum tuberculatum, to/. 



Nn 



..f IM.vte. 




101) 




I0!» 




3!) 




133 




lilS 




l>4 




1)1 


. 02 


14,-) 


H;J, !I4 


130 


I'm 




42 




42 


1K4 


24S 




234 




234 


222 


231 




222 




237 


121) 


184 




174 




139 




3 
ii<) 




()8 




()9 




116 




70 




70 




128 




23 




30 




lOli 




nil) 




Kiti 




Hit) 




!l>H 




Kili 




234 




234 




244 




244 




244 




243 




243 


■73 


237 




109 


12ti 


184 


o 


t, BO 




59 




00 




.-.9 



.■)9 

.. 191 
.. H)8 
.. 181 
.. 181 
.. 181 
. . 14.') 
137.202 
92. 202 
.. 191 
.. 191 



C'ALAUENIA BliruLIA. Hook. f. 

(!al(K()Laria .Sisci.airii, Hook. 
Callixene ))arvillora. Ilinik. f. 
flaltha nova'-zelftndisc, Hook.f. 
Calyslegia regin. R. Br. 
(Jardaniine fastigiata. Himk. f. 
C^irdaniine Knysii. Cheesem. 
('jirdamine Ittteniliqiia, Chccjiem. 
Cardamine radieata. Hook.f. 
Carcx Berggrcni, I'eiri' 
(!arex cirrhosa. Benjijr. 
Carex eonians. Bergijr. 
Carcx ervptocar|>a. Clmsini. 
Carex dkc tktata. ChrtMin. 
Carex dip.saeea, Prlrir 
(/'arex eehinata, Murr. 
Carex Gaudichaudiana, Kiinlli 
(^arex Heetori. Pelrlt . . 
Carex Kirkii. Pelric 
Carex littoralis. Pelrie.. 
Cabex utorosa, Bailei) 
Carex longiculniis. Petrie 
(!arex murieata. Liuii. 
(>irex pyrenaica. H'o/i/. 
Carex Raoulii. BooII 
C-arex rubicunda. Pelrie 
Carcx testacea, Soland. 
Cabex tbachycabpa. Cheeaem. 
CArex uneifolia. ChetJieiii. 
Ovrmicha-'lia australis. R. Br. 
Carmi('hielia cnissioaulis, Hook.f. 
(iirmiehalia Exsul. /'. Muell. . . 
Carmich.blh GBACiLl.x, .4rm.!(. 

CAEMUUjELIA (iBANDtFLORA, Uuok.f. 

( 'armichiplia Kirkii. Hook. f. 
Carmicha;lia .Monroi, Hook.f. .. 
Carmuh.ei.lv ddorata. Col. 
Carmich.«lia Wn.LiAMsii, T. Kirk 
Carpha al|)ina. R. Br. . . 
Cabpopetus sebbatus. Foml. . . 
Cjininibium polyandnim. Hook. f. 
Cassinia albida. Cockayne 
Cassinu amcena, Cheeiein. 
Cassinia fulvida. Hook. f. 
Cassinia Icptophylla, R. Br. 
Cassinia retorta. .4. Citnn. 
Cassinia Vauvilliersii. Hook.f. .. 
Catabrosa antarctica, Hook.f. .. 
Celniisia Adanisii, 7'. A'iri- 
Cclmisia cordatifolia, Burh. 
tV-lmisia eoriaeea. Hook. f. 
Celniisia discolor. Hook.f. 
Cclmisia densiHora. Hook.f. 
C^-lmisia diibia, Cheesem. 
Cclmisia Cihbsii. Chee»eiii. 

CEL»ItSIA GLANDULOSA, Hook. f. 

Celmisia Haastii. //not. /. 
Celmisia Hectobi. Woot. /. 
C<?lmisia ineana. Hook. f. 
Celmisia laricifolis. Hook. f. 
Ceuiisia lateralis. Buck. 
C<'lmisia linearis. Armnlr. 
Celmisia Lyallii. Hook. f. 
Cclmisia Monroi. Hook. f. 
Ceijiisia petiolata. Hook. f. . . 



.Nm. ..f Plate. 

. . 197 

147 

2<ll 

'.IS. 1(19. l.-iM 

.".I 

9 

9 

9 

9 

2I)( 

2IU 

217 

2 Hi 

21 )i 

2L-I 

. 1.37 

1.37 

210 

214 

217 

217 

217 

214 

. \f» 

. 21.1 

210 

21.'; 

.. 214 

.. 210 

32. 33 

31 

32 

ST. 

.33. .14 

. . 3.5 

03 

32. 33. :M 

32 

IU9, 128 

41 

. . 1 79 

.. 107 

.. 107 

.. 107 

.. 107 

. . 1(»7 

loT, 11,3. 127 

. . 224 

.. 128 

95 

90. 1 1 1 

94, 97 

97 

1.30 

93. 1.52 

90 

!M 

94. 98. l.->8 

94,97. 128. 145 

93 

93 

98 

94, 97 
63 

95. 96 



(Vlmisia rainulosa, Hook. j. 
Cclmisia Rutlandii, T. Kirk 
Celmisia speotabilis. Hook. J. 
Celmisia Traversii, Hook. f. . . 
Celmisia vernicosa, Hook. f. 
Cklmisia viscosa. Hook. J. 
t'cntrolcpis viridis, T. Kirk 
(.'lienopoiUum anibrosioidcs. Lntii. 
Chenojiodimn carinatiim, R. Br. 
Chcniipodium dctcstans, T. Kirk 
C'henopodiiini i;laiRiiin, Linn. . . 
(_'heiiopodiuin pusillum. Hook. f. 

ChENOPODIUM TRIANDRUM. For-^l. 

Uhenopodiuni urbicum, Linn. 
Chilogiottis bifolia, fSchlechler . . 
Chiloglottis cornuta. Hook. f. 
Chilogiottis forraicifera, Fitzg. . . 
Chilogiottis Traversii, F. Muell. 
(_!hordospaetium Stevensoni, Clieesem. 
Cladium articiilatura, K. Br. 
Cladiiim complanatum. Berggr. 
Cladium Deplanche.i, C. B. Clarke 
('ladiiim jimceum, R. Br. 
Cladium Sinclairii, Hook. J. . . 
Clematis i'u^tida, RaonI 
Clematis indivisa, Willd. 
Clematis integrifolia, Forst. 
Clematis parviflora, A. Cunn. 
Clianthus puniceus, Bank.s cfc Sol. 
Colensoa physaloides, A. Cunn. 
GOLOBANTHUS ACICULARIS, Hook. f. 

Colobanthus canaliculatus, T. Kirk 
Columnea seabrosa, SoJ. 
GopROSMA acerosa, .-1. Ciinn. .. 
CoPROSMA areolata, Clieesem. . . 
Coprosma Baueri, Endl. 
Coprosraa brunnea. Corkayne 
Coprosma chathamiea, Coihiiyne 
Coprosma Coleiisoi, Hook. f. 
Coprosma eoncinna, CoL 
Coprosma crassifolia. Col. 
Coprosma cmieata, Hook. f. 
Coprosma depressa. Hook. f. 
(.'upriisma divaricata, A. Cunn. 
Coprosma icetidissima, Forsl. . . 
Coprosma grandifolia. Hook. f. . . 
Coprosraa heterophylla. Col. 
Coprosma linariifolia. Hook. f. . . 
Coprosma lucida, Foril. 
Coprosma macrocarpa, Cheeseni. 
Coprosma orbiculata. Col. 
Coprosma parviflora. Hook. f. . . 
Coprosma propinqua, .4. Cnnn. 
Coprosma retusa, Petrie 
Coprosma rhamnoides, -4. Cunn. 
Coprosma rigida, Clieesem. 
Coprosma robusta, Raoul 
Coprosma rotimdifolia, .4. Cunn. 
Coprosma rubra, Petrie 
Coprosma serrulata. Hook. J. 
Coprosma teuuioaidis. Hook. J. . . 
Corallospartium crassicauie Arni.slr 
Cordyliiie australis, Hook. f. 
Coriaria angustissima. Hook. /. 
Coriaria arborea, Lindsay 
Coriaria euscifolia, Linn. 
Coriaria sarmentosa, Forsl. 
Coriaria thymifolia, //. B. K. 
Coriaria Tutu, Lindsay 

CoROKIA BUDDLEOIDES, .4. Cuiin. 

(jorokia cotoneastcr, Raoul 
Corokia macrocarpa. T. Kirk 
(lorynocarpus dissimilis, Heni^l. . . 

(JORYNOCARPUS L/EVIGATA, Forsl. 

Corynocarpus similis, Henul. 
Corysanthcs Carsei. Clieesem. 
CORYSANTHES JlATTHEWSn, Cheeseiii. 
CORY'SANTHES OBLONOA, Hook. f. 
COTITLA ATRATA, Hook. f. 

Cotula linearifolia, Cheeseni. 

COTULA PYRETHRIFOLIA. Hook. f. 

CoxELLA DiEFFENBACHli. Clieeseiii. 
Craspeclia uniflora, Forsl. 



No 


of Plat<?. 




.. 93 




.. 95 




99, 125 




95, 96 




.. 92 




97 




lU!). l;57 




.. 164 




1 64 




164 




.. 164 




1 64 




.. 164 




.. 164 




. . 197 




. . 19« 




19S 




.. 197 




.. 3lA 




.. 210 




.. 210 




.. 210 




.. 210 




.. 211 




.. 1.2 
1 




1 
2 




.. 29 




.. 119 




20 




20, 145 




. . 160 


7 


1. 84, 174 




81. 82 




.. 29 




.. 84 




75 




8:! 




.. 82 




.. 82 




127 




125. 127 




.. 82 




79, 83 




.. 179 




.. 82 




.. 126 


78, 7'.t 


170, 184 




. . 237 




.. 82 




.. 81 




.. 126 




80 




.. 82 




81, 82 




79, 180 




.. 81 




.. 82 




80 




.. 81 




31 




73 




.. 30 




30 




.30 




.30 




.. 30 




30 




.. 76 




.. 107 




75 




.. 29 




29, 75 




29 




. . 199 




.. 199 




.. 199 




.. 106 




.. 108 




. . 108 




64 




.. 145 



Cyathca dealbata, Sivarh 
Cyathea medullaiis, Stvarl:. 
Cyathodcs abietina, R. Br. 
CyATHODES ACEROSA, R. Br. 
Cyathodes Colensoi, Hook. f. 
Cyathodes divaricata. Hook. f. . 
Cyathodes cmpetriColia. Hook. f. 
Cyathodes robusta. Hook. J. 
Cyathodes Tameiamcise. Cham. 
Cynoglossum uobilc. Hook. f. 



Dacrydium Bidwillii, Houk.J. 114, 
Dacrydium biforme, Pilger 
D.icrydium Colensoi, Hook. 
DACRY'DiirM intermedium. 7'. Kirk 
Dacrydium Kirkii, F. Mnell. 
Dacrydium laxifolitjm. Honk. f. 
Dai:tylan'thus Taylori. Hook. f. 
•Dammara australis. Lainh. 
Danthonia australis. Burh. . . 
Danthonia flavescens, Hook. f. . . 
Danthonia Raoulii. Hleud. 
Danthonia rigida, Raoul 
Danthonia semiannularis, R. Br. 
Davallia canariensis, Linn. 
Davallia Tasmani, Cheesem. . . 
Davallia solida, Swarlz 
Dpschampsia caespitosa, Benuv. 
Deschampsia Chapmanii, Petrie. . 
Deschami'sia tenella. Petrie . . 
Deyeuxia Billardieri. Kunth. 
Deyeuxia Foisteri, iC«H//j. 
Dicera dentata, Forst. 
Dicera serrata, Forst. . . 
Dictymia lanceolata, J. Smith . . 
Doodia media, R. Br. . . 
Dracophyllum Kirkii, Berggren . . 
Dracophylldm latifolium, .-1. Cunn. 

Dracophyllum Menzicsii. Hook. J. 
Dracophyllum paludosum, Cockayne 
Dracophyllum pubescens, Cheeseni. 
Dracophyllum recurvum. Hook.f. 
Dracophyllum subulatum. Hook. f. 
Dracophyllum Townsoni. Cheesem. 
Dracophyllum Traversii. Hook. j. 
Dracophyllum uniflorum. Hook. f. 
Dracophyllum Urvillcanum. A. Rich. 
Drimys axillaris. For.-<t. 
Drimys coloiata, Raoul 
Drimys Traversii. 7'. Kirk 
Drosera Aecturi, Hook. 
Drosera pyom-ea. D.C. 
Drosera stenopetala. Hook. f. 
Drosera uniflora, Willd. 



Ehrh.irta Colensoi. Hook. f. . . 
Ehrharta Thomsoni, Petrie 
El.eocarpus dentatus, Vuhl. . . 
Elaeocarpus Hinau, ^4. Cunn. 
Elaeocarpus Hookerianus. Raoul 
Elytranthe Adamsii, Engl. 
Elytranthe Colensoi, Engl. 
Elvtranthe tetrapetala. Kngl. 
Enargoa marginata, Banks Jh Sol. 
Entelea arborescens, R. Br. . . 
Entoganum Isevigatum. Qaerlii. 
Epaoris alpina, Hook. f. 
Epacris fascioulata, Forst. 
Epaeris pauciflora. .4. Rich. 
Epicarpurus microphylhis. Raoul 
Epilobium alsinoides, ,4. Cunn.. . 
Epilobium australe. Poepp. <fc Haussk. 
Epilobium brevipes. Hook. f. . . 
Epilobium chloraefolium. Haussk. 
Epilobium confertifolium. Hook. f. 
Epilobium crassum. Hook. f. 
Epilobium erosum. Haussk. 
Epilobium erubescens. Haus,sk. 
Epilobium glabellum. Forst. . . 
Epilobium insulare, Haussk. 



No 


of Plate. 






184 






238 






124 


'.'. 123 


124 


125 
125 
124 




128 


1.37 
124 
125 
146 


127. 128 


137 


187 
187 




187 


188 




188 


189 
187 


114, 127 


137 


189 
178 
184 
227 

220 


.' .' 122 


125 


226 

226 

94 

237 




73 


237 
237 
224 
224 
224 
223 
223 
24 
23 
246 
238 
94 


26. .50. 


78, 


126. 


129. 


136, 


184 
130 
208 
130 


14, 127 


131 


140 


114, 


127, 


132 




130, 


198 
129 
94 
132 
8 
8 




i 


, 61 
45 
45 
45 
45 

219 

219 
24 
24 
72 
176 
176 
176 
201 
22 
27 


14, 127, 


139, 


140 
126 
127 
180 
52 
55 




53 


, 54 
52 

54 
53 
55 
55 


53, 5^1 


, 55 






52 



Rpilobium jmicciiin. Sniand. 
Epilobiiim Lechlcii. I'lill. ,(■ lliiiiml.-. 
Epilobium linntooiilcs. Hook. f. . . 

RPtLOBIUM MKLANIMAt'LON. IJnoL. 

Epilobium novas-zplandiie. Uiiiissk: 

Kl'ILOBUIM PALI.IDII-I.OHIIM, Holaild. 

Kpilobium polycloniiiii. llimsxl;. 
EpII.OMUM ROTUNDIMH.IUM, FnrM. 
Epilobium rostnvtum. Chee.^em. 
Epilobium sarmputaccuni, ffau/ixl.: 
Epilobium vornicosum, Cliee-n-in. 
KrEPHTITES (II.AHRKSCENS, T. Kirl 
liugeniii maire, ,1. Cunv. 
Kuplirasia Monroi, Ilnok. J. 
Eurybia virgata. Hnol.-. f. 



Kagi'iBa Bcrtcriaua, A. O'niy 
1'''A(U'S apiculata. Col. 
Fagus Blairii, T. Kirl- 
Faofs cijrfortioidks. Hnol.: f. 
Fagus fusca. Hook. f... 
Fagus Monziosii, Honk. J. 
Fagus Solandri, Hook. f. 
Festuca duriuscula. I/div. 
Festuc'a ovina, IAiui. 
Fostuca rubra. Lliiii. . . 
Forstora Uidwillii. Ilnni:. f. 
T'orstera scilifolia. Litm. f. 
Forstera tenei-i.a. Ilnnk. J. 
l'"reyoinctia Banksii. ,-1. Ciinn. .. 
Priesia racemosa, ,-1. Ciiini. 
Fuchsia (lolensoi, Hnok. /'. 
Fuchsia Kirl<ii. Honk. J.' 
Fuchsia cxcorticata. J.iini.f. 
Fuchsia procumbens, R. Cutm. 

FUSANUS CUNNrNOHAMIl. Honk. f. 



Gahnia procera. Fnr-il. 
Gahiiia xanthocarpa. Hook. f. . . 
Gaulthcria antipoda, For.sf. 
Oaultheria oppositifolia. Honk. f. 
Gaultheria perplexa, T. Kirk 
Gaulthcria rupestris. R. Br. 
Geniostoma lioustrifolium. .a. Cm 
Gentiana bellidifolia. Hnok. J. 
Gentiana cerina. Hook. f. 
Gentiana chathamic:a, Cheenem. 
Gentiana concinna, Hook. f. 
Gentiana corymbifera. T. Kirk 
Gentiana divisa, Chee-'ieni. 
Gentiana filipes, Cheexem. 
Gentiana gracilifoi.ia. Chee-om. 
Gentiana montana, Fnr.it. 
Gentiana patula, Cheanem. 
Gentiana jjleurogynoidcs. Hnok. J. 
Gentiana saxosa, Forst. 
Gentiana Spenceri, T. Kirk . . 
Gentiana TowNSONi. Chee-'tem. l:'i 
Gentiana vemicosa, Checmm. 
Geranium dissectum. Linn. 
Gerantttm Traversii, Hook. j. 
Gehm uniflorum, Bnrh. 
Gingidiura Dieifenbachii. F. Mii,ll. 
Gingidium montanum. For-fl. 
Gleiclienia circinata, iSimrtz 
Gnaphalium Keriense, A. Ciinn. 
Gnaphalium Lyallii, Hook. j. 
Gnaphalium subrigidum, Col. 
Gnaphalium trinervc. For.Hl. 
Griselinia littnralis, Rnoul 
GfTSF.I INIA LuriDA. Forsl. 



Haastia pulvinajis, Hnok. f. 
Haastia recurva. Honk. f. 
Haastia SiNCLAran, HnnI:. J. . . 
Haloragis cartilaginea. Cheesem. 
Heotorella csespitosa. Hook, f... 
Hedycarya angustifolia. A. Cunn. 
Hedycarya arborfa. For.'<l. 
Hclichrysum depressum, Benth. d- Hnnk. f. 



No. of Plat*-. 



17(1 



4(1 
.. iH2 
.. 182 
182. 183 
182 
182 
IM-.'. 18:i 



■2r.i 

117 
117 
117 
1H4 

•r.i 







212 


•2(k .",(). 78 


184 




122 


125 
12S 
122 
!I4 




107 


i:i(i 


no 


140 


141 
140 

i:i8 

140 


i:!7 


I'.-iii 


141 




140. 


141 
141 




i:{7 


141 


1 :!<i. 


140. 


141 




140, 


141 




m. 


1.S8 


1 ;!8. 


140 


141 




01. 


141 


i:t!i. 


141. 


108 




141. 


l->2 

2.-> 
38 
M 
fig 
130 
101 
101 
101 
101 



100. 103 
100 
KM) 

.. 107 
04 
!(>" 

ir.7 

.">4 



HeI.ICHRY.SUM liRANDd'F.PS. Hook. f. 

Hclichrysum Iconlopi.illuni, Hook. f. 
Hcr|K>lirinn iiova'/clniidiii'. Honk. J. 
Mil lorhliic alpiiia. Uoein. d- Srhnll. 
MiinMliloc liorcaliB, ffocw d- Schiill. 
HiKR(i(Hi.OB Fra»f.ri. Hook. J. 
HoMAl.ANTHIS POI.VANDRI'.S, ChftJtnn. 
Hydro(ujtyl<- americaim, l.inn. . . 
Hydiocotylo di>«ecta. Hook. J. . . 
llvDliocoTVLE ELO.SdATA. .1. Cunn. 
Hydrocutylc nova!'/.clandiii>, IJ.C. 
Ilydrocotylc |)terocar|»i, F. Miirll. 
Hymenantheni crassifolia. Ho'ik. f. 
Hymcnanthera latifolia. T. Kirk 
Hymknanthera nov.v;-7.ki,ani)i.k. Hn 
HyiniTiiitithcra Traversii, Biirli. 
II VMKMlplIvr.LlM atrovirk.n.s, Co!. 
Hvm.iK.plivllum auslraic. Willd. 
livMi.rio|,livl!um crisi«ituni. W'lll. 
14yni(iii.],hylliim Lyallii. Hoik. f. 
llYMK.Ncjpim.I.l'M .Mtl.INOII. .\fellen. 
Hymcnophylhim montanum. 7'. Kirk 
Hy|V>lcpis tenuifolia. Hrrnh. 



Imperata anmdinaeea. Ciir. 

ImPER.VTA CHEF.SE.MANII, //-li / ■ 

]m]K'rata exaltata, Brony. 
IlKima-a bilolui, Forxk. 

IXKRMA KRKXIornKS. .4. Cnnn. 



KNIliHTIA EXCELSA. R. Br. 

K(t>lcria cristat.a. Perx. 
Koji.ERiA Kurtzii, Hnrkfl 



Laurus calicaris, .4. Cnnn. 
Laurus Tarairi. .4. Cunn. 
Lconto|xidium alpinum. ^'ri-is. . . 
Lei)idi»m Biinksii. T. Kir': 
licpidium foliosmii. Dew. 
Ix'pidium Kawarau. Prirlr 
I,ej)idiuni .Matau. I'elrie 
Lcjiidium obtusiitum. T. Kirk . . 
Lepiditm oleracecm. Fomt. 
Lepidium piseidium. Fjrsl. 

I.EPIDIIM SISYMBRIOIDK.S. Hook. f. 

Lcptospcnnum ericoides, .1. Rich. 
I.eptospcrmuni senjiarium. Fornt. 

I.EPTOSPERMI'M Si NCI.AIRII. T. Kirk 

Ix-pyrodia scariosa. R. Br. 
Lepybodia Trayer-sii. F. Muell. 
I.<-ucogencs grandiccps. Benur. .. 
LEUOOPOnoN KASCICll-ATUS. A. Rirh. 
Ijcuco))ogon suaveolens. Hook. J. 
Libocednis Bidwillii. Hook. J. . . 
Ligusticum hrevistyle. Hook.f. 
LiorsTicrM carnosui.u.m. Hook. f. 
liigusticum Dieffciilwchii. Hook. J. 
Lifnisticum divcrsifulium. dfrnfm. 
liigusticiim (Jingidiiun. Fornl. . . 
LicrsTicuji HAA.srii. F. MueU. 
Ligusticum I^yallii. Hook. f. 

LlOUSTKUM PILIFERl'M. Hook. J. 

Lindsaj-a microphylla. Hook, d- Rol 
Lindsaya trichomanoides. Dry. . . 
LiNDSAlA YIRIDI.S. Col. 
Liparophyllum Gunnii. Hook. f. 
LiTS.EA CALTCAKis, Benth. <t Hook. J. 
Lobelia physaloides, A. Cunn. . . 
Lobelia Roughii, Honk. f. 
T/omaria Banksii. Hook. f. 
I>omaria disc<.lor. ll'iV/rf. 

liOMARIA DtJBA. Moorr 

Lomaria Fraseri. .1. Cunn. 
I/>maria lanceolata, Spreng. 
Lomaria nigra. Col. . . 
I/)ranthus Adam-ii. Chre^em. . . 
LrzULA fHEESEMANII. Burhen. 
LUZULA COLENSOI. Hook. f. 
Lu7.ida micrantha. Burhen. 
Lu7ida pumila. Hook. j. 



. of FIttle. 

1 0.1 

10.'. 

137 

.. 220 

.. 220 

220. 231 

. . 1 71) 

.18 

r.H 

.18 

M 

.18 

14 

14 

14. 73 

8. 14, 7.1 

. . 23.1 

. 2.3.1 

. 2.3.1 

. . 2.3« 

. . 23.1 

. . 23.1 

237. 23K 



218 
218 
218 
218 



171. 184 
.. 228 
2-'8. 231 



100 
1(18 
10.1 
10 
10 
II 





11 


73. I70 


184 




73 
47 




208 


s(; 


208 




10.1 


107. 12fi 


170 




121 




23.1 




6.1 




)t(t 




(U 


ii(i 


152 




(18 


(1.1. Ofi 


111 


(>7 


14.1 




238 




238 




238 




lOfl 




109 




110 


m 


120 




240 


->o. 


184 




240 


.10. 184.242 




240 




241 




17fi 




204 




204 




204 




204 



Liiziila racemosa, Deav. 

LUZ.URIAGA MARGINATA, Bcnth. <t Hook. J 
Lycopodium diffusum, R. Br. . . 
Lycopodiura laterale, B. Br. . . 
Lycopodium ramulosum, T. Kirk- 

LyOODIUM ARTleULATUM, A. Rich. 
L>godium japonicum, Swnrtz . . 
Lygndium palmatum, Simriz 

LyPKRANTHUS ANTARITICl'S, Hnni: f. 



Melaleuca diffusa, Forsl. 
Melicope simplex, A, Cunn. 
Mei.icope ternata, For.'!l. 
Melicytus macrophyllus, A. Cunn. 
llelicytus raicranthus. Hook. f. . . 
Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst. 
Meryta Sinclairii, Hook. f. . . 
Metrosideeos albiflora, SoUind. 
Metrosideros diffusa, Smith . . 
Metiosideros florida, Smith 
Metrooideros hypei'icifolia, A. (!iinn. 
Metrosideros iucida, A. Rich. 
Metrosideros Parkinsonh. Hurh. 
Metrosideros roliiista. .1. Cuini. 
.Metrosideros seandens, Sohind. . . 
Metrosideros tomeiitosa, A. Rirh. 
Mida eucalyploides, A. Cunn. 
Mida myrtifolia, A. Cunn. 
Mida saiieifolia, A. Cunn. 
Muhleneeckia axillaris. Wnlp. 
Miihlenbeekia eomple-\a, Meixv. 
.Myoporum Isetum, Forst. 
Myosotidium nobile. Hook. 
Myo.soti.s albida, Checiem.. 
Myosotis austral i.s, if. Br. 
Myosotis capitata. Hook. f. 
Myosotis concinna. Cheenem. . . 
Myosotis explanata, Clieesem. 
Myosotis Forsteri, Lehm. 
Myosotis macrantha, Hook.f. d: Benth. 
Myosotis Monroi, Cheesem. 
Myosotis petiolata. Hook. f. 
Myosotis saxosa. Hook. f. 
Myo.wtis spathulata, Forst. 
Myosotis Traversii, Hook. f. 
Myriophylliim clatinoides, Gaud. 
Myriophyllum robustum. Hook. f. 
Myriophyllum variasfolium, Hook.f. 
Myriophyllum vcrticillatum, Linn. 
Myrsine chathamica, F. MnelL 
Myrsine divaricata, A. Cuvn. .. 
Myrsine salicina, Heward. 
Myrsine Urvillei. A. Rirh. 



Nasturtium l.atesiliqua, Chee<em. 
Nephrodiura decorapositum, R. Br. 
Nbphrodium hispidum. Hook. 
Nephrodium velutimim, Hook.f. 
Notospartium Carmich.eli.«. Hook. f. 
Notospartiura torulosuni, T. Kirk 
Notothlaspi australe. Hook. f. 
Not.ithlaspi rosnlatum. Hook. f. 



Olea apetala, Vahl. 
Olea Cunninghamii. Hook. f. 
Olea dioica, Roxh. 
Olea lanceolata, Hook. f. 
Olea montana. Hook. J. 
Olearia Allomii. T. Kirk 
01o;',ria alpina, Buch. . . 
Olearia angiistifolia. Hook. f. 
Olearia chathamica, T. Kirk 
Olearia Colensoi. Hook. f. 
Olearia Orosby-.Smithiana, Pefrie 
Olearia Cunninghamii, Hook. f. 
Olearia in.signis. Hook. f. 
Olearia lacttnosa. Hook. f. 
Olearia laxiflora, T. Kirk 
Olearia mosohata. Hook. f. 
Olearia nitida. Hook. f. 



No. of Plate. 
.. 204 
. . 201 
. . 250 
.. 260 
.. 250 
184. 248 
.. 248 
.. 248 
. . 197 



48 
72, 107 
7.S. 176 
.. 126 



.. 72 

14 

7.3 

riO. 184 

48. .50 
4!), 184 

49 
.. 49 

49, 61 
17. 48, 4!». 77 

49 

48 

. . 177 

177 

.. 177 

54, 1(!5 

.. 165 

.. 73 

61, 146 

14:!, 145 

.. 142 

92, 143, 145 

143. 145 

143, 145 

.. 142 

1-13. 145 

liO. 144 

143. 145 

.. 144 

.. 142 

.. 143 

46 



46 



.. 184 
176. 178 



9 

245 

245 

245 

36 

36 

12 

12 



.. 134 

.. 134 

.. 134 

.. 134 

.. 134 

.. 128 

89 

87 

85, 86, 87 

. . 198 

89 

.. 170 

85 

89 

.. 91 

90 

88 



Olearia nummularifolia. Hook. f. 
Olearia odorata, Petrle 
Olearia operina. Hook. f. 
Olearia semidentata, Decnc. . . 
Olearia Solandri, Hook. f. 
Olearia Traversii. Hook. /. 
Olearia viegata. Hook. f. 
Omalanthus nutans. Guilt. 
Oreobolus pumilio, R. Br. 
Ourisia macrocarpa. Hook. f. 
Ourisia macrophylla. Hook. f. . . 
Ourisia sessilifolia. Hook. f. . . 



Panax ANOM.iLUM, Hook. 
Panax arboreura, Forst. 
Panax discolor, T. Kirk 
Panax Edgerleyi, Hook. f. 
Panax lineare, Hook. f. 
Panax Sinclairii, Hook. f. 
Paratrophis Banksii, Cheesem. . . 
Paratrophis heterophylla, Bliir, 
Paratrophis Smithii, Cheesem. . . 
Parsonsia capsularis, R. Br. 
Parsonsia heterophylla, .1. Clin 
Parsonsia rosea, Raoui 
Pennantia eorymbosa, Forst. 
Pentaehondra pnmila, R. Br. 
Periploca capsularis, Forsl. 
Persoonia Toru, .1. Cunn. 
PhEBALIUM NUDUM, Hook. 
Phebalium elat;iu,s, Benth. 
Phrygilanthus Raoulii, Engl. 
Phrygilanthus tenuiHoms, Engl. 
Phyllachne Colensoi, Berggr. 
Phyllocladus alpimis, Hook. f. . . 



114, 127, 
190, 23.'' 

Phyllocladus trichomanoides, D. Don 
Phyllocladus aspleniifolius. Hook. f. 
Phyllocladus glaucus, Carr. 
Phyllocladus hypophyllus. Hook. f. 
Phj'lloeladus protraetus, Pilger 

PlMELEA AREN-4.RIA, ,4. C'».nH. .. 
PiMELEA BUXirOLIA, Hook. f... 

Pimelea Gnidia, Forsl. 

Pimelea laevigata, Gaertn. 

Pimelea loncifolia. Banks & Sol. 

Pimelea Lyallii. Hook. f. 

Pimelea prostrata, ]]'illd. 

Pimelea Suteri, T. Kirk 

Piper excelsum, Forst. 

Pittosponim cornifoliuni, A. Cunn. 

Pittcsporum crassifolium, a. Cunn. .. 

PiTTOSPORUM ELLIPTICUM, T. Kirk 

Pittosponim eugenioides, A. Cunn. 
Pittosporum Fairehildi, Cheesem. 
PiTTOSPORUM KiRKn, Hook. f... 
Pittosporum pimeleoides, R. Cunn. 
Pittosporum Ralphii, T. Kirk . . 
Pittosponim virgatum, T. Kirk 
Plagianthus betuhnus, A. Cmrn. 
Plagianthus cy'mosus, T. Kirk 
Plagianthus divaricatus, Forst. 
Plantago erecta, Soland. 
Plantago Raoulii, Derne. 
Plantago varia, R. Br. 
Pleurophyllum criniferum. Hook. f. 
Pleurophy'llum Hookeri, Buch. 
Pleurophyllum speciosum. Hook. f. 
Poa anceps, Forsl. 
Poa csespitosa, Forst. . . 
Poa Cheesemanii, Hackel 
Poa C'olensoi, Hook. f. 
Poa ColHnsii, T. Kirk .. 
Poa dipsacea, Petrie . . 
Poa Kirkii. Buch. 
Poa Mackayi, Buch. 
Poa polyphylla, Hackel 
Poa purpurea, T. Kirk 
Poa pusilla, Berggr en . . 
Poa ramosissima. Hook. f. 
Podoearpus acutifolius. T. Kirk 



No. of Plate. 

114, 127 

.. 91 

87 

64, 86, 208 

.. 91 

.. 75 

91 

. . 179 

100, 128, 137 

111, 158 

128, 158 

94, 98, 158 



72 
.. 178 

74 
166 

71 

74 
. . 180 

72, 180 

73, 207 
.. 135 

135 

. 135 

72 

128 

. . 135 

170. 184 

126. 184 

.. 26 

. . 176 

.. 176 

94 

128, 187. 



170, 190 

.. 190 

.. 190 

.. 190 

.. 190 

.. 174 

114. 173 

172. 173 

. . 175 

172. 173 

.. 175 

. . 175 

60, 175 

73 

17 

16 

15 

.. 178 

. . 237 

17 

.. 107 

15, 16 

15 

21 

.. 21 

21 

.. 163 

.. 163 

.. 163 

.. 92 

.. 92 

92 

229, 231 

122 

.. 231 

94 

.. 232 

, . 230 

232 

. . 232 

229 

.. 232 

.. 230 

.. 229 

. . 196 



I'odouarpus dacrvdioidw, .1. Rich. 
Pndociirpiis Diiitti'iilnuliii. Uiuil.-. 
I'ndotinims llallii. 7'. Kirk 

rolXK ARI'l'S NIVALIS. Illlok. 
I'OIJCIIAKI'US 'I'dTAKA, (1. Helm. 

I'i)l\ |i(idiiirii att(!iiiiatmii. /?. /// 
I'olyiiodiiini Hillardieri. fi. Jir. 
Pi)ly|Kidiiiiii Hriiwiiii, Wick/il. 
I'i)ly|»idium ('iiiuiiiiKhaiiiii, //«)/.. 
I'ol.Vl'IIDIliM Dktvoi'TKRis, Mill. 
I'llI.Yl'OUIl M MIV.i;./,KI.ASl)l.K. Il'd: 

I'olypodiurii |mstwlatmn. AW.^^ 
T'olypodium surpons. A'w.«/. 
Pomiulonis ajiotala, f.'ih. 
I'oMADKKIus Imic:kui,kvi, llnnk.f. 
Poriiadoni.- dlipM. :i, /,„/;. 
r'oMiud,.rii- pliyli.irfnlia. Lodd. .. 
Porantlicra alpiiia. Chi'mein. 

PoTAMO(JKTON ( 'iMCKSKMA M I, .J. lilll 

Potainogeton roinprossiis. lAnn. 
Potaniogeton Kraminows. Liiiii. 
Potaniogoton iiatans, lAim. 
Potamogeton (ilitiiMifi)lius, Meri. <(• / 

POTAMOC.KTON OCHRKATIS, RiKXd 

Potaniogetnii prntinahis, Linn. . . 
Potamogetnn polys;oiiifnliiis. Paiirr. 
Potamogpton zostiira>foIiiis, Srhu/ii. 
Praso]ihylhiTn alpiniini. K. Br. .. 
Prasoi)hvlliiiii caloptcniiii. Rchlj. f. 
Prasophyi.i.im Cdi.kx.soi. Honk. f. 
Prasophyllurn dpspectaiis. Honk. f. 
Prasoi)hyIlii?ii fusriiin. /?. fir. 
Prasophylluni patoiis. R. lir. 
Prasophylli'm piTMir.fM, Honk. f. 
Prasoph villi 111 rufum, R. fir. 
Pratia macrodon. Honk. f. 
Pratia physai.oidks, Hemsl. 

PSEUDOPAXAX fHATHAMICUM. T. Ki 

Pseudopanax crassifoliiiin. C. Km/i 
Pseudopanax discdi.dr, Harm-i. 
Pseudopanax ferox. 7'. Kirk 
Pseudopanax Gilliesii. T. Kirk . . 
Pseudopanax Lcssonii. ('. Koch 
Psyehrophytnn exiniiuiii. lieanr. 
Pteris aquilina, Limi. . . 
Pteris couians, Forst. . . 
Pteris esculenta, ForsI, 
Pteris soaberttla, .-1. Rich. 
Pterostylis RAXKsn. R. lir. . . 
Pterostylis Biirtsiriana, Schlcchltr 
Pterostylis foliata, Hnok. f. 
Pterostylis luicroniefia, Hook. f. 
Pterosty-lis Olivori, Peine 
Pterostylis i)apuana. Rolfr 
Pterostylis truixifolia. JJook. f. 



Ranunculus anoinoneus, F. Muell. 
RANTrNotrLtjs AtTCKLANDicus, A, Gray 
Ranunculus Baurii. McOwaii 
Ranunculus Buchanani, Hook. f. 
Ranunculus Pooperi. OUr. 
RAxrNCUHs Enysii, T. Kirk . . 
Ranunculus ixcraniifoliiis. Hook. f. 
Ranunculus Ounnianus, Hook. .. 
Ranunculus hirtus. liaiik/i * -Sol. 
Ranunculus insii;ms. Hook. f. 
Ranunculus lappiu'ous. Smith 
RANrNcuns Lyai.lii. Hnok. f. 
Ranunculus Mattlu^wsii, Cheesem. 
Ranunculus Monroi. Hook. J. 
RANt7NCUi,rs yniioLA. Hook. . . 
Ranunculus pinguis. Honk. f. 
Ranuncitlis serkophyllus. Hook. f. 
Ranunculus Sinclairil, Hook. f. . . 
Ranunculus suliscaposus. Hook. f. 
Ranunculus tenuis. Biich. 
Ranunculus Traversii. Hook. f. . . 
Raoulia australis. Hook. f. 
Raottlia exiota. Hook. f. 
Raoulia Gibbsii, Cheesem. 
Raoulia glabra, Hook. f. 
V — Flora -Votes. 



No. „f Plate, 
lill 

!.■.;{ 

is.-i. 2;tr. 

I2S. m\. IS7 

ih:., isii 

2i(> 

247 

•m; 

2tii 
24(1 
247 
247 

2:«i 

2!l 

2S. I(l7 

I!I4 

1!I4 

ur. 

. . 2lMi 

. . 2(17 

. . 207 

. . 20(1 

. . 207 

. . 207 

. . 20(i 

. 20li 

. 207 

l!i:! 

HIS 

. I its 

194 

193 

lO.i 

liKt. 194 

194 

120 

119 



74. 128 
74. 7.-) 



III.! 
139 
73. 237 
. . 239 
239 
195 
I9« 
I9(i 
I'.Pii 

I'.ii; 



3, 94, 


III 




102 




4 




. 92 


11, 98, 


l.-)8 



3 
102 
103 

i:.2 

102 



Kaoulia Hkitdki. HiMik. f. 
Raoulia iiiamiiiiUaris, llnok. f. . . 
Kaoilia Monrdi, HiHjk. [. 
Raoulia Pktbiknsis, '/'. Kirk . . 
Raol'lia suuskkkka. Honk. f. . . 
Raoulia tuiiiiicauliH, /look. f. 

RlIAIllJOTHA.MNrs HOLAMIKI. .1. Cilllli. 

Rhagodia nutans, R. Hr. 
RniPO(iri.MM SCASDENS, Fomt. 
RosTKoviA iiu.\cii.iw. Hook. j. . . 
Rubus aiixtralis, Fomt. 
RubuK Karkori, ('orkni/nr 
Ririirs pAKVi's, llurh. 



Salironiia australiK, Solanil. 
SamoliiH rnpc^ns, Peru. . . 
Santaliiin I'liunin^haiiiii, Hnok. f. 
Santaluin iiiida, Hnok. f. 
Sf.EVOLA IIRACII.IS. Hnok. f. 
Scwvola novip-zclandia', .4. Cutiii. 
Schefflcra digitata, Fornl. 
Schizuilcina fragosuin, Dnniiii 
Schizoilcina Haastii, iJniiiin 
SoHtBNCS CaR-ski, Cheejiem. 
SchoinuH paui'iflorus. Hnok. f. . . 
Schienus tcnax. Honk. J. 
ScirpuM aucklaildicus. lioerk. 
ScirpuK frondosus. Jiiiiiki <t- Sol. 
Scopolia luoida, Foritt. 
Scutellaria huniili.s, R. lir. 

SCUTELL.VBIA NOV^-ZP.LANDl.t. Hook. f. 

Seneoio Banksii. Hook. f. 
Senecio Bidwillh. Hook. f. 
Scnocif) bifistulosus. Hook. /. 
Senecio ca.ssinioidks. Hook. f. 
Senecio conipa<-tus. 7'. Kirk 
Senecio dspagnifoliiis. Hook. J. . . 
SESErio (jKMiXATrs. T. Kirk 
Senecio Gre.vii. Hook. f. 
Senecio HEfTOBi, /ii/cA. 
Senecio Huntii. F. Muell. 
Senecio Kirkii, Hook. f. . . 2' 

Senecio laxifolius, Huch. 
Senecio Lyallii, Hook. f. 
Senecio llpnroi. Hook. f. 
Senecio inyriantlios. Vheeiem. . . 
Sonecio perdicioides. Hook. f. 
Senecio revoliitus. 7'. Kirk 
Senecio Stewartiw. .4 rmnlr. 
SiDEROXYLON COSTATl'M. F. Muell. 
Sideroxylon novsD-zelan<liciiiu, Heiiutl. 
SiMPLlciA LAXA. T. Kirk 
Solidago arborwceiis. Fomt. 
SONCHTS (JRAXDIKOLirS. 7'. A'irX- 
Sparganiuni anKiistifoliiini, if. Br. 
Sparoanii'm ANTIPODITM, Graebner 
Sparganiuni ramosum. Curt. 
Sparganium simplex, Hudn. 
Sparganiuni subglobosum. Morong 
Spinifex hirsiitiis. I^ib. 
Sporadanthus Traversii, F. Muell. 

StELLARIA (IRACILKNTA. Hook. f. 

STELL.VRIA RoI(;hii. Hnok. J. . . 
Stilbocarpa LvAl.Lii, .4rHM<r. . . 
Stilbocarpa POLARIS. .4. Gray 
Stilbocarpa robusta, Coek-ayne . . 

Tetragonia expan.sa, Murr. 
Tetragonia iniploxiconia, Miq. . . 
Tetbacoma TRUiYNA, Banks <t .So/. 
Thelymitra cyanoa, Lindl. 
Thelymitra javannita. Blume . . 
Thelvjiitba LONdiFoi.iA, Forsl. 
Thelymitra pclchella. Hook. f. 
Thelymitra l'Mfi-ora, Hook. f. 
TiLL.EA Siebebiaxa, Schultz 

TiLL.CA .MOSCH.VTA, 7>.('. 

Todea Frascri, Hook. <t Grev. 
Todea liyineno|)liylloides. .4. Rirh. 
Todea Moorei, Baker .. 



1.1 PlaU'. 
104 
104 
. 102 
lo4 
. 102 
102 



2<HI 
l.",N. 203 



ID) 
110 



209 

20!l 

. 107 

. 137 

. 171 

1«2 

1112 

101 

131. 140 

112 

113 

.. 112 

114 

IIS 

112 

112 

112 

112. IK4 

14.1 

I. '.Ml. 1 1 1 

113 

112. I2H 

112 

112 

112 

133 

133 

.. 221 

88 

■ ill 

. . M't 

. . 20.3 

. . 20.i 

. . 20.-> 

.. 20.5 

174 

..■208 

19 

IK. IMI 

"0 

70 



103 
192 
102 
192 
193 
44 
44 
249 
249 
249 



TODEA SUPERBA, Col. . . 

TovvNSONiA DEFLEXA, Clieesem. 
Traversia baccharoidea, Hook. f. 
TBICHOMANES f'OLENSOl, Hook. 
Triohomanes elongatum, .1. Ciiii 
Trichomanes Lyallii, Huok. 
Trichomanes Malingii, Hook. 
Trineuron pusilluni. Hook. f. 
Triphalia nibicunda, Solniirl. 
Trisetum antarcticnm, Triii. 
Trisetum siibspicatiini, lieniir. 
Trisetfm YnnNcii. Honk. f. 



Uncinia australis, /"ccv. 
UnCINIA CBSPITOSA, Booll 
Uncinia piirpurata, Pelrie 
Utricularia Colensoi, Hook. f. 
UtRICULARIA DELICITUr.A. ('hep. 
Utricularia Mairii. Chersnu. 
Utricularia indTiaiithns, llnnk. f. 
Utricularia mi\ i: ziii.wiii.i;. 
Utricularia pn.trnsM,. Hunk. f. 



Veronica Astoni. Petrie 
Veronica Balfoiiriana, Hook. /'. 
A'eronioa Benthainii, Hook. J. 
Veronica Bidwiixit. Hook. f. 
Veronica carnosula. Hook. f. 
Veronica coarctata, Cheenem. 





No. ot 


I'latc. 




249 




130, 198 




.. 115 


I- 


, . 236 




. . 241 


i- Bilk. 


. . 236 




. . 235 




. . 109 




23 




. . 225 




. . 225 




225 




, . 213 






. 213 






. 213 






. 159 


'.win. 




159 






159 






. 159 


'llook. f. '. 




l.W 

159 




. . 153 




.. 151 




92. I5(i 




54. 157 




. . 152 






. 130 



Veronica Colensoi, Hook. J. 
Veronica cupressoides, Hook. f. 
Veronica divergens. Cheesem. 
Veronica epacridea. Hook. f. 
Veronica Giebsii, T. Kirk 
Veronica gracillima, Cheesem. . . 
Veronica Haastii, Hook. f. 
Veronica insularis, Cheesem. 
Veronica leiophylla, Chee.iem. 
Veronica ligustrifolia, A. Cnmi.. . 
Veronica Lyallii, Hook. f. 
Veronica lycopoclioides. Hook. f. 
Veronica macrantha. Hook. f. 
Veronica macroura. Hook. f. 
Veronica Matthewsii, Cheesem. 
Veronica parviflora, Vahl. 
Veronica pubescens, Hook. f. 
Verokica RiotDULA, Chceseni. . . 
Veronica rupicola, Cheesern. 
Veronica salicornifddes. Hook. f. 
Veronica speciosa, R. Cunii. 
Veronica tetragona. Hook. f. 
Veronica Traversii, Hook. f. 
Vitex littoralis, A. Cunn. 
ViTEX LtrcENS, T. Kirk 



Wahlenbergia gracilis, A. D.C. 
Wahlenbergia saxicola, .4. IKC. 
Weinmannia bacemora, Linn. J. 
Weinmannia sylvicola, Soktnd. . . 





No. 


of Plate. 




. . I.'JO 






1.54, 155 




130. 


148, 198 
155 
. . 1.52 
.. 148 
.. 155 
.. 237 
.. 149 
.. 149 
. . 1.57 
1.53, 154 
HI. 156 
148 
.. 151 
.. 149 
.. 128 
150 
. . 150 
.. 154 
.. 107 


I'a 


7, 1.53 


154, 165 
149, 151 
.. 161 
.. 161 




121 




.. 121 




.. 43 




43. 


170, 184 



Hv .\iithoritv : .IiiHN Mai'Kay, (Ic 



nt Printer, Wellington.— 1914. 







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